Recent Topics

[Today at 03:12:02 AM]

[September 15, 2019, 03:15:53 PM]

[September 14, 2019, 12:41:48 PM]

[September 13, 2019, 04:53:46 PM]

[September 13, 2019, 03:58:23 PM]

[September 13, 2019, 07:47:48 AM]

[September 13, 2019, 06:05:25 AM]

[September 13, 2019, 01:59:32 AM]

[September 10, 2019, 06:00:15 AM]

[September 10, 2019, 05:46:47 AM]

[September 10, 2019, 05:02:36 AM]

[September 09, 2019, 09:11:44 AM]

[September 09, 2019, 06:20:48 AM]

[September 08, 2019, 06:10:33 PM]

[September 07, 2019, 02:39:20 AM]

[September 07, 2019, 02:39:05 AM]

[September 05, 2019, 11:34:27 AM]

[September 05, 2019, 08:06:55 AM]

[September 04, 2019, 08:11:52 AM]

[September 04, 2019, 01:27:04 AM]

[September 02, 2019, 02:00:04 AM]

[September 01, 2019, 01:58:35 AM]

[September 01, 2019, 01:30:12 AM]


2019 Sep 14 01:20:37
Johann: (no problem at all) A blessed and meritful conducted Uposatha those observing it today.

2019 Sep 13 16:07:47
Cheav Villa: សុំទោស _/\_

2019 Sep 13 16:06:36
Cheav Villa:  _/\_

2019 Sep 13 15:53:17
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Bhante Varado _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 13 15:51:32
Johann:  _/\_ Bante Varado. Nyom Morotz, Nyom Villa.

2019 Sep 13 15:50:03
Cheav Villa: Master Morit  :) _/\_

2019 Sep 13 15:47:31
Moritz: _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Bhante Varado _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Bhante Johann _/\_ Bong Villa

2019 Sep 13 00:35:39
Khemakumara:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 12 20:36:10
Johann: Beyound birth, stand, age, gender, lay or in robes.

2019 Sep 12 20:33:57
Johann: No way for one not gained relation at time.

2019 Sep 12 20:33:01
Johann: Beings, indeed, find only that what they are looking for, and seldom, very seldom, it's related upwatdly, even release in unbond.

2019 Sep 12 17:35:22
Johann: (Delayed) Bhante.

2019 Sep 12 16:16:22
Khemakumara: _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Bhante Johann

2019 Sep 12 16:16:03
Khemakumara:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Bhante Varado

2019 Sep 12 10:25:12
Cheav Villa: សូមសុខ សុវត្ថិភាពតាមផ្លូវ _/\_

2019 Sep 12 10:14:50
Chanroth:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ខ្ញុំទៅ v.n​ ដេីម្បីព្យាបាលជម្ងឺក្រពះ របស់ម្ដាយខ្ញុំ

2019 Sep 12 09:45:43
Johann: Bhante. May Bhante look at his Kuti .

2019 Sep 12 09:02:52
Varado: Thanks for fixing that. May you be well.

2019 Sep 12 08:41:30
Varado: Is the Glossary still available for download?

2019 Sep 12 08:26:31
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhate _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ How is Bhante's health?  _/\_  _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 09 13:03:42
Johann:  _/\_ Bhante Varado

2019 Sep 07 11:49:16
Vithou:  _/\_

2019 Sep 07 09:12:43
Chanroth:  :( :( :(

2019 Sep 07 09:11:31
Chanroth:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 07 09:11:27
Chanroth:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 07 01:50:59
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 07 00:53:49
Johann: A meritful Uposatha observance those who undertake it today.

2019 Sep 06 11:58:54
Johann:  _/\_ Bhante. Might have been an auto mail (and not so importand). He could share it in his kuti, if wishing.

2019 Sep 06 11:53:04
Yocakkhuma: There was an email in German I didn't get the meaning..?!

2019 Sep 06 11:49:40
Yocakkhuma: Hi everyone, may all beings be happy

2019 Sep 06 08:29:17
Ieng Puthy: ករុណា ព្រះអង្គ _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 08:08:29
Johann: Atma's health is dhammata, nothing special, Nyom.

2019 Sep 06 08:06:42
Johann: Nyom Buddhi. Mudita that she could access again.

2019 Sep 06 07:41:15
Ieng Puthy:  _/\_How is Bhante health?

2019 Sep 06 07:35:57
Ieng Puthy:  _/\_ អរព្រះគុណ ព្រះអង្គ Vandami Bhante

2019 Sep 06 07:32:24
Ieng Puthy: Chum Reap Sour   _/\_Mr Moritz

2019 Sep 06 07:30:55
Ieng Puthy: ករុណាសូមថ្វាយបង្គំុ Khemakumara Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 07:21:17
Ieng Puthy: Vandami Bhante  _/\_  _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 06:20:55
Johann: mudita

2019 Sep 06 06:01:57
Cheav Villa: Kana Prah Ang, She forgot username' password. And kana had sent her already about the info. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 05:51:33
Johann: Did Nyom get the email? If any question, she may not hesitate to raise.

2019 Sep 06 04:55:56
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 04:49:44
Johann: It's like practicing Jhana. Importand to remember how to enter, how to leave.

2019 Sep 06 04:47:12
Johann: Ieng Puthy  :) Atma had send Nyom an email for her access datas.

2019 Sep 06 04:39:34
Cheav Villa: She forgot username's password _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 04:35:33
Cheav Villa: Kana had sent her email and password already, she could not accessible _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 04:18:55
Johann: Good. Atma thinks it's easier to make it new and then send an email to Nyom Villa.

2019 Sep 06 04:15:27
Johann: but Atma had send Nyom a PM once, right? Maybe, if Nyom gave her access, she can look into her PM's. again.

2019 Sep 06 04:13:41
Cheav Villa: Kana  _/\_ _/\_  _/\_

2019 Sep 06 04:11:05
Johann: She can either use the link "forgot passwort" and will get an email. Or, if no access to email, Atma could make a new pass word. (My person thought so, that it got lost))

2019 Sep 06 03:07:38
Cheav Villa: Sister Puthy, in this morning asked Kana she forgot her login password into  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 03:06:19
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 01:50:10
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Sep 06 01:45:46
Johann: A pleasing and meritful Uposatha, those observing it today.

2019 Sep 05 12:00:09
Johann: Nyom Moritz

2019 Sep 05 10:10:57
Moritz: Vandami Bhante _/\_

2019 Aug 30 03:50:22
Johann: Seams as if the rain leaves way to make a round

2019 Aug 30 02:34:32
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 30 01:33:20
Johann: and may those observing it today enjoy the rest in doing merits as well

2019 Aug 29 02:10:10
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 29 01:58:34
Johann: An admirable New-moon Uposatha observing all those conducting it today.

2019 Aug 25 15:07:04
Vithou:  _/\_

2019 Aug 23 06:28:14
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 23 06:06:18
Johann: At least here in the vally, people celebrate the Uposatha today. May it be blessed and meritful spend by those taking part.

2019 Aug 22 12:53:30
Cheav Villa:  _/\_

2019 Aug 22 10:04:46
Moritz: Chom reap leah _/\_

2019 Aug 22 10:01:05
Moritz: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_
Bong Villa _/\_

2019 Aug 21 10:59:03
Johann: May Sukha come to fulfillment, Nyom.

2019 Aug 21 10:44:55
Moritz: Chom reap leah, Bhante _/\_ I have some other stuff to do now and will come back later. _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 21 09:15:49
Johann: Nyom Moritz

2019 Aug 21 08:22:24
Moritz: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 20 11:46:26
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante  _/\_  _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 20 11:25:55
Johann: Nyom Villa

2019 Aug 16 12:51:30
Johann: Does she have any technical difficulty? Just because such could be.

2019 Aug 16 12:50:14
Johann: Nyom Anneliese

2019 Aug 15 04:29:20
Khemakumara:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ Sadhu

2019 Aug 15 03:49:34
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 15 00:36:44
Johann: A blessed full moon Upusatha and much joy in merits

2019 Aug 11 14:35:01
Mohan Gnanathilake: Dear The Most Reverend Samanera Johann, Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka! Sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann, Dhamma Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!

2019 Aug 11 14:32:29
Mohan Gnanathilake: Dear The Most Reverend Samanera Johann, Dhamma Greetings from Sri Lanka!

2019 Aug 11 14:14:46
Johann: Nyom Mohan

2019 Aug 11 07:32:16
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 11 01:15:57
Johann: Nothing much burdensome this time, Nyom Villa.

2019 Aug 10 16:42:46
Cheav Villa: How is Bhante health?  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 10 16:28:44
Cheav Villa: Vandami Bhante _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 10 15:04:44
Johann: Nyom Vithou, Nyom Villa

2019 Aug 08 02:03:56
Cheav Villa: Sadhu Sadhu  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 08 01:32:20
Khemakumara:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_ sadhu

2019 Aug 08 00:29:15
Johann: A blessed Uposatha-Sila-observation day and much recoicing with ones beauty investments and gains.

2019 Aug 03 01:35:23
Johann: Nyom Moritz

2019 Aug 03 01:09:55
Moritz: (or morning...)

2019 Aug 03 01:09:31
Moritz: Good evening, Bhante _/\_

2019 Aug 02 08:54:49
Cheav Villa:  _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 02 07:30:06
Johann: Once really going for refuge, such is ensured.

2019 Aug 02 07:28:16
Johann: Sadhu, Sadhu

2019 Aug 02 07:04:04
Cheav Villa: May all suffering being healed under the refuge of the three gems _/\_ _/\_ _/\_

2019 Aug 02 05:36:31
Cheav Villa:  _/\_

2019 Aug 02 05:28:41
Moritz: (going to sleep now) _/\_

2019 Aug 02 05:28:24
Moritz: _/\_

2019 Aug 02 05:28:21
Moritz: Good morning, Bhante, bong Villa!

Tipitaka Khmer

 Please feel welcome to join the transcription project of the Tipitaka translation in khmer, and share one of your favorite Sutta or more. Simply click here or visit the Forum: 

Search ATI on ZzE

Zugang zur Einsicht - Schriften aus der Theravada Tradition

Access to Insight / Zugang zur Einsicht: Dhamma-Suche auf mehr als 4000 Webseiten (deutsch / english) - ohne zu googeln, andere Ressourcen zu nehmen, weltliche Verpflichtungen einzugehen. Sie sind für den Zugang zur Einsicht herzlich eingeladen diese Möglichkeit zu nutzen. (Info)

Random Sutta
Random Article
Random Jataka

Zufälliges Sutta
Zufälliger Artikel
Zufälliges Jataka

Arbeits/Work Forum ZzE

Random Talk
[pic 30]

New Uploads (login!)

Dear Visitor!

Herzlich Willkommen auf! Welcome to!
Ehrenwerter Gast, fühlen sie sich willkommen!

Sie können sich gerne auch unangemeldet an jeder Diskussion beteiligen und eine Antwort posten. Auch ist es Ihnen möglich, ein Post oder ein Thema an die Moderatoren zu melden, sei es nun, um ein Lob auszusprechen oder um zu tadeln. Beides ist willkommen, wenn es gut gemeint und umsichtig ist. Lesen Sie mehr dazu im Beitrag: Melden/Kommentieren von Postings für Gäste
Sie können sich aber auch jederzeit anmelden oder sich via Email einladen und anmelden lassen oder als "Visitor" einloggen, und damit stehen Ihnen noch viel mehr Möglichkeiten frei. Nutzen Sie auch die Möglichkeit einen Segen auszusprechen oder ein Räucherstäbchen anzuzünden und wir freuen uns, wenn Sie sich auch als Besucher kurz vorstellen oder Hallo sagen .
Wir wünschen viel Freude beim Nutzen und Entdecken des Forums mit all seinen nützlichen Möglichkeiten .
Wählen Sie Ihre bevorzugte Sprache rechts oben neben dem Suchfenster.

Wähle Sprache / Choose Language / เลือก ภาษา / ជ្រើសយកភាសា: ^ ^
 Venerated Visitor, feel heartily welcome!
You are able to participate in discussions and post even without registration. You are also able to report a post or topic to the moderators, may it be praise or a rebuke. Both is welcome if it is meant with good will and care. Read more about it within the post: Report/comment posts for guests
But you can also register any time or get invited and registered in the way to request via Email , or log in as "Visitor". If you are logged in you will have more additional possibilities. Please feel free to use the possibility to  give a blessing or light an incent stick and we are honored if you introduce yourself or say "Hello" even if you are on a short visit.
We wish you much joy in using and exploring the forum with all its useful possibilities  
Choose your preferred language on the right top corner next to the search window!

Zugang zur Einsicht - Übersetzung, Kritik und Anmerkungen

Herzlich Willkommen im Arbeitsforum von im Onlinekloster!

Danke werte(r) Besucher(in), dass Sie von dieser Möglichkeit Gebrauch machen und sich direkt einbringen wollen.

Unten (wenn Sie etwas scrollen) finden Sie eine Eingabemaske, in der Sie Ihre Eingabe einbringen können. Es stehen Ihnen auch verschiedene Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten zur Verfügung. Wenn Sie einen Text im formatierten Format abspeichern wollen, klicken Sie bitte das kleine Kästchen mit dem Pfeil.

Die Textfelder "Name" und "email" müssen ausgefüllt werden, Sie können hier aber auch eine Anonyme Angabe machen und eine Pseudo-email angeben (geben Sie, wenn Sie Rückantwort haben wollen, jedoch einen Kontakt an), wenn Ihnen das unangenehm ist. Der Name scheint im Forum als Text auf und die Email ist von niemanden außer dem Administrator einsehbar.

Wenn Sie den Text fertig geschrieben haben, müssen Sie noch den Spamschutz überwinden, das Bild zusammen setzen, und dann auf "Vorschau" oder "Senden" drücken, wenn für Sie alles passt.

Wenn Sie eine Spende einer Übersetzung machen wollen, wäre es schön, wenn Sie etwas vom Entstehen bzw. deren Herkunft erzählen und Ihrer Gabe vielleicht noch eine Widmung anhängen.

Gerne, so es möglich ist, werden wir Ihre Übersetzung dann auch den Seiten von Zugang zur Einsicht veröffentlichen. Für generelle Fragen zu dem Umfang der Dhamma-Geschenke auf ZzE sehen Sie bitte in den FAQ von ZzE ein.

Gerne empfangen wir Kritik und selbstverständlich auch Korrekturen oder Anregungen hier. Es steht Ihnen natürlich offen und Sie sind dazu herzlich eingeladen auch direkt mit einem eigenen Zugang hier an den Arbeiten vielleicht direkt teilzunehmen.


metta & mudita
Ihr Zugang zur Einsicht Team

Um sich im Abeitsforum etwas unzusehen, klicken Sie hier. . Sie finden hier viele Informationen und vielleicht sogar neues rund um Zugang zur Einsicht.

Author Topic: Isi Dhamma  (Read 2871 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline Johann

  • Samanera
  • Very Engaged Member
  • *
  • Sadhu! or +365/-0
  • Gender: Male
  • Date of ordination/Datum der Ordination.: 20140527
Isi Dhamma
« on: February 24, 2014, 03:39:05 AM »
Ich lege hier mal die Unterlagen und Informationen ab, daß sie nicht verloren gehen und jederzeit eingearbeitet werden können:

Isi Dhamma
(1971 -  )

Isi ("isi" stands for "ascetic" in pali) Dhamma (Bürgerlicher Name?) wurde am 9. Jänner 1971 geboren und ist von schweizer wie auch französischer Nationalität. Am 12. April 1998 erhielt er die Einweihung als Mönch in Burma, im Mahāsī Meditationszentrum und den Namen Dhamma Sāmi. Nach einem ausgedehnten Meditaionsretreat im Pa Auk Waldkloster, entschloß er sich am 10. Oktober 2010 die Einweihung als Mönch abzulegen und ein Leben als Asket zu führen. Seit Oktober 2011 lebt er nach kurzem Aufenthalt in Frankreich wieder in Myanmar und bestreitet dort an verschieden Orten eine Leben zwischen Meditation, Lehren von Kindern in Klosterschulen, schreiben von Büchern und Filmproduktionen und hält sich als Hausloser an die Regel der zehn buddhistischen Silas. Der Asket Isi Dhamma hat ein Reihe von Büchern geschrieben, wobei die meisten nur in französischer Sprache verfügbar sind. Auch eine um fangreiche Dhammwebseite in mehreren Sprachen, ist unter seinem Einsatz entstanden. [Quelle: persönliche Kommunikation]

This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Johann

  • Samanera
  • Very Engaged Member
  • *
  • Sadhu! or +365/-0
  • Gender: Male
  • Date of ordination/Datum der Ordination.: 20140527
Re: Isi Dhamma
« Reply #1 on: February 24, 2014, 04:38:32 AM »
the buddhist practice
(an indruction into the path of Buddha)

by Dhamma Sāmi, translated from French to English by Thierry Lambrou (2005)

What does the Buddhist practice lie in?

Being in contradiction with everything that is believed by the largest number, the Buddha's disiples (those who, in all cases, have put into practice and understood his teaching) agree to very expressly claim that everything that we could call "the Buddhist practice" is not:

  • an exercise
  • a set of rituals
  • a set of ceremonies
  • a series of recitations of prayers or mantras
  • a transcendence
  • a kind of magic
  • a kind of faith
  • a belief
  • a divine revelation
  • a philosophy
  • a relaxation
According to Buddha himself, who has never done all these things in order to reach liberation, his teaching should be qualified as:

  • a statement of reality
  • a medicine
  • a science
  • a way of life
  • a self-questioning or self-examination
  • a reflection
To come to know about the most favourable, healthiest and wisest way to manage one's life, you are requested to read theses teachings dealing with the practice of the laity:

 The laity practice (1)
(definition, maturity, behaviors)

What does the practice lie in?

In the context of dhamma, what we usually call "practice" is not an exercise or a ritual that ought to be performed at some particular times, but simply a training into a life style, a mode of existence, during which our mind gets little by little used to lessen its impurities, until a right knowledge of reality will be developed.

When we speak about Buddha, we consequently speak about "Buddhist practice". The one who adopts a life style that befits the dhamma teachings will therefore be a "Buddhist". It is advisable indeed to define this word.

Who is a Buddhist?

In no wise is a "Buddhist" the follower of a mystic ritual or some marginal movement that lives apart from the rest of the society, which requires a conversion. Even though, nowadays, many persons who claim to be Buddhists have life styles and embrace customs that drastically go astray from all that which originally defined this term, the "Buddhist" is only a person who lives in harmony with the teachings of dhamma. If our father is named Peter, if he gives us advices and if we put these advices into practice, at this moment we shall be "Peterist". Also, we shall be "Jenniferist" when we shall follow the advices of our mother Jennifer. In the same way, a "Buddhist" is no one else than the one who puts into practices a life style that is in harmony with Buddha's teaching.
It is not about a practice that we integrate from time to time into our daily lives, which we integrate when we have a bit of "spare time" to be spent for it. It is not even a kind of activity that would take part into our leisure activities, in the same way as ballet dance or archery might do. That is our whole life, indeed, up to the most insignificant details of our daily lives, which we take as stand points of our practice. So, "Buddhist" practice essentially lies in a way of life that one puts into practice or than one instead tries to put into practice, because this training is after all a permanent attempt. We try every day, every moment, according to the effort that we want indeed to put into it, to perfect this training in line with life, by striving to reduce and to avoid what is impure, unhealthy, useless and unfavourable, and by keeping on developing and maintaining what is pure, healthy, useful and beneficial.
Therefore it is equally absurd to assert: "I am a Buddhist but I am not a practising Buddhism" as to claim: "I am a vegetarian, but I eat meat".
The laymen
The laymen and the others

From the point of view of dhamma, there are two categories of persons: Those who adhere to dhamma, that is to say those who rely on Buddha's teaching; and those who do not adhere to dhamma.

Among those that do not adhere to dhamma, whether we deal with followers of a religion or not, whether we deal with followers of a school of thought or not, one finds all the persons who adopt one or several beliefs among the group of those that exist apart from dhamma.

As an example, the simple fact to think that nothing does remain whatsoever after death, is a kind of belief in the same way as any other is.

In this group, we find monks and nuns, who totally dedicate themselves to the practice suggested by their respective doctrines so as to reach the goal that these one assert.

We find hermits, who isolate themselves in remote places to observe an ascetic mode of existence. They do it so as to reach the purpose that is supposed to get training proposed by their own faith. Those do not belong to any religious school.

We find "priests" and "priestesses", who are relatively involved into the suggested or imposed practice by the teachings in connection with their faith, and who organise or direct the practice of the laymen.

Finally, we find laymen, who, according to the individual cases, adhere to a religion, to a school of thought (philosophy, sect, etc.) or only to their own ideas. In the first two cases, they do it by devoting themselves to religious or ritual practices, ceremonies, recitations, prayers, considerations,philosophic debates, or by being self-contented with beliefs in ideas expounded by a monk, a guru, a philosopher, a book or any another support. In the last case (layman adhering to his own ideas), he shapes his own way to be followed, according to the faiths, or he believes that what does occur after the death is the same thing for all, whatever are the actions being performed prior to it (Examples: Rebirths do occur in a totally unpredictable way; everybody is reborn in a realm of paradise or blissful celestial world (or demoniac); everybody reaches the stage of the divinity; before and after life, only nothingness does prevail, as soon as one dies, nothing whatsoever does remain; etc.)

This type of belief is one of the most wide-spread, it explains why so many persons live so selfishly by enjoying pleasant things, which they get access to, to the full, by radically running away from all that which seems to be unpleasant, devoid of pleasure or boring.

Among those who adhere to dhamma, there are bhikkhus, whom we often call the "Buddhist monks". They fully devote all their time to the practice, to the realisation, to the study and to the dhamma teachings.

There were bhikkhunīs, "Buddhist nuns", who did exactly the same thing, but their community disappeared since the 10th century, at the same time as sikkhamānas, who were women of intermediate status between sāmaṇerīs and bhikkhunīs, also did. They were in period of training, intending to become bhikkhunīs.

There are sāmaṇeras, whom we call "novices" or the "little monks". They learn monastic life, they dress in the monks' robe, but their discipline is sharply more flexible than those of the bhikkhu. To become bhikkhu, they have to wait to reach twenty years of age.

There were sāmaṇerīs, feminine version of sāmaṇera, whose presence vanished since the end of the feminine monastic community.

There are those whom we call the "nuns", who are women who opt for a monastic or semi-monastic existence. They do have a little particular status, halfway between the one of the bhikkhu and the one of the laity. besides certain rules, they have to observe eight rules. Their life is dedicated to the dhamma, even though they perform many activities specific to the laity.

Who is a lay person?

Finally, among the people who adhere to the dhamma, all those who are not bhikkhus, or sāmaṇeras, or nuns are laity. We can divide lay people into three categories:

  • There are some laity who, although approving Buddha's word, only dedicate their life a little, or not at all, to the practice of the dhamma. They like to claim that they are Buddhists, but do little else than run after pleasures and engage in business activities; if they observe one or two precepts, it is only because it is easy for them; they don't want to dedicate any effort to the rest. Even though they claim to be inclined to meditation, they convince themselves that they never have any time to practice it.
  • There are also lay people who try to dedicate more time and effort to follow a way suitable to the development of knowledge (of reality). They more or less observe the five precepts (sometimes the eight), they like everything that concerns the dhamma aesthetically (monuments, statues, ceremonies), they readily spend time reciting texts dealing with Buddha's teaching, watching the quality of their actions, regularly making donations, attending meditation sessions, and sometimes, taking ordination for a short period.
  • Finally, there are laity who, within their possibilities, try their best to progress quickly and effectively on the path to the cessation of suffering. These ones very regularly train in being generous, in being vigilant and in applying full mindfulness. Their observance of the five precepts, if not eight, is scrupulous. Some of them even intend to lead a monastic life permanently.
Although they all point to a sole aim, the objectives of Buddha's teaching are very diverse. They consist, among others, in:

  • Inducing the first category of laity to improve their way of life so as to become laity of the second category.
  • Encouraging the laity of the second category to maintain the positive aspects of their way of life and inciting them to improve on this so as to become laity of the third category.
  • Encouraging the laity of the third category to maintain the positive aspects of their way of life and suggesting them the experience of complete renunciation (monastic life).

The pāramīs
kamma and the pāramīs

In a prison cell lived four men. The first was ignorant and lazy, the second was ignorant and hard working, the third was skilful and lazy, and the fourth was skilful and hard working. Each had the possibility to work and earn a little money.

The lazy ignoramus had a thoroughly miserable existence; he did nothing at all during the day, was terribly bored and never obtained anything more than the bare minimum for his subsistence.

The hard-working ignoramus enjoyed a more comfortable life, because his work allowed him extra food and small treats such as a bottle of wine or magazines.

The skilful lazy person did not have a very pleasant existence. As he did not put any effort in his work, he did not earn the money needed to buy things that would have allowed him to enjoy a better quality of life. However, knowing how to think, he suffered less than the lazy ignoramus, because he knew how to manage his condition better. Thus, he succeeded more easily in being satisfied with little. However, his incorrigible laziness eventually prevented him from thinking properly.

The skilful worker was competent in his work. Knowing how to think properly, he knew how to manage his money wisely. He learnt to content himself with little to save most of the money he earned. He had nothing good to drink or eat, or pleasant readings to offer himself. Nevertheless, after a while, having endured the necessary time, he was able to pay off the bail to get out of prison.

To make the analogy of this story, we can say that:

The prison represents the continual dissatisfaction of existence (dukkha), with its "ups and downs", the cycle of rebirths (saṃsarā).

  • Ignorance represents ignorance.
  • Skill represents wisdom.
  • Laziness represents the lack of motivation to cultivate wholesome actions.
  • Work represents effort (the effort to develop and maintain what is beneficial, the effort to practice properly).
  • The money represents the consequence of positive actions, merit (kusala).
  • The release represents liberation (from any form of dissatisfaction).

Conclusion: To develop merit, it is necessary to perform positive actions, to make efforts of generosity, honesty and concentration.

Nevertheless, if this is done with ignorance, merit will be badly used and, so to speak, "wasted". Thus, it remains profitless. For this merit to be beneficial, it must be cultivated with wisdom, that is, positive actions should be performed with the intention to take care of and develop the dhamma (for one's own progress and that of others).

Comment: More than positive actions, the more profitable actions are simply abstinences from destructive or worthless actions.

This explains why it is essential to understand clearly the actions that we perform and know how we have to carry them out if we wish them to be really profitable.

The prison story also shows us that wisdom is useless without effort, which is indispensable for the development of wisdom. Thus, only the development of pāramīs does allow us to progress on the path to liberation, at whatever level one may be.

If someone benefits from all the elements which allow him (her) to make of his (her) existence a training in the dhamma (birth as human being, in a favourable environment, in a place and time when the teaching of a Buddha (sāsana) is accessible, understanding the value of such a training, urge to embark in it, lack of serious obstacles such as a poor health, etc.), this means that he (she) has already developed numerous pāramīs in the past. If, besides these conditions, someone devotes himself (herself) with ease to "meditation" (training into satipaṭṭhāna), it means that he (she) has developed even more pāramīs. If a person opts for the life of renunciation by joining, in a most natural way, the monastic community (saṃgha), it means that even more pāramīs have been developed. Finally, when our pāramīs reach complete maturity, we cannot but experience nibbāna, the cessation of all suffering.

The ten pāramīs

Buddha gave us a list of the ten pāramīs:

  • dāna pāramī: Abandonment of possessions (animals or non-living objects) by making donations.
  • sīla pāramī: Control of actions and speech to avoid unwholesome actions.
  • nekkhamma pāramī: Renunciation of the lay life in favour of the solitary life (bhikkhu, hermit).
  • pañña pāramī: Development of knowledge and understanding through study and analytical reflection. To teach knowledge to others. To use one's wisdom for a maximum of benefits.
  • viriya pāramī: Effort to work as much as possible for the good of others, even at the risk of one's life.
  • khantī pāramī: Establishment of an always perfect tolerance, irrespective of the actions and words of others towards oneself.
  • saccā pāramī: Truthfulness (to say only what is right).
  • adhiṭṭhāna pāramī: Decision to devote oneself to beneficial actions and to remain steadfast on it.
  • mettā pāramī: Maintaining a state of mind turned to the happiness of others, to practise love for all beings without exception.
  • upekkhā pāramī: Rejection of hatred and worship. Not to follow any particular idea. Maintaining the mind in equanimity.


Love and benevolence
Towards whom to develop love?

If we wish to progress on the path, it is essential to develop mettā. The love in question is an unlimited love that encompasses all beings, whatever they are. As we can read in the mettā sutta (discourse on loving kindness), it consists of developing mettā towards all beings, humans as well as animals, those we know as well as those we do not know, those we see as well as those we do not see, those that are pleasant as well as those that are hostile, those that are close as well as those that are far, those that are small as well as those that are big, etc.

Naturally, one does not need a lot of effort to practice mettā, benevolence and tolerance, towards those who are dear to him (her). However, when the question arises as to apply it towards those who cause us trouble, those who act badly towards us, those who commit only hateful and unwholesome actions, it becomes more difficult. It is precisely this difficulty that gives us the opportunity to progress on the path of wisdom. It is exactly the same with meditation: When everything is well, when everything is comfortable, when there is no pain, no itch, when it is not too warm or too cold and when silence is total, we feel well, assured, but we shall have no opportunity to progress correctly.
How to practise mettā and benevolence?

As with anything in the dhamma, we could begin to develop mettā, benevolence and tolerance, gradually. For this, it is simply sufficient to get used to cultivate, from time to time, a state of benevolence towards one or several beings, to strive to send mettā mentally to someone who behaves badly towards us, to tolerate as far as possible an action that displeases us, whether committed voluntarily or not.

Or still, we suppress those prejudices that we could easily have when seeing someone having a bizarre attitude, and pay attention for a few moments, to notice possibly that this person is anguished, ill-at-ease, and apparently leading a painful existence. At that time, it will be natural to develop feelings of compassion and benevolence towards this person. If he (she) is sensitive and if he meets our glance, he (she) will see immediately that we show him sincere affection, he (she) will be able to feel less rejected and benefit from a positive mood. If there is a chance, we could even engage in a conversation with him (her), talking about simple things which may eventually be linked with him (her), and which could be a precious help to him (her).

For a generalised practice of mettā and benevolence, we begin for example with our close relations, the members of our family and our friends, then we gradually expand, including at first our neighbours, our work colleagues, our companions in study, sports or any group. We then add all the beings that we meet. For example, when on a bus, we can occasionally spend a short while to develop thoughts of benevolence towards all those who are in the vehicle. We continue by including all the beings in the village, district or city, without forgetting the mosquitoes that sting us! Then, all the beings of the country, and finally, those on the planet and the whole universe.


To develop the pāramīs , many of us who do not feel able to follow a training into concentration, such as the application of attention to physical and mental perceptions (satipaṭṭhāna), could more or less regularly devote time to the practice of mettā and benevolence by means of prayer. To do this, we recite a sutta dealing with mettā , benevolence and compassion. While reciting them, we close the eyes and concentrate on the words we pronounce. Such a sutta recited in a group, can provide support not only to develop mettā, benevolence or compassion more easily and more enduringly, but also some concentration that will be greatly beneficial for the cultivation of the pāramīs. Naturally, for this to be effective, these prayers must be recited with an understanding of what is said, or at least with an idea of what the texts in question say (otherwise the value is lesser), and to concentrate on this, avoiding to let the mind wander somewhere else. It is important to do this wholeheartedly.

If we want this practice to bear fruit, it is necessary also to try to preserve the same state of mind at the beginning and after the prayers. Similarly, one must try to remain tranquil for at least a few moments before the prayers, in order to have the mind well attuned. Ideally one should keep this state of mind at all times, so that the time of prayer is only a focusing permitting to maintain an almost permanent state of benevolence.

One's relations to others

Buddha showed to us how to reach the definitive cessation of any form of dissatisfaction. Before reaching it, the path is long, it requires for each of us to perfect at all levels, beginning from the base, otherwise how could we build anything on impure bases? Let us feel reassured, the Buddha does not forget anybody; he explains, giving invaluable details, how every person has to act if he/she wishes to benefit from an existence that is as profitable as possible for oneself and for others, regardless of the social milieu and position in society.

He explains, among other things, how to manage a business or how a king (or a head of state) should act towards his people, and all, quite naturally, with the aim of establishing an ideal for all in terms of human relations and mutual respect, and, consequently, to offer everyone a framework suitable for training in the dhamma. Thus, below, the duties of one to others according to the Buddha, for anyone wishing to lead his life in the most noble and the most profitable way, that of the dhamma.

Comment: Cultural customs are very different from one country to another and from one time to the other. It is necessary in certain cases, to know how to adapt in consequence.

The duties of a child to his (her) parents

1. To nourish them when they are not longer able to provide for their own needs because of their age. 2. To take care of their administrative procedures. 3. To continue the good practices of the family like honesty, generosity etc. 4. To be worthy to receive their material and spiritual heritage. 5. To perform ceremonies after their death.
The duties of a parent to his (her) children

1. To accustom them from very small to a good moral conduct. 2. To teach them good social manners (respect for others). 3. To transmit them knowledge and a harmless profession. 4. To marry them to a partner of good moral conduct who is suitable for them. 5. To bequeath them their inheritance when the time comes.
The duties of the pupil to his (her) teacher

1. To get up in sign of respect and go to receive him (her) when he (she) arrives. 2. To render him (her) a service if necessary. 3. To be eager to listen to his (her) advice. 4. If living with him (her), to help him (her) with the daily chores. 5. To try hard to learn what one does not yet know and not to forget what one has already learnt.
The duties of the teacher to his (her) pupil

1. To instruct him (her) well in matters concerning social life, customs and manners, as well as in the spiritual field. 2. To make sure that he (she) retains well what one teaches by making him repeat several times in the day. 3. To teach everything one knows without concealing anything. 4. To introduce him (her) to one's friends and associates so that he (she) can obtain a job. 5. To guarantee his (her) material and spiritual safety (recitation of protective texts).
The duties of the husband to his wife

1. To be respectful to her and not to address her with vulgar words. 2. Not to disdain her. 3. To be faithful. 4. To give her the housekeeping money and allow her free management of it. 5. To buy her beautiful clothes and jewellery.
The duties of the wife to her husband

1. To be prudent and to dedicate herself entirely to the care of the household. 2. Know how to receive his friends and members of his family. 3. To be faithful. 4. To administer suitably the property and finances. 5. To be skilled in all household duties (cookery, sewing, ironing, etc.)
The duties of a young man to his friends

1. To be generous and open-hearted. 2. To speak politely. 3. To be ready to render service. 4. To avoid putting himself above others and to give the same chances to everybody. 5. To be honest.
The duties of friends to young men

1. To protect their health when they are unconscious (drunk, doped). 2. To protect their possessions when they are unconscious (drunk, doped). 3. To protect them from imminent dangers. 4. Not to abandon them when they have troubles. 5. To take care with benevolence of their children (giving them employment or other services).
The duties of an employee to his (her) employer

1. To get up before him (her). 2. To go to bed after him (her). 3. To take only what is given. 4. To take one's duties seriously. 5. Not to speak badly of him (her), to speak well of him (her).
The duties of an employer to his (her) employees

1. To give them work according with their capacity. 2. To give them food and a salary. 3. To take care of them in case of illness. 4. To share with them the good food or drink when available. 5. To grant them proper leave.
The duties of a lay person to a monk

1. To perform actions motivated by loving kindness. 2. To say words motivated by loving kindness. 3. To have thoughts of loving kindness. 4. To invite him to visit one's house if necessary and to invite him to report his needs. 5. To provide him with the four requisites: lodging, clothing, food and medicines, within the limitations of one's means.
The duties of a monk to a lay person

1. To teach in order to avoid what is unwholesome (cause of suffering for oneself and others). 2. To encourage him (her) in what is wholesome (source of happiness) like generosity, virtue and meditation. 3. To generate loving kindness towards him (her). 4. To teach what he does not know. 5. To repeat what he already knows. 6. To show the way to a more comfortable rebirth (deva world) or towards nibbāna.

 The laity practice (2)
(generosity, virtue, concentration)
How to practise charity?

If we want our lay practice to be profitable, it is indispensable to practise generosity, to show oneself helpful and courteous. Generosity can manifest in various forms: through donations (dāna), by nourishing, by sheltering, by rendering service, by giving one's time, one's presence, by listening, by offering expert advice, etc.

As for mettā and benevolence, it is easy to practise charity with those beings who are dear to us. On the other hand, it is less easy to offer donations to people who have more needs but who we do not know, especially if they are not aware that the donation comes from us. This is, however, much more beneficial for ourselves. So that a donation is the occasion of a positive action allowing us to develop pāramīs , it must be made in a totally disinterested way, and it must be motivated either by the nature of the need of the recipient, or by our own detachment from the object. We must also avoid carrying this out to develop good pāramīs.

To take full value, a donation must be made spontaneously, on one's own assent, and one should not cause it to be done by someone else, unless it is done sincerely to provide an opportunity for somebody to make merit. It is then better if the object of an offering requires several positive efforts from us: We look for the object to be offered, find it, choose it, buy it, pack it, store it waiting for the opportunity, carry it and hand it over with our own hands. If we have two of something, we should rather give the one that is of better quality, or bigger, or more beautiful, or newer, etc.

If the vinaya forbids the monks to accept anything that is not offered to them with our own hands, it is partly to avoid any risk of ambiguity. However, it is also aimed at enabling the giver to focus a certain attention, which at that moment, will allow him (her) to develop a very positive state of mind, thus granting him (her) the biggest merit. So, to enhance the benefits of our practice of charity, it is recommended to hand the gift that one wishes to give, slowly, face to face, offering it with our own hands, to mark well this gesture, even if the recipient is a layman.

When a donation has really well been done , at time of its delivery to the recipient we will have developed: generosity, detachment, attention, concentration, effort, respect, love and benevolence. This explains the importance of giving correctly, whoever the beneficiary may be. Naturally, the golden rule is not to hope for anything in return. In the opposite case, the donation would no longer be such, it would then lose all its value.
The definition of the donation

Thus, what counts in a gift (with regard to merit) is naturally not the object that is given and even less its price. It is, above all, the intention and the state of mind that will have arisen, but it is also the thought (reflection). The pāramīs are only developed during the phase of volition appearing at each moment of consciousness (aggregate of mental formations). It is at these short periods of consciousness that all the merit or demerit of an action is produced. The phrase so often repeated: " It is the intention which counts " is, nevertheless, incomplete. Indeed, more than the intention, it is the thought which donates. A suitable gift must be thought correctly. Even with the best intention in the world, a clock offered to a dog or some money to a drunkard will not be a beneficial gift. It is for this reason that it is equally important to think about the usefulness of a donation before carrying it out, even to make inquires, taking the trouble to find out what are the needs of the person to whom we want to give. Giving is performed even before the beneficiary receives the gift: If a gift is sent but it never reaches the addressee, the sender will benefit all the same from the merit produced by this gift. Besides the usefulness it can have for its beneficiary, the value of a gift is first and foremost, detachment. The ideal giving is done by letting go of one's possessions, because this is precisely what the objective of the practice of giving lie in: to detach, to let go of possessions. Perfect giving is, paradoxically, to have nothing left. One does not hoard anything any more. The fact of not having anything left is, obviously, the best way of leaving things to others: We leave to others what we do not have. We always have something to give. When we no longer possess anything, we can give: knowledge, the example of our own conduct, education, advice, explanations, love, compassion, benevolence, our presence, etc.

To whom to give?

To everybody! It is always beneficial to practice giving with all kinds of people, avoiding, however, to offer means that may cause harm to people likely to cause some danger to arise. To carry out offerings, we shall favour those who have needs. Next we can give to those who have less needs and, finally, we can give presents to friends. We should note that giving is all the more meritorious if the beneficiary is advanced on the path of liberation or is a person who contributes to the development of the dhamma. For this reason, many people give regularly to monks, but there are some who, regrettably, have a tendency to disdain beggars suffering hunger, with the excuse that they do not "bring" enough pāramīs.

To practise generosity towards beings who bring a lot to others owing to their wisdom is certainly excellent, but to share this generosity, when possible, with other beings who depend on charity, who are in need, is also very meritorious. It is important to think of everybody, including animals, as some have difficulties finding food.
Attention to bad gifts

By giving objects whose main utility has negative effects (weapons, drugs, etc.), one accumulates considerable demerit. Giving because one feels obliged, because one is more or less forced to, because the one seeking our gift insists until we give, or with an unwholesome intention (to make others jealous, to make a bad joke, to obtain a service or something in return, etc.), is without merit and, depending on the case, could be more or less unbeneficial.

By talking to a lot of people about a gift that we have made, boasting proudly or insisting on what it has cost us (effort or price), one eventually accumulates more demerit from the pride displayed than the merit accumulated from giving.

By offering a stolen object (whether by oneself or by others with our knowledge) we commit a demeritorious action, even if it is to feed someone who is starving. An act cannot be meritorious at all if it involves an impure state of mind, in this particular case, dishonesty.

Even with an excellent intention, if we offer money directly to a monk (bhikkhu), we accumulate more demerit than merit. According to the monastic rules (vinaya), monks must not accept money, possess it, or use it. So, by offering a bank note to a monk, we develop demerit, because we incite him to infringe the rules. If he accepts it, our demerit increases because at this time we contribute to a violation of the rules. Through this, we may contribute to his attachment, to the development of greed, and, inevitably, to the corruption of the saṃgha. This largely explains the reason for this monastic rule. The demerit is slightly less if we are ignorant of this rule.

Mental purity
The five precepts

Moral conduct is a major point, because it forms the base of all the lay practice.

Even though we can indulge in leisure activities, the essential aspects of the layman's conduct are found in what is called the five precepts.

It is said that anyone who succeeds in training to no longer experience the need to violate them, has already crossed half of the path leading to total liberation. Such a person cannot count the number of advantages derived from this.

Each of these precepts corresponds to a very precise state of mind. They are marks that are of precious help to us in our daily life. They allow us to develop a correct and virtuous conduct.

1st precept: «I shall refrain from harming the life of others.» That is: I shall not kill, I shall not harm beings of any kind. Not even the mosquitoes that bite me.

2nd precept: «I shall refrain from stealing.» That is: I shall not appropriate others' property, I shall not seize what is not given to me. I shall not even take the subway for one station, without paying.

3rd precept: «I shall refrain from improper sexual practices.» That is: I shall not commit adultery, I shall have no illegal sexual intercourse, or by prostitution, etc.

4th precept: «I shall refrain from deceitful words.» That is: I shall not lie, I shall be honest in all situations. Whatever the thought and whatever the intention backing it, a lie will always have a negative result. I shall even avoid gossip, swearing and speaking pointlessly.

5th precept: «I shall refrain from intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness.» That is: I shall not consume substances likely to poison my body or my mind, such as alcohol, drugs, tobacco, etc. I shall even avoid drinking too much coffee. Medicines taken for health reasons are allowed.

See also: The 8 precepts
Concentration and attention

Just as the previous points, concentration and attention are also very important. They do not apply only to meditative practices. We can easily train in them within all our activities, even our professional work. When we concentrate on what we are doing, we succeed much more easily in disciplining ourselves. Things become clearer, we are more competent, we think faster and more easily. The simple fact of watching our behaviour achieves concentration throughout the day, and attentiveness becomes a reflex.

There are various moments during the day which are occasions not to be missed to develop concentration and attention easily. A good example is meals. We can establish the very virtuous habit of remaining silent when eating. This kind of habit does not cost us anything and brings us a lot. We try to be mindful of everything we do. We refrain from thinking of all sorts of different things, otherwise, there is almost no difference with speaking. We are just self-contented with being attentive to what we are doing. Some people discuss while eating. Others watch television. Still others, when they eat, make calculations. While eating, try just to eat! If we wish to be in tune with reality, we must adopt the habit of being attentive to what we are doing at the time of doing it. Whatever we do and wherever we are, we should always be mindful. Certainly, we have numerous thoughts concerning projects; coming situations, or concerning memories of previous situations. The fact is that, whatever these thoughts and whichever their contents are, they are in all cases thoughts appearing at the present moment. It is therefore there, and only there, that we must concentrate our efforts.

Having said that, it is extremely profitable for the layman to apply, from time to time, a steady training in complete attention: The establishment of attention to physical and mental phenomena (satipaṭṭhāna).

What is satipaṭṭhāna?

The purpose of the dhamma is the definitive cessation of any form of dissatisfaction, that is, true happiness, complete happiness. Otherwise, how can there be total happiness if there remains even one seeds of dissatisfaction? To achieve this purpose, we must necessarily undergo an experience that can last a fraction of a second, a few seconds, or several minutes, during which there is cessation of all mental phenomena and all physical phenomena. The Buddha called this experience "nibbāna". He was the only one capable of reaching it by himself, and he had the kindness to give us the recipe. His teaching tells us all that is necessary to know, and even more than what is necessary, to reach there in turn. It covers all the stages making up this path to liberation. This may seem incredible, but even though most of us have the art and the art and the style to always find excuses not to step on it, at least not seriously, let us be sure that whoever does just what the Buddha said, will realise nibbāna inevitably and quickly.

Physical and mental phenomena are the elements that make up the whole of our perceptions. In other parlance, everything that we see, listen, touch, smell, taste and think, are physical and mental phenomena. When we experience the cessation of physical and mental phenomena, it means that these no longer appear. For a phenomenon to no longer appear, its nature should be directly known. When it is known for what it is, it loses any reason to be, that is why it no longer appears. Conversely, at ordinary times, when we allow ourselves to become absorbed in our habitual thoughts, we are very far from purity of mind. We are very far from that concentration that permits a systematic application of mindfulness to phenomena. Thus, seeing us constantly playing blind men, the kilesās, the mental impurities (desire, anger, ignorance, jealousy, fear, pride, etc.) feast, invading us right through, like a dense cloud of mosquitoes through a tennis net used as a mosquito net.

As long as we have not applied satipaṭṭhāna, we cannot be aware of the abundance of impurities plaguing our mind. It is like a house that seems to us a little dirty. It is only when we begin to do the housework, that we discover, as we go along, all the dirt it holds. To rid ourselves of all this hellish dirt that pollutes us right down to our deepest self, there is only one solution: to know these phenomena; which means: To develop a correct knowledge of reality.

Which motivation must we have?

The first thing that we need in order to develop the direct knowledge of physical and mental phenomena, is to want it, to be motivated. The origin of such motivation is manifested as a (more or less) pervading and growing dissatisfaction with everything that makes up our existence. This motivation is helped by insights that can manifest in two manners: They can arise from profound reflections on the meaning that we want to give to our life, but especially during the training in satipaṭṭhāna. For that reason, it is essentially and paradoxically after having trained correctly (in a sustained way) for several days, that a real motivation makes its appearance. Appetite comes by eating. This is explained by fundamental understandings that can come about from the first days of training.

Once motivation is established, we will understand that training in satipaṭṭhāna is not an aspiration but a necessity. We will then be able to move on to serious things. We could begin by doing a retreat for a few days, which will allow us at least " to enter the bath ". In this way, we will be able to do short sitting meditation sessions at home. Depending on our disposition and motivation, we can more or less often do retreats of variable duration. Availability goes hand in hand with motivation, because if we have the sincere will to train for a long time in satipaṭṭhāna, our life circumstances will naturally adapt themselves, for a more or less long term, so as to offer us conditions favourable to this method. Then, our rate of progress will depend considerably on our will. It will depend also on the intention driving us. If we do this only with the idea of developing the pāramīs or hoping that it will lead us to mystical experiences, as if by magic, it will be inevitably painstaking and little profitable. For it to be profitable, we have to become used from the beginning of this training, to apply the best we can the instructions personally given to us by our instructor. To progress rightly through the stages of this training, it is indispensable that an instructor supervises us regularly. Thus, backing up with the information we give him (her), orally or through our gestures and movements, when we report our day experience, or that of the previous days, he will give us the precise and impossible to circumvent instructions that we need to continue our training. For this reason, it is useless to expect to achieve a fruitful attainment by drawing the instructions exclusively from reading.
How to develop the right knowledge of the reality?

Let us imagine that we want to look at a film recorded on a video cassette, to know how it is made, to know it. We can know it correctly only if we pay sustained attention to the images as they appear on the screen, by concentrating solely on the image played by the video recorder at the present moment, without thinking of anything else. We would remain ignorant of this film if we tried to study the tape in a place that has been already played by the video recorder, or a place that has not been played yet. We would not know anything of this film if we paused on a beautiful image. By locking ourselves on it, we would only go into rapture over an aesthetic sight, from which we would imagine a whole piece of great cinematographic achievement. We would not know this film any better if we were satisfied with learning by heart the credits at the end, by reciting them dozens of times.

The same thing does apply when we want to develop a correct knowledge of reality (physical and mental phenomena) and to know what is it made of. We will be able to know it correctly only if we pay sustained attention as phenomena appear and disappear, by being concentrated only on the phenomenon perceived at the present moment, and without thinking of anything else. We would remain ignorant of the reality if we tried to study past or future events. We would not know anything of the reality if we fixed our mind by locking our concentration on a single point, we would only experience bliss, whereupon we would imagine high spiritual realisations. We would not know reality better if we were just satisfied by learning by heart the canonical texts on satipaṭṭhāna, by reciting them dozens of times.

May all beings reach nibbāna, the definitive cessation of any dissatisfaction, in the best possible conditions and in the shortest time.


 the liberation path

The path

The main element in the path to liberation is the satipaṭṭhāna. satipaṭṭhāna is a Pali term that is translated by: "application of the attention". This training, that only Buddha discovered and which is still taught nowadays by the monks of the theravāda, is the only one enable us to reach nibbāna, the cessation of all kinds of sufferings.
The four Noble Truths

In his first sermon, Buddha expounds to us the four Noble Truths: the Noble Truth of dukkha; that is to say that all things are subject to dissatisfaction. The Noble Truth of the cause of dukkha; that is to say mental impurities: desire, anger, jealousy, greediness, fear, pride, etc.

The Noble Truth of the cessation of dukkha; that is to say nibbāna, the cessation of mental impurities. The Noble Truth of the path that leads to the cessation of dukkha; that is to say dāna, sīla and bhāvanā.

It is indispensable to develop these three elements so as to be freed from dukkha. The persons who are capable to practice sīla and bhāvanā at a deep level are beings who have necessarily practised dāna during former rebirths.

Whoever is easily capable to practice dāna, which is the real foundation of any training on the path to detachment.



In Pali, dāna means gift, donation, generosity. The purpose of this practice is to become detached, on one hand from possessions, from our dependence from material things, and on the other from unrefined mental impurities, such as desire, greediness, greed and jealousy. What is stressed here is not so much giving for giving, or giving for pleasing or making ourselves pleased. It is rather about getting detached, training not to depend any more on, developing beneficial actions by materially supporting the monks who work to realise and make known this teaching (gift of robes, food, medicines, lodging). It does also involve giving to those who are needy so as to minimize their suffering. One can give objects, food, care, but one can also give services, devout some of his or her time, pay some attention by listening, cultivating compassion or through a presence. Generally speaking, training into performing donations, dāna, aims at granting less interest to one's small material comfort to be more opened to his/her environment and better observing and understanding the world surrounding us.

From the viewpoint of kamma, everything revolves around our mental disposition. It is therefore the quality of a state of mind impelling us in donating that will determine the kind of kamma being developed. That is why it is essential to practice dāna with mindfulness, without meanness, by marking carefully our gesture, and also while facing situations when it is difficult to do it. The outcome of gift (donation) being not to possess anything, thus, dedicating oneself to the path of detachment and helping others to also reach it. Supreme gift being the gift (donation) of the dhamma, is termed in Pali language as dhammadāna.

Here is therefore the first element leading to the liberation from dukkha.


The second, sīla, is behaviour, morality, virtue. What is meant here is to develop a proper behaviour, to train to acquire and to maintain a clean way to dress oneself, to remain honest while facing all kinds of situations. This is very essential so as to develop wisdom. Right conduct is the very foundation of the path leading to liberation. We can't expect to go one step further on this path if sīla is being neglected. The one who is only preoccupied to observe a virtuous behaviour will naturally develop a certain concentration, a certain attention and a certain serenity. The day when he will begin a training into the satipaṭṭhāna, he won't have to overcome major hindrances and will very quickly tune with the right spirit.

We are very lucky, as to easily observe a right conduct, aiming at developing a good sīla, Buddha drew us tracks that we just have to follow.

Some of these tracks are faster than others, but they all serve the purpose of liberation. The basic track, those are the five precepts. It is about refraining from killing, stealing, having illegal sexual practices, lying and consuming intoxicants. It can seem little, but those who succeed in keeping these five precepts benefit with exceedingly precious benefactions.

Among others, they are assured (insured) not to be reborn in lower spheres of existence during the next rebirth, they are protected from big dangers and have already covered up half of the path on to liberation from dukkha! By following these rules, the positive factors being developed from the viewpoint of kamma are tremendous, and the beneficial influence being exercised on the circle of acquaintances pertains to the same range of intensity. Let us imagine a country where the whole population would respect the life of other beings, would not steal, remain faithfully committed to their relations, would not tell lies and would not consume drugs or alcohol either. Needless to make comments.

Still, there is another and slightly faster track, in the shape of eight precepts: To respect life, not to steal, to avoid sexual pleasure, not to lie, not to consume any intoxicants, not to eat after noon, not to allow oneself to go after entertainment, not to use perfumes, not to adorn oneself with jewels, not to enjoy anything with in mind the pleasure given by the aesthetics and luxurious or comfortable furniture. Whether we deal with five or eight precepts, it is extremely fine to undertake a training in them, even if it is done sometimes only. One can also undertake such a training step by step, by observing only some of them for example, for later on possibly integrating the others one by one, at the right moment. It is in all cases inadvisable to painfully force oneself to follow one or the other of these rules, it could thus not be of any benefits. To a bigger extent, one should never force someone else to follow one or the other of these precepts. However, it is always positive to show up the advantages of such a step, but as to the observance of these rules or its absence, every person should do according to his own wishes.


Naturally, each is free then, to improve the sīla by working on the numerous points that are not included in the precepts which are likely to complete them. It will take place by watching one's behaviour, by refraining from pointless things, or by avoiding actions likely to promote greediness or desire.

For the other tracks, we find the behaviour of the nuns, which come into the shape of the observance of eight rules, to which are added a dozen additional points. Then, there is the one of the novices (sāmaneras) who observe ten precepts , (we in fact deal with eight precepts, among which the seventh splits into two, which amount to nine, to which we add a tenth:

not to touch or to possess money. Beside these ten rules, the novices are supposed to respect more than a hundred disciplinary points, seventy-five of them taking also part into the code of discipline of the monks. Finally, we deal with monks' (bhikkhus) behaviour.

Precisely, the perfection of the sīla is completely codified in the vinaya, which all the monks have to respect, except 13 ascetic practices, which, although optional, are largely suitable to the cultivation of detachment.

What we call pātimokkha is the set of the 227 main rules of the vinaya, which naturally comprises ten rules. A layman could very well cope with the pātimokkha, but if he succeeds in adopting such a behaviour, it will mean that he already became a monk. In that case, it would be completely absurd on his side not to be ordained, because as each of us knows, it is above all the behaviour that makes the monk and not otherwise. We could also say that what makes the monk is the understanding of reality, wisdom and the realisations. Always, the main point lies in that without sīla, it is vain to expect to develop any of these elements.

At the time of Buddha, the first monks who joined the saṃgha had a blameless behaviour, their sīla was pure. The pātimokkha did not exist, its observance was unneeded. But as soon as less virtuous individuals entered the saṃgha and started to perform less praiseworthy actions, did Buddha establish such rules as a consequence. So, the points of the pātimokkha deal with the carelessness/heedlessness that lead us astray from the right path, the one of liberation.


Once dāna and sīla have been firmly established, there is nothing else that ought to be done save training in bhāvanā, until the end. bhāvanā means " development of the concentration ". There are two types of concentrations:

The samatha samādhi and the khaṇika samādhi (samādhi meaning " Transparency of the mind caused by a deep concentration ")


The samatha samādhi is the result of a continuous concentration focused on a single object. It is a difficult exercise that requires a powerful determination and a complete silence. This consideration can cause ecstatic sensations and a few casual experiences that could be described as sensations of luminosity, thoughtlessness and remarkable serenity. When it bears its beneficial fruits, it can cause the yogī to experience one or several jhānas, which are mental realisations of pure concentration, where physical phenomena do no longer appear, according to the degree of refinement of such realisations. In the highest stage, psychic powers can develop but it seems that, in today's world, there are no more beings able to reach them.

For all these reasons, these practices do world wide enjoy a popularity among large numbers of followers, via variegated religious schools. Nevertheless, not only jhānas are lost as soon as the training and absorption into them is interrupted, but moreover, they do not enable us to develop wisdom and do not lead us at all to the definitive cessation of the suffering.


On the contrary, the khaṇika samādhi allows to acquire the right knowledge of reality. Thus, it does beget, as a consequence, the development of wisdom. This kind of concentration becomes established by a focusing of the attention on the physical and mental phenomena that are being perceived, whatever they are. It is about a concentration with rehearsal, which deepens owing to the uninterrupted succession of the moments of sustenance of the attention on phenomena.

The training lying in developing the khaṇika samādhi is called the satipaṭṭhāna. In the satipaṭṭhāna, we are in direct and permanent contact with reality. While during the training into samatha, we turn our mental concentration to a unique object of focusing, to the far extent that it is a mere mental fabrication. To know reality, there is nothing else that ought to be done except observing it.

It is as simple as that! It is so simple, so basic, so stupid, that nobody had thought of it before Buddha. This latter teaches us that not only that satipaṭṭhāna is much less difficult to develop that samatha, but that it is the only one that can lead us to nibbāna, the cessation of all sufferings. Furthermore, it is not absolutely necessary to develop samatha so as to begin this training into satipaṭṭhāna, or even to experience nibbāna. On the contrary, in most of cases, an experience of samatha turns out to be a big obstacle in the satipaṭṭhāna.

Internal vision

Training into satipaṭṭhāna, consists as its name defined it, in turning one's attention, to physical and mental phenomena; that is to say on the taste, olfactory, mental, tactile, auditory, visual sensations that we do perceive. As soon as attention is turned to the object of one of these sensations, a direct knowledge of reality does take place, this latter is simply known for the way it really is. At this stage, we could call it " internal vision "or "insight", which is termed vipassanā.in Pali language.

As to the one who did not yet train a lot in satipaṭṭhāna or who just begins, this training can seem boring, painful, even difficult. It is worth knowing that, indeed, whatever the level of development might be, satipaṭṭhāna is always easy. The only thing that is difficult, these are the numerous pointless efforts that one tends to do when one is a novice in that practice. Even though the mind cannot refrain from considering all the discomforts undergone during this training as taking parts in vipassanā, it is necessary indeed to well understand that it is not vipassanā at all. vipassanā is the consequence of turning in a vivid manner the attention on an object (physical or mental). Only the slightest effort must be supplied that is to say, right effort, so that this application of the attention can be made. There is no smaller effort to be done, when we are mindful. All the difficulty lies in minimizing these pointless and plaguing efforts that the mind is so much used to produce. These pointless efforts simply lie in that our habit is not to let naturally flow all this stream of thoughts and mental wanderings, which fuse in excitement, or being mindful of what does occur within our mind. This way, called satipaṭṭhāna, is a real rehabilitation of the mind.

To reach nibbāna, the final experience of this training, it is advisable to patiently train into satipaṭṭhāna, by abandoning, for all the time being required, all other activities. It is aimed at allowing a more and more frequent rehearsal and moving closer to the moments of vipassanā. Due to the progressive development of concentration (khaṇika samādhi), these moments of internal vision will become numerous and deep, so that will be experienced a feeling of continuous concentration. From this step onward, satipaṭṭhāna will become much steadier and will continue almost naturally, useless efforts having been considerably reduced. Any person who trains for it seriously, by respecting the instructions that are given to him (according to the dhamma teachings) and by dropping all other physical or mental activities, ended in some weeks (at the most) in such a stage of concentration.

This being clearly expressed, it is always necessary to pay attention to possible comfortable sensations met during certain stages of satipaṭṭhāna, because we easily tend to mistake them with permanent objects of the training, whereas they are mere consequences of concentration. They do not have anything to do with knowledge, either by means of eradication of impurities, or with wisdom, even though they often lead to very deep philosophical reflections. As soon as one becomes attached to them, he does make no further progress.

The noble eight fold path

That which we call the noble eight fold path is the set of the eight elements that establish a kind of perfection at all levels. One can say that it defines the mental act of noticing, the mere substantial small act to turn our attention to an object. Since there is a mental act of noticing, these eight elements are automatically set in motion, and as soon as these eight elements are completed, there is consequently a mental act of noticing.

The ariyas, Pali term designating the noble persons, are beings who follow this path, because it is the right path, the only one that leads to the definitive cessation of all kinds of dissatisfactions. Here are summed up the eight factors that compose the noble eight fold path:

The 1st step: right view.

To develop a correct view of the four noble truths, the three characteristics of the universe, which we term as anicca: the impermanent character of things, dukkha: the unsatisfactory character of things, and anatta: the aspect of absence of self-inherent existence, essential characteristics or substantiality in things.

The 2nd step: right thought.

It is beneficial (skilful "kusala") thought free from jealousy, ill will, and cruelty.

The 3rd step: right speech.

To refrain from uttering lies, from malicious gossip, from a coarse language and vain talks.

The 4th step: right action.

Not to kill, to not hurt, not steal, to not indulge in sexual misconduct.

The 5th step: right livelihood or means of existence.

To earn one's living in a meritorious way by remaining totally honest and by avoiding the trade of weapons, human beings or flesh, as well as the sale of poison, drugs or liquors.

The 6th step: right effort.

The effort to overcome that which is unfavourable, the effort to avoid that which is unfavourable, the effort to develop that which is favourable, and the effort to maintain that which is favourable.

7th step: right heedfulness.

The awareness or full presence of mind of phenomena pertaining to the body, feelings, spirit, and phenomena.
8th step: right concentration.

It is the fixation of the mind on a single object.

So, there is no act that is more upright, more honourable and more beneficial than the act of mental noticing.

The advantages of satipaṭṭhāna

The advantages of the satipaṭṭhāna are as inestimable as numerous.

The one who listened to the teachings on satipaṭṭhāna given by the saṃgha, who relied on these teachings and who trains in them, regularly and naturally develops a good sīla. During the satipaṭṭhāna, even though we do not pay attention to it, we forcibly develop it. The one who trains this way is much less inclined to do things that are unhealthy or unprofitable. He is rather serene, mentally appeased, quiet. He is less inclined to be swayed apart by violent sentiments, he is more tolerant.

When anger, jealousy or pride do appear, he is very soon aware of them. So, he has a more correct perception of reality. He masters a faster, easier and subtler understanding of dhamma, of whose validity he can ascertain a daily and concrete confirmation. He often has an awareness that, even though they sometimes can remain unnoticed (kilesās, such as anger, hatred, etc.), is very deep. They are precious in helping us to reflect upon dhamma teachings.

He understood by himself that all that which can be experienced by consciousness inherently begets dissatisfaction, even the most pleasant sensations. He concretely sees that everything has a beginning, a duration and an end. Knowing this experimental viewpoint according to which everything comes to an end one day, one moment or the other, he becomes much less attached to things. He becomes less and less identified with things. He already knows that this is not me, I myself as such, when he hears singing a bird, he knows that it is not "he" who listens and that it is not a "bird" that sings, but that it is simply about a sound that manifests, nothing more than this. He knows it not because he reads it, but because his observation of phenomena allowed him (her) to directly perceive the characteristic of absence of self-inherent nature or existence in things.

A person who regularly trains into satipaṭṭhāna, is better concentrated on his/her work, on his/her actions generally, he/she is then more competent, he/she has a better memory. He/she is more skilful in helping others, he/she positively influences his/her surrounding. So, he/she will be forcibly more respected, more appreciated. He/she will much more easily communicate with others. By having such a practice, such a person naturally less stirs at things. He/she is then less affected by daily concerns and so meets much less problems of any kinds. His/her health becomes better.

He/she no longer faces boredom of any kind, because the intermediate moments of "stand by" become good opportunities to note phenomena. Especially, he/she knows that boredom is something else than a feeling of impatience or fear while experiencing moments devoid of distractions or entertainment. He/she knows, in all cases, that boredom is an aversion towards a group of physical and mental phenomena, as whatever these latter will be, it is just sufficient to observe them so as to no longer be affected by the inconvenience. Everything becomes easier. Little by little, he/she gets much less involved into the world's business.

Naturally, he/she becomes more and more free and gradually benefits from more and more auspicious conditions to continue the practice.

All the ones who do integrate this practice in their daily life, will enjoy only such advantages at their disposal. The more regular their practice will be, the more benefits will bloom, and the more motivation will prevail to do this training better and better. So, they will get all the chances to be reborn under favourable conditions. It will enable them to pursue their training on the path to liberation, also called the path of the happy medium, in a way getting easier and easier.

I very sincerely wish that each can follow this training under the best possible conditions and reach nibbāna, the definitive cessation of all shapes of dissatisfaction, in the shortest delays.

sādhu! sādhu! sādhu!
 the 8 precepts

The persons who observe all the time eight precepts (otherwise the nine or the ten): The nuns. (sīladhara).
See also: Nuns' discipline
Meaning and usefulness

As a part of the tradition, in Buddhist countries, the laity wishing to cultivate a pure mind do observe the eight precepts. Usually, these people follow the five basic precepts at all times. These five precepts are already extremely beneficial on their own. They are so natural that many people being inclined to a virtuous living, do observe them without being aware of it.

Being zealous in improving their conduct and being detached from things deemed to be relatively futile, some people have had the habit to observe the eight precepts for an approximate one day period weekly. Buddhist countries following the lunar calendar, it will be about new moon, full moon and half-moon days. Admittedly, anyone can undertake the observance of the eight precepts any day whatsoever (for example each Sunday) or even better, at any time, as it is the case regarding nuns. Usually, yogīs who come to do a retreat in a meditation centre are requested to follow these eight precepts.

What are these eight precepts meant for? Their usefulness is so obvious: To purify one's mind. To train it to be more aware of things, to be less indulging into bad or useless things. All this to enable us to perform good actions. In fact, those are not so much good things that ought to be done, but essentially evil ones to be avoided. Indeed, it is not that much about good things that ought to be performed, but essentially bad things that ought to be avoided. The simple fact to refrain from committing these evil actions, that IS a good action indeed. Good actions mainly lie in doing from time to time little efforts that lie in avoiding bad habits, bad reflexes, bad things. The secret of a clean country doesn't lie that much in not cleaning it but in not making it dirty instead. Well, what does apply to a country also does in the same way concerning our own mind.

Doesn't Buddha teach us that the greatest, the best, the most beneficial, the most honorable among all good actions is the mental noticing? In other parlance, the minimum effort that lies in observing the perceptions as they do appear. This direct insight into reality, obtained by this mere sustenance of attention, in Pali, Buddha calls it "vipassanā".

At a time during which we turn our attention to a physical or mental object, which action do we perform? None! We just give to the mind the opportunity to know, to see directly, face to face, the object that appears. That is to say what is being perceived: What is heard, what is touched, what is seen, what is smelt, what is tasted and what is thought. On the other hand, at this moment, during which we simply turn our attention on the sensation that is being perceived, we do abstain. We do abstain from everything as a whole. We do nothing else except ABSTAINING.

Thus, the eight precepts lie in abstaining. Abstaining from all things that can be detrimental, unhealthy, painful, to ourselves or our environment. All these precepts are extremely easy to observe as all we have to do is Not to do. All the difficulties only lie in the fact to avoid to do detrimental things, to prevent oneself from indulging into bad habits, that, according to the various classes of individuals, can be more less strongly ingrained in these latter. Besides, all the job of mental purification mainly rests on this point, whether for monks or lay men. It is a training aimed at avoiding bad habits.

Each of these precepts corresponds to a very specific spirit. They are reference points that are of precious help in our daily lives. They do enable us to develop a right and virtuous conduct.

To observe these precepts, once the refuge into Buddha, dhamma and saṃgha has been taken, what is sufficient lies in reciting them one by one, in Pali. So that each one could understand what he does recite, here is a summarized meaning of these precepts:

All these precepts are ending by the words: "veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi. " Which could be translated by: " I will refrain from doing this, so as to develop a good conduct. "

The eight precepts

1st precept

«pānātipātā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from being harmful to living beings.»
That is to say: I will not kill, I will cause injuries to other beings, whatever and whoever they are. Not even to the mosquitoes that bite me.

2nd precept

«adinnādānā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from stealing.»
That is to say: I will not appropriate others' property, I will not take possession of that which has not been given to me. I will not even take the metro, even for a station distance, without paying.

3rd precept

«abrahmacariyā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from all sexual practices.»
That is to say: No copulation, no masturbation. I will even avoid to indulge in petting.
Beware: When we only deal with the five precepts, the 3rd thus becomes:
«kamesu miccacara veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from all inconvenient sexual practices.»
That is to say: I will not commit adultery, I will not indulge into any illegal sexual relationship, neither through prostitution, etc.

4th precept

«musāvādā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from uttering lies.»
That is to say: I will not lie, I will be honest while facing all situations. Whatever one might think and whatever the intention underlying it might be, a lie will always bear a negative result. I will even avoid to speak ill of anyone, swear and indulge in vain talks. (this precept is perhaps the most difficult to observe).

5th precept

«surāmeraya majjapamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will refrain from intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness.»
That is to say: I will not consume any substance likely to intoxicate my body or my mind, such as alcohol, drugs, tobacco, etc. I will even avoid to drink too much coffee. Due to health reasons, the medicines are authorised.
6th precept

«vikālabhojanā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from eating after noon time.»
That is to say: I will never consume any solid foods after the solar noon (which, in Paris, befalls around 1:30 P.M. during the summer time, and around 12:30 A.M. during the winter time) and this, until the following dawn. During this period, I will no even drink milk, which is considered as a solid food, as it is very nourishing. In case of severe hunger or a great lack of energy, honey, molasses, liquid sugars, oil and butter are also authorised.

7th precept

«nacca gīta vādita visukadassanā mālā gandha vilepana dhārana mandana vibhūsanaṭṭhānā veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will abstain from listening or playing music, songs, wearing flowers, jewellery and other ornaments.»
That is to say: I will not listen to some music, I will not watch any show whatsoever, I will not watch films, neither go for entertainment, nor read any fashion magazines, play games, etc.
I will not wear perfumes, I will not arrange my body for an aesthetic purpose (make up, fashion clothes, sophisticated hair dressing, jewellery, etc.) I will even avoid dressing myself in an attractive way. For health reasons, skin care products are authorised.

8th precept

«uccāsayana mahāsayana veramaṇi sikkhāpadaṃ samādhiyāmi.» «I will refrain from lining or seating on high and luxurious places.»
That is to say: I will not sit or lie down on places located higher than those of the noble ones (bhikkhu, bhikkhunī or sāmaṇera, kings, etc.) or in places reserved for these beings.
See also: ten precepts



Teilweise begonnene Übersetzung findet sich hier:

Die Laien Praxis - Erklärungen (1 Teil)

Die Laien Praxis - Pāramīs (2 Teil)

Die Laien Praxis - mettā (3 Teil)

Die Laien Praxis - Beziehung zu anderen (4 Teil)
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Johann

  • Samanera
  • Very Engaged Member
  • *
  • Sadhu! or +365/-0
  • Gender: Male
  • Date of ordination/Datum der Ordination.: 20140527
Antw:Isi Dhamma
« Reply #2 on: June 30, 2017, 02:55:19 PM »
Gute und lesefreundliche Erklärung über die dhutangas:

The 13 ascetic practices

The origin

Long before Buddha appeared into this world, there did exist ascetic practices designed for oppressing the body in as variegated as numerous ways. Those who adopted them believed that they would enable them to get liberated from the sorrow any living being. On the other hand, others were convinced that the ultimate goal of existence lied in knowing how to enjoy it to the full and focused all their efforts on best enjoying sensuous pleasures.
From his very first teaching, Buddha categorically rejected these two paths that he qualified of « extreme paths ». In this teaching, he explains us that only the moderate path, the « middle path », can lead us to the development of wisdom and right knowledge of reality. The two extreme paths develop, on their behalf, attachments and false views, contrary to the moderate path, which enables the lessening of attachments and the development of right view.

The conduct laid down by the Blessed one for monks and nuns (the pātimokkha), for novices (the 10 precepts) and for the laity (the 5 or 8 precepts) is sufficient guidance to anyone who conveniently trains into satipaṭṭhāna. To those who wish to much more rapidly or easily reach nibbāna, he also taught a set of ascetic practices which are non-compulsory (the 13 dhutaṅgas that are not included into the vinaya), which enables to reduce one's needs to the least, thus sparing, the one who adopts these practices, from pride, greed, and aversion, which constitute the main poisons on the path to liberation (only by practising certain dhutaṅgas in daily life can we really understand this fact; results are impressing).
dhutaṅgas are not designed for superior beings, neither for inferior beings. They are beneficial for all those who are able to put them into practice. A dhutaṅga is not an extreme practice; it is a mere practice that enables the mind to be rapidly and easily purified, absolute prerequisite to the development of attention and concentration. It reduces useless impediments, such as excessive food, numerous clothes to look after, the agitation of inhabited areas, very various attachments. Provided it is conveniently adopted, no dhutaṅga does cause to arise any kind of tiredness or oppression of the body or the mind. If a dhutaṅga involves a great difficulty or a difficult effort to an individual, he shouldn't practice it, as it would become a practice extreme for himself.
Everyone is free, according to his capacities and wishes, to adopt one or several dhutaṅgas, which each comprises three levels of restriction. The aim of these practices lies in providing an environment as auspicious as possible for renunciation.

Thus, the 13 dhutaṅgas, which mean " renunciation " [to abandon (dhuta); state of mind (aṅga)], are a set of practices designed for considerably reducing our attachments, in order to reach nibbāna at the soonest, like a bird that crosses the cloudless sky on a straight line.

The 13 dhutaṅgas

There do exist thirteen ascetic practices: two for the robes, five for the food, five for the spot of residence, and one for the posture (known to be the dhutaṅga of effort). To get access to the detailed definition of a dhutaṅga, click on its definition in the below displayed board:

paṃsukūla : abandonned robes
tecīvarika : three robes
piṇḍapāta : collection by means of one's bowl
sapadānacārika : food collection without skipping houses
ekāsanika : a single meal
pattapiṇḍika : everything within the bowl
khalupacchābhattika : no longer accepting any extra food after having started to take the meal
āraññika : to remain in the forest
rukkhamūla : to remain beneath a tree
abbhokāsika : to remain on the bare earth without shelter
susānika : to remain among charnels
yathāsantatika : to sleep at the alloted spot
nesajjika : to renonce to the lying posture

The five kinds of motivations

For the practice of dhutaṅgas, there do exist several kinds of motivations. A few can adopt one of them out of a bad purpose, in the aim of stirring up admiration around themselves, whereas others adopt one of these practices out of a genuine purpose, in order to cure themselves from kilesās, with the same state of mind into which one takes a medicine. Here are the five kinds of motivation that we can distinguish among those who adopt one or more dhutaṅgas:

1) Out of complete ignorance, without even knowing their advantages: after having merely heard the practitioners of the dhutaṅgas are of good renown, for being able to say " me, I practice the dhutaṅgas", etc.

2) For benefitting with the advantages feeding up greed, such as: for receiving a lot of gifts, for being well considered by others, for causing a great veneration to arise from others, for attracting disciples to oneself, etc.

3) Out of madness, out of complete ignorance, without being in quest for anything whatsoever.

4) Because Buddha and ariyās praise such practices.

5) For benefitting with healthy advantages, such as: the capacity to be contented with very little, weakness inherent to greed, easiness to obtain what is needed, tranquillity, detachment, etc.

Buddha disapproved the first three motivations, he only approved the last two. An individual may then adopt one or several dhutaṅgas only if he is motivated according to the fourth or fifth among these five kinds of motivations. However, a dhutaṅga is of much higher benefit if it is adopted according to the fifth motivation instead of the fourth.

The five factors that ought to be developed by a practitioner of the dhutaṅgas
A practitioner of the dhutaṅgas who is in the position of doing such practices (he undergoes a good state of health, etc.), who is honest and who has nibbāna as goal, is worthy to be worshipped by the brahmās, devas and humans.
Here are the five factors which each practitioner of the dhutaṅgas should develop:
To be without greed.
To know how to be contented with very little.
To really want to get rid of kilesās.
To remain on a calm spot.
To no longer wish any extra existence in whatsoever world and conditions (in other parlance, wishing parinibbāna).
The first factors are against greed. They contribute in eliminating sensory desires. The might whose the last of these factors is object can be cultivated by means of wisdom.
Through alobha we eliminate pratices that are meant for developing sensory desires (kāmasukhallikā nuyoga), and through amoha, we eradicate all practices that oppress the body (attakilamathā nuyoga).
Buddha congratulates those who adopt the dhutaṅgas by fully developing the above mentioned five factors.
According to another commentary, the factors needed to the practice of dhutaṅgas are:
saddhā, faith, confidence.
hirimā, the fact to be afraid or ashamed of evil deeds.
dhitimā, the fact to be calm, self-possessed and concentrated on one's deeds.
akuha, the indifference towards notoriety, renown, consideration on others' behalf.
atthavasī, the fact to have the realisation of dhamma as unique aim.
alobha, straightforwardness.
sikkhākāma, the fact to be naturally and constantly virtuous.
aḷhasamādāna, the fact to prevent oneself from breaking one of these practices.
anujjhānabahula, the fact not to criticize others, even if they are at fault.
mettāvihārī, the fact to constantly remain filled with benevolence.
A serious practitioner of the dhutaṅgas has to be conveniently rooted into one of these ten factors. The one who knows how to stick to it is in the position to reach nibbāna.
The elements that ought to be avoide:
  • pāpiccha, to want unhealthy things.
  • icchāpakata, to oppress one's mind through desires.
    kuhaka, to try to draw consideration from others.
    luddha, covetousness, cupidity.
    odarika, to be abusively preoccupied by one's food.
    lābhakāma, to want to get involved into numerous matters.
    yasakāma, to want to have many disciples, to want to be worshipped by many people.
    kittikāma, to want notoriety, a great renown.
If a bhikkhu practises the dhutaṅgas according to one or several of these eight points, he will certainly be subject to criticism and contempt on others' behalf. He even risks to experience some disabilities during his next existence, such as ugliness, malformation, a severed limb, if it is not the realm of hells. That's why one should strive for developing the needed factors, and to avoid those who are detrimental.


ariyās and the dhutaṅgas

ariyās are beings who have inevitably practised the dhutaṅgas in this life or in a former rebirth. To have one's pāramīs sufficiently matured for the realisation of the dhamma, the practise of the dhutaṅgas is therefore inevitable. For this reason, we can say that " the practice of the dhutaṅgas is the path of ariyās ". The dhutaṅgas even constitute a training particularly auspicious to the realisation of nibbāna, given the fact that they offer the best conditions for the training into the 8 maggaṅgas – the basis of satipaṭṭhāna (the path that leads to nibbāna) – on one hand, and for the detachment from all obstacles to this training on the other.

There do exist numerous bhikkhus who are renown for their practice of the dhutaṅgas. Among others, in Buddha's time, regarding the practice of the āraññika and paṃsukūla dhutaṅgas, Venerable Mahā Kassapa was particularly renown (besided recognised by Buddha as being the best practitioner of the 13 dhutaṅgas of his sāsana); then were particularly renown for the observance of the āraññika dhutaṅga: Venerable Revata (in the forest of Khariravaniya), Venerable Tissa and Venerable Nāgita; was particularly renown for the observance of the dhutaṅga linked with the obtention and consumption of food: Venerable Mitta; were particularly renown for the observance of the nesajjika dhutaṅga: Venerable Sāriputtarā, Venerable Mahā Moggalāna, Venerable Cakkhupāla, etc.

These arahantas – such as all arahantas who practise the dhutaṅgas – haven't gone through the difficulties of these practices for their own benefit, as they no longer have anything to obtain for themselves (an arahanta has, by definition, no more ambition, neither motivation). They have practised the dhutaṅgas with the only aim of favorably making an example, inciting to the observance of this noble practice other bhikkhus who see them or would come to hear about them.

All Buddhas have also practised the dhutaṅgas in a remarkable manner, at one or several moments of their last existence. Thus, wise people, imitating Bouddha, put into practice one or several of these dhutaṅgas.

* Johann "resignierend": Atma schaffts zur Zeit einfach Körper und Mittel gemäß nicht. Vielleicht mag sich jemand dessen annehmen. Gut wäre es es zu tun. und Links zu den einzelnen Übungen.
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann