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[Buddha]

Author Topic: Tudong - Dutanga  (Read 5228 times)

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Offline Johann

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Tudong - Dutanga
« on: July 18, 2014, 09:21:32 AM »
Tudong oder Dutanga ist die gehobene und von Buddha gepriesene Asketische Praxis und erweitert die strengen Regeln der Vinaya um zusätzliche selbst auferlegte Tugenden.

Gerne würde ich diese Thema zur näheren Erkundung dieses Themas widmen und lade dazu ein hier, wie auch immer, teil zu nehmen.

Eine  Beschreibung der einzelnen 13 Tudong Regeln sowie deren abstufung in einfach, mittel und streng dürfen sich im Visuddh Magga wieder finden. Dieses ist leider oder auch glücklicherweise (nur) als pdf verfügbar. (vielleicht möchte jemand den Abschnitt über Tudong-praxis) hier teilen. (http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/lib/authors/nanamoli/index.html)

Wie viele Schematisierte Aufstellungen, dürfte auch diese Praxis im nachhinein zusammengefasst worden sein und so wäre es sicherlich interessant hier auch eventuell die Bezüge in den Suttas anzuführen. Liest man die Suttas, so stellt sich ja eher ein Bild ein, das zu der Tudong- Praxis neigt und weniger ein Bild, wie es durch viele Zugeständnisse in der Vinaya wiedergespiegelt wird.

Ich kann mich erinnern, dass es auch auch Dhammawheel ein Thema zu Tudong gab.

Viel Freude beim Teilnehmen und Teilhaben.
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Moritz

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #1 on: July 18, 2014, 11:58:26 PM »
Chapter II
The Ascetic Practices[/size]
(Dhutaòga-niddesa)

1.  [59] Now, while a meditator is engaged in the pursuit of virtue, he should set
about undertaking the ascetic practices in order to perfect those special qualities
of fewness of wishes, contentment, etc., by which the virtue of the kind already
described, is cleansed. For when his virtue is thus washed clean of stains by the
waters of such special qualities as fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement,
seclusion, dispersal, energy, and modest needs, it will become quite purified; and
his vows will succeed as well. And– so, when his whole behaviour has been purified
by the special quality of blameless virtue and vows and he has become established
in the [first] three of the ancient Noble Ones’ heritages, he may become worthy to
attain to the fourth called “delight in development” (A II 27). We shall therefore
begin the explanation of the ascetic practices.

[THE 13 KINDS OF ASCETIC PRACTICES]
2. Thirteen kinds of ascetic practices have been allowed by the Blessed One to
clansmen who have given up the things of the flesh and, regardless of body and
life, are desirous of undertaking a practice in conformity [with their aim]. They
are:

  • the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice
  • the triple-robe-wearer’s practice,
  • the alms-food-eater’s practice
  • the house-to-house-seeker’s practice
  • the one-sessioner’s practice
  • the bowl-food-eater’s practice
  • the later-food-refuser’s practice
  • the forest-dweller’s practice
  • the tree-root-dweller’s practice
  • the open-air-dweller’s practice
  •   the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice
  • the any-bed-user’s practice
  • the sitter’s practice

3. Herein:
(1) As to meaning, (2) characteristic, et cetera,
(3) The undertaking and directions,
And the grade, and breach as well,
And benefits of each besides,
(4) As to the profitable triad,
(5) "Ascetic" and so on distinguished,
(6) And as to groups and also (7) singly,
The exposition should be known. [60]

4. 1. Herein, as to meaning, in the first place.

i.  It is “refuse” (paísukúla) since, owing to its being found on refuse in any such place as a street, a charnel ground, or a midden, it belongs, as it were, to the refuse in the sense of being dumped in anyone of these places. Or alternatively: like refuse it gets to a vile state (PAÍSU viya KUcchitabhávaí ULAti), thus it is “refuse” (paísukúla); it goes to a vile state, is what is meant. The wearing of a refuse-[rag], which has acquired its derivative name[1] in this way, is “refuse-[rag-wearing]” (paísukúla). That is his habit, thus he is a “refuse-[rag-wear-]er” (paísukúlika). The practice (aòga) of the refuse-[rag-wear-]er is the “refuse-[rag-wear-]er’s practice” (paísukúlikaòga). It is the action that is called the “practice.” Therefore it should be understood as a term for that by undertaking which onebecomes a refuse-[rag-wear-]er.

ii. In the same way, he has the habit of [wearing] the triple robe (ti-cìvara)—in other words, the cloak of patches, the upper garment, and the inner clothing— thus he is a “triple-robe-[wear-]er” (tecìvarika). His practice is called the “triple-robe-wearer’s practice.

5. iii. The dropping (páta) of the lumps (pióða) of material sustenance (ámisa) called alms (bhikkhá) is “alms food” (pióðapáta); the falling (nipatana) into the bowl of lumps (pióða) given by others, is what is meant. He gleans that alms food (that falling of lumps), he seeks it by approaching such and such a family, thus he is called an “alms-food [eat-]er” (pióðapátika). Or his vow is to gather (patituí)[2] the lump (pióða), thus he is a “lump-gatherer” (pióðapátin). To “gather” is to wander for. A “lump-gatherer” (pióðapátin) is the same as an “alms-food-eater” (pióðapátika).
The practice of the alms-food-eater is the “alms-food-eater’s practice.

6.  iv. It is a hiatus (avakhaóðana) that is called a “gap” (dána).3
It is removed (apeta) from a gap, thus it is called “gapless” (apadána); the meaning is, it is without hiatus.
It is together with (saha) what is gapless (apadána), thus it is “with the gapless” (sapadána); devoid of hiatus—from house to house—is what is meant. His habit is to wander on what-is-with-the-gapless, thus he is a “gapless wanderer” (sapadána-cárin). A gapless wanderer is the same as a “house-to-house-seeker” (sapadána-cárika). His practice is the “house-to-house-seeker’s practice.

7. v. Eating in one session is “one-session.” He has that habit, thus he is a “one-
sessioner.” His practice is the “one-sessioner’s practice.

vi. Alms (pióða) in one bowl (patta) only because of refusing a second vessel, is “bowl-alms” (patta-pióða). Now, making “bowl alms” (patta-pióða) the name forthe taking of alms food in the bowl: bowl-alms-food is his habit, thus he is a “bowl-food-eater” (pattapióðika). His practice is the “bowl-food-eater’s practice.

8. vii. “No” (khalu) is a particle in the sense of refusing. [61] Food (bhatta) obtained later by one who has shown that he is satisfied is called “later-food” (pacchá-bhatta). The eating of that later food is “later-food-eating.” Making “later-food” (pacchá-bhatta) the name for that later-food-eating: later-food is his habit, thus he is a “later-food-[eat-]er” (pacchábhattika). Not a later-food-eater is a “no-later-food-[eat-]er”
(khalu-pacchábhattika), [that is, a “later-food-refuser”]. This is the name for one who as an undertaking refuses extra food. But it is said in the commentary4
“Khalu is a certain kind of bird. When it has taken a fruit into its beak and that drops, it does not eat any more. This [bhikkhu] is like that.” Thus he is “a later-food-refuser” khalu-pacchá-bhattika). His practice is the “later-food-refuser’s practice.

9. viii. His habit is dwelling in the forest, thus he is a “forest-dweller.” His practice is the “forest-dweller’s practice.”
ix. Dwelling at the root of a tree is “tree-root-dwelling.” He has that habit, thus he is a “tree-root-dweller.” The practice of the tree-root-dweller is the “tree-root-dweller’s practice.”
x., xi. Likewise with the open-air-dweller and the charnel-ground-dweller.

10. xii. Only what has been distributed (yad eva santhata) is “as distributed” (yathásanthata). This is a term for the resting place first allotted thus “This one falls to you.” He has the habit of dwelling in that as distributed, thus he is an “as-distributed-user” (yathásanthatika), [that is, an “any-bed-user”]. His practice is the “any-bed-user’s practice.”
xiii. He has the habit of keeping to the sitting [posture when resting], refusing to lie down, thus he is a “sitter.” His practice is the “sitter’s practice.

11. All these, however, are the practices (aòga) of a bhikkhu who is ascetic (dhuta) because he has shaken off (dhuta) defilement by undertaking one or other of them. Or the knowledge that has got the name “ascetic” (dhuta) because it shakes off (dhunana) defilement is a practice ( aòga) belonging to these, thus they are “ascetic practices” (dhutaòga). Or alternatively, they are ascetic (dhuta) because they shake off (niddhunana) opposition, and they are practices (aòga) because they are a way (paþipatti)

This, firstly, is how the exposition should be known here as to meaning.

12. 2.
All of them have as their characteristic the volition of undertaking. For this is said [in the commentary]: “He who does the undertaking is a person. That whereby he does the undertaking is states of consciousness and consciousness-concomitants. The volition of the act of undertaking is the ascetic practice. What it rejects is the instance.” All have the function of eliminating cupidity, and they manifest themselves with the production of non-cupidity. For their proximate cause they have the noble states consisting of fewness of wishes, and so on. [62] This is how the exposition should be known as to characteristic, etc., here.

12. 2.
All of them have as their characteristic the volition of undertaking. For this is said [in the commentary]: “He who does the undertaking is a person. That whereby he does the undertaking is states of consciousness and consciousness-concomitants. The volition of the act of undertaking is the ascetic practice. What it rejects is the instance.” All have the function of eliminating cupidity, and they manifest themselves with the production of non-cupidity. For their proximate cause they have the noble states consisting of fewness of wishes, and so on. [62] This is how the exposition should be known as to characteristic, etc., here.
13. 3.
As regards the five beginning with the undertaking and directions: during the Blessed One’s lifetime all ascetic practices should be undertaken in the Blessed One’s presence. After his attainment of Nibbána this should be done in the presence of a principal disciple. When he is not available it should be done in the presence of one whose cankers are destroyed, of a non-returner, of a once-returner, of a stream-enterer, of one who knows the three Piþakas, of one who knows two of the Piþakas, of one who knows one of the Piþakas, of one who knows one Collection, [5] of a teacher of the Commentaries. When he is not available it should be done in the presence of an observer of an ascetic practice. When he is not available, then after one has swept out the shrine terrace they can be undertaken seated in a reverential posture as though pronouncing them in the Fully Enlightened One’s presence. Also it is permitted to undertake them by oneself. And here should be told the story of the senior of the two brothers who were elders at Cetiyapabbata and their fewness of wishes with respect to the ascetic practices [6] (M-a II 140).

This, firstly, is what applies to all [the practices].

14. Now, we shall proceed to comment on the undertaking, directions, grade, breach and benefits, of each one [separately].
i. First, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice is undertaken with one of these two statements: “I refuse robes given by householders” or “I undertake the refuse-rag- wearer’s practice.” This, firstly, is the undertaking.
15. One who has done this should get a robe of one of the following kinds: one from a charnel ground, one from a shop, a cloth from a street, a cloth from a midden, one from a childbed, an ablution cloth, a cloth from a washing place, one worn going to and returning from [the charnel ground], one scorched by fire, one gnawed by cattle, one gnawed by ants, one gnawed by rats, one cut at the end, one cut at the edge, one carried as a flag, a robe from a shrine, an ascetic’s robe, one from a consecration, one produced by supernormal power, one from a highway, one borne by the wind, one presented by deities, one from the sea. Taking one of these robe cloths, he should tear off and throw away the weak parts, and then wash the sound parts and make up a robe. He can use it after getting rid of his old robe given by householders.
16. Herein, “one from a charnel ground” is one dropped on a charnel ground.

“One from a shop” is one dropped at the door of a shop. “A cloth from a street” is a cloth thrown into a street from inside a window by those who seek merit. “A cloth from a midden” [63] is a cloth thrown onto a place for rubbish. “One from a childbed” is a cloth thrown away after wiping up the stains of childbirth with it. The mother of Tissa the Minister, it seems, had the stains of childbirth wiped up with a cloth worth a hundred [pieces], and thinking, “The refuse-rag wearers will take it,” she had it thrown onto the Tálaveli Road. [7] Bhikkhus took it for the purpose of mending worn places.
17. “An ablution cloth” is one that people who are made by devil doctors to bathe themselves, including their heads, are accustomed to throw away as a “cloth of ill luck.”
“A cloth from washing place” is rags thrown away at a washing place where bathing is done.
“One worn going to and coming from” is one that people throw away after they have gone to a charnel ground and returned and bathed. “One scorched by fire” is one partly scorched by fire; for people throw that away. “One gnawed by cattle,” etc., are obvious; for people throw away such as these too. “One carried as a flag”: Those who board a ship do so after hoisting a flag. It is allowable to take this when they have gone out of sight. Also it is allowable, when the two armies have gone away, to take a flag that has been hoisted on a battlefield.
18. “A robe from a shrine” is an offering made by draping a termite-mound [in cloth]. “An ascetic’s robe” is one belonging to a bhikkhu. “One from a consecration” is one thrown away at the king’s consecration place. “One produced by supernormal power” is a “come-bhikkhu” robe. [8] “One from a highway” is one dropped in the middle of a road. But one dropped by the owner’s negligence should be taken only after waiting a while. “One borne by the wind” is one that falls a long way off, having been carried by the wind. It is allowable to take it if the owners are not in sight. “One presented by deities” is one given by deities like that given to the Elder Anuruddha (Dhp-a II 173–74). “One from the sea” is one washed up on dry land by the sea waves.

19. One given thus “We give it to the Order” or got by those who go out for alms-cloth is not a refuse-rag. And in the case of one presented by a bhikkhu, one given after it has been got [at a presentation of robes by householders] at the end of the Rains, or a “resting-place robe” [that is, one automatically supplied by a householder to the occupant of a certain resting place] is not a refuse-rag. It is a refuse-rag only when given after not having been so obtained. And herein, that placed by the donors at a bhikkhu’s feet but given by that bhikkhu to the refuse-rag wearer by placing it in his hand is called pure in one way. That given to a bhikkhu by placing it in his hand but placed by him at the [refuse-rag wearer’s] feet is also pure in one way. That which is both placed at a bhikkhu’s feet and then given by him in the same way is pure in both ways. [64] One obtained by being placed in the hand and [given by being] placed in the hand too is not a strict man’s robe. So a refuse-rag wearer should use the robe after getting to know about the kinds of refuse-rags. These are the directions for it in this instance.
20. The grades are these. There are three kinds of refuse-rag wearers: the strict, the medium, and the mild. Herein, one who takes it only from a charnel ground is strict. One who takes one left [by someone, thinking] “One gone forth will take it” is medium. One who takes one given by being placed at his feet [by a bhikkhu] is mild. The moment anyone of these of his own choice or inclination agrees to [accept] a robe given by a householder, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
21. The benefits are these. He actually practices in conformity with the dependence, because of the words “The going forth by depending on the refuse-rag robe” (Vin I 58, 96); he is established in the first of the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 27); there is no suffering due to protecting; he exists independent of others; there is no fear of robbers; there is no craving connected with use [of robes]; it is a requisite suitable for an ascetic; it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “valueless, easy to get, and blameless” (A II 26); it inspires confidence; it produces the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc.; the right way is cultivated; a good example is set [9] to later generations.

22.
While striving for Death’s army’s rout
The ascetic clad in rag-robe clout
Got from a rubbish heap, shines bright
As mail-clad warrior in the fight.
This robe the world’s great teacher wore,
Leaving rare Kási cloth and more;
Of rags from off a rubbish heap
Who would not have a robe to keep?
Minding the words he did profess
When he went into homelessness,
Let him to wear such rags delight
As one in seemly garb bedight.
This, firstly, is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice.

23. ii. Next there is the triple-robe-wearer’s practice. This is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a fourth robe” or “I undertake the triple- robe-wearer’s practice.” [65] When a triple-robe wearer has got cloth for a robe, he can put it by for as long as, owing to ill-health, he is unable to make it up, or for as long as he does not find a helper, or lacks a needle, etc., and there is no fault in his putting it by. But it is not allowed to put it by once it has been dyed. That is called cheating the ascetic practice.
These are the
directions
for it.
24. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict should, at the time of dyeing, first dye either the inner cloth or the upper garment, and having dyed it, he should wear that round the waist and dye the other. Then he can put that on over the shoulder and dye the cloak of patches. But he is not allowed to wear the cloak of patches round the waist. This is the duty when in an abode inside a village. But it is allowable for him in the forest to wash and dye two together. However, he should sit in a place near [to the robes] so that, if he sees anyone, he can pull a yellow cloth over himself. But for the medium one there is a yellow cloth in the dyeing room for use while dyeing, and it is allowable for him to wear that [as an inner cloth] or to put it on [as an upper garment] in order to do the work of dyeing. For the mild one it is allowable to wear, or put on, the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion (i.e. not suspended, etc.) in order to do the work of dyeing. A bedspread that remains where it is[10] is also allowable for him, but he must not take it about him. And it is allowed for him to use from time to time the robes of bhikkhus who are in communion. It is allowed to one who wears the triple robe as an ascetic practice to have a yellow shoulder-cloth too as a fourth; but it must be only a span wide and three hands long.
The moment anyone of these three agrees to [accept] a fourth robe, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
25. The benefits are these. The bhikkhu who is a triple-robe wearer is content with the robe as a protection for the body. Hence he goes taking it with him as a bird does its wings (M I 180); and such special qualities as having few undertakings, avoidance of storage of cloth, a frugal existence, the abandoning of greed for many robes, living in effacement by observing moderation even in what is permitted, production of the fruits of fewness of wishes, etc., are perfected. [66]

26. No risk of hoarding haunts the man of wit
Who wants no extra cloth for requisite;
Using the triple robe where’er he goes
The pleasant relish of content he knows.

So, would the adept wander undeterred
With naught else but his robes, as flies the bird With its own wings, then let him too rejoice That frugalness in garments be his choice. This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the triple-robe-wearer’s practice.
27. iii. The alms-food-eater’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a supplementary [food] supply” or “I undertake the alms-food-eater’s practice.”
Now, this alms-food eater should not accept the following fourteen kinds of meal: a meal offered to the Order, a meal offered to specified bhikkhus, an invitation, a meal given by a ticket, one each half-moon day, one each Uposatha day, one each first of the half-moon, a meal given for visitors, a meal for travellers, a meal for the sick, a meal for sick-nurses, a meal supplied to a [particular] residence, a meal given in a principal house, [11] a meal given in turn. If, instead of saying “Take a meal given to the Order”, [meals] are given saying “The Order is taking alms in our house; you may take alms too”, it is allowable to consent. Tickets from the Order that are not for actual food, [12] and also a meal cooked in a monastery, are allowable as well.
These are the
directions
for it.

28. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict takes alms brought both from before and from behind, and he gives the bowl to those who take it while he stands outside a door. He also takes alms brought to the refectory and given there. But he does not take alms by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day. The medium one takes it as well by sitting [and waiting for it to be brought later] that day; but he does not consent to [its being brought] the next day. The mild one consents to alms [being brought] on the next day and on the day after. Both these last miss the joy of an independent life. There is, perhaps, a preaching on the Noble Ones’ heritages (A II 28) in some village. The strict one says to the others “Let us go, friends, and listen to the Dhamma.” One of them says, “I have been made to sit [and wait] by a man, venerable sir,” and the other, “I have consented to [receive] alms tomorrow, venerable sir.” So they are both losers. The other wanders for alms in the morning and then he goes and savours the taste of the Dhamma. [67] The moment anyone of these three agrees to the extra gain consisting of a meal given to the Order, etc., his ascetic practice is broken. This is the
breach
in this
instance.

29. The benefits are these. He actually practices in conformity with the dependence because of the words “The going forth by depending on the eating of lumps of alms food” (Vin II 58, 96); he is established in the second of the Noble Ones’ heritages; his existence is independent of others; it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “Valueless, easy to get, blameless” (A II 26); idleness is eliminated; livelihood is purified; the practice of the minor training rule [of the Pátimokkha] is fulfilled; he is not maintained by another; he helps others; pride is abandoned; craving for tastes is checked; the training precepts about eating as a group, substituting one meal [invitation for another] (see Vinaya, Pácittiya 33 and Comy.), and good behaviour, are not contravened; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes; he cultivates the right way; he has compassion for later generations.

30.
The monk content with alms for food
Has independent livelihood,
And greed in him no footing finds;
He is as free as the four winds.
He never need be indolent,
His livelihood is innocent,
So let a wise man not disdain
Alms-gathering for his domain.

Since it is said:
“If a bhikkhu can support himself on alms
And live without another’s maintenance,
And pay no heed as well to gain and fame,
The very gods indeed might envy him” (Ud 31).

 http://www.bps.lk http://www.accesstoinsight.org
63
CHAPTER II
The Ascetic Practices alms food” (Vin II 58, 96); he is established in the second of the Noble Ones’ heritages; his existence is independent of others; it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “Valueless, easy to get, blameless” (A II 26); idleness is eliminated; livelihood is purified; the practice of the minor training rule [of the Pátimokkha] is fulfilled; he is not maintained by another; he helps others; pride is abandoned; craving for tastes is checked; the training precepts about eating as a group, substituting one meal [invitation for another] (see Vinaya, Pácittiya 33 and Comy.), and good behaviour, are not contravened; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes; he cultivates the right way; he has compassion for later generations.
30. The monk content with alms for food
Has independent livelihood,
And greed in him no footing finds;
He is as free as the four winds.
He never need be indolent,
His livelihood is innocent,
So let a wise man not disdain
Alms-gathering for his domain.
Since it is said:
“If a bhikkhu can support himself on alms
And live without another’s maintenance,
And pay no heed as well to gain and fame,
The very gods indeed might envy him” (Ud 31).
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach and benefits, in the case of the alms-food-eater’s practice.
31. iv. The house-to-house seeker’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements “I refuse a greedy alms round” or “I undertake the house-to-house seeker’s practice.” Now, the house-to-house seeker should stop at the village gate and make sure that there is no danger. If there is danger in any street or village, it is allowable to leave it out and wander for alms elsewhere. When there is a house door or a street or a village where he [regularly] gets nothing at all, he can go [past it] not counting it as a village. But wherever he gets anything at all it is not allowed [subsequently] to go [past] there and leave it out. This bhikkhu should enter the village early so that he will be able to leave out any inconvenient place and go elsewhere. [68] But if people who are giving a gift [of a meal] in a monastery or who are coming along the road take his bowl and give alms food, it is allowable. And as this [bhikkhu] is going along the road, he should, when it is the time, wander for alms in any village he comes to and not pass it by. If he gets nothing there or only a little, he should wander for alms in the next village in order. These are the directions for it.

32. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict does not take alms brought from before or brought from behind or brought to the refectory and given there. He hands over his bowl at a door, however; for in this ascetic practice there is none equal to the Elder Mahá Kassapa, yet an instance in which even he handed over his bowl is mentioned (see Ud 29). The medium one takes what is brought from before and from behind and what is brought to the refectory, and he hands over his bowl at a door. But he does not sit waiting for alms. Thus he conforms to the rule of the strict alms-food eater. The mild one sits waiting [for alms to be brought] that day. The ascetic practice of these three is broken as soon as the greedy alms round starts [by going only to the houses where good alms food is given]. This is the breach in this instance.
33. The benefits are these. He is always a stranger among families and is like the moon (S II 197); he abandons avarice about families; he is compassionate impartially; he avoids the dangers in being supported by a family; he does not delight in invitations; he does not hope for [meals] to be brought; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.

34.
The monk who at each house his begging plies
Is moonlike, ever new to families,
Nor does he grudge to help all equally,
Free from the risks of house-dependency.
Who would the self-indulgent round forsake
And roam the world at will, the while to make
His downcast eyes range a yoke-length before,
Then let him wisely seek from door to door.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the house-to-house-seeker’s practice. [69]

35. v. The one-sessioner’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements:
“I refuse eating in several sessions” or “I undertake the one-sessioner’s practice.”
When the one-sessioner sits down in the sitting hall, instead of sitting on an elder’s seat, he should notice which seat is likely to fall to him and sit down on that. If his teacher or preceptor arrives while the meal is still unfinished, it is allowable for him to get up and do the duties. But the Elder Tipiþaka Cúla-Abhaya said: “He should either keep his seat [and finish his meal] or [if he gets up he should leave the rest of] his meal [in order not to break the ascetic practice]. And this is one whose meal is still unfinished; therefore let him do the duties, but in that case let him not eat the [rest of the] meal.” These are the directions.
36. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict may not take anything more than the food that he has laid his hand on whether it is little or much. And if people bring him ghee, etc., thinking “The elder has eaten nothing,” while these are allowable for the purpose of medicine, they are not so for the purpose of food. The medium one may take more as long as the meal in the bowl is not exhausted; for he is called “one who stops when the food is finished.” The mild one may eat as long as he does not get up from his seat. He is either “one who stops with the water” because he eats until he takes [water for] washing the bowl, or “one who stops with the session” because he eats until he gets up. The ascetic practice of these three is broken at the moment when food has been eaten at more than one session. This is the breach in this instance.

37. The benefits are these. He has little affliction and little sickness; he has lightness, strength, and a happy life; there is no contravening [rules] about food that is not what is left over from a meal; craving for tastes is eliminated; his life conforms to the [principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
38. No illness due to eating shall he feel
Who gladly in one session takes his meal;
No longing to indulge his sense of taste
Tempts him to leave his work to go to waste.
His own true happiness a monk may find
In eating in one session, pure in mind.
Purity and effacement wait on this;
For it gives reason to abide in bliss.
This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the one-sessioner’s practice. [70]

39. vi. The bowl-food-eater’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a second vessel” or “I undertake the bowl-food-eater’s practice.”
When at the time of drinking rice gruel, the bowl-food eater gets curry that is put in a dish; he can first either eat the curry or drink the rice gruel. If he puts it in the rice gruel, the rice gruel becomes repulsive when a curry made with cured fish, etc., is put into it. So it is allowable [to do this] only in order to use it without making it repulsive. Consequently this is said with reference to such curry as that.
But what is unrepulsive, such as honey, sugar, [13] etc., should be put into it. And in taking it he should take the right amount. It is allowable to take green vegetables with the hand and eat them. But unless he does that they should be put into the bowl. Because a second vessel has been refused it is not allowable [to use] anything else, not even the leaf of a tree. These are its directions.
40. This too has three grades. Herein, for one who is strict, except at the time ofeating sugarcane, it is not allowed [while eating] to throw rubbish away, and it is not allowed while eating to break up rice-lumps, fish, meat and cakes. [The rubbish should be thrown away and the rice-lumps, etc., broken up before starting to eat.] The medium one is allowed to break them up with one hand while eating; and he is called a “hand ascetic.” The mild one is called a “bowl ascetic”; anything that can be put into his bowl he is allowed, while eating, to break up, [that is, rice lumps, etc.,] with his hand or [such things as palm sugar, ginger, etc.,] with his teeth. The moment anyone of these three agrees to a second vessel his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
41. The benefits are these. Craving for variety of tastes is eliminated; excessiveness of wishes is abandoned; he sees the purpose and the
amount in nutriment; he is not bothered with carrying saucers, etc., about; his life conforms to [the principles of] fewness of wishes and so on.

42.
He baffles doubts that might arise
With extra dishes; downcast eyes
The true devotedness imply[14]
Of one uprooting gluttony.
Wearing content as if ‘twere part
Of his own nature, glad at heart;
None but a bowl-food eater may
Consume his food in such a way.

43. vii. The later-food-refuser’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse additional food” or “I undertake the later-food-refuser’s practice.” Now, when that later-food refuser has shown that he is satisfied, he should not again have the food made allowable [by having it put into his hands according to the rule for bhikkhus] and eat it. These are the directions for it.
44. This too has three grades. Herein, there is no showing that he has had enough with respect to the first lump, but there is when he refuses more while that is being swallowed. So when one who is strict has thus shown that he has had enough [with respect to the second lump], he does not eat the second lump after swallowing the first. The medium one eats also that food with respect to which he has shown that he has had enough. But the mild one goes on eating until he gets up from his seat.
The moment any one of these three has eaten what has been made allowable [again] after he has shown that he has had enough, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
45. The benefits are these. One is far from committing an offence concerned with extra food; there is no overloading of the stomach; there is no keeping food back; there is no renewed search [for food]; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.

46.
When a wise man refuses later food
He needs no extra search in weary mood,
Nor stores up food till later in the day,
Nor overloads his stomach in this way.
So, would the adept from such faults abstain,
Let him assume this practice for his gain,
Praised by the Blessed One, which will augment
The special qualities such as content.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the later-food-refuser’s practice.

47. viii. The forest-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse an abode in a village” or “I undertake the forest-dweller’s practice.”

48. Now, that forest dweller must leave an abode in a village in order to meet the dawn in the forest. Herein, a village abode is the village itself with its precincts. A “village” may consist of one cottage or several cottages, it may be enclosed by a wall or not, have human inhabitants or not, and it can also be a caravan that is inhabited for more than four months. [72] The “village precincts” cover the range of a stone thrown by a man of medium stature standing between the gate-posts of a walled village, if there are two gate-posts, as at Anurádhapura (cf. Vin III 46). The Vinaya experts say that this [stone’s throw] is characterized as up to the place where a thrown stone falls, as, for instance, when young men exercise their arms and throw stones in order to show off their strength. But the Suttanta experts say that it is up to where one thrown to scare crows normally falls. In the case of an unwalled village, the house precinct is where the water falls when a woman standing in the door of the outermost house of all throws water from a basin. Within a stone’s throw of the kind already described from that point is the village. Within a second stone’s throw is the village precinct.

49. “Forest,” according to the Vinaya method firstly, is described thus: “Except the village and its precincts, all is forest” (Vin III 46). According to the Abhidhamma method it is described thus: “Having gone out beyond the boundary post, all that is forest” (Vibh 251; Paþis I 176). But according to the Suttanta method its characteristic is this: “A forest abode is five hundred bow-lengths distant” (Vin IV 183). That should be defined by measuring it with a strung instructor’s bow from the gate-post of a walled village, or from the range of the first stone’s throw from an unwalled one, up to the monastery wall.

50. But if the monastery is not walled, it is said in the Vinaya commentaries, it should be measured by making the first dwelling of all the limit, or else the refectory or regular meeting place or Bodhi Tree or shrine, even if that is far from a dwelling [belonging to the monastery]. But in the Majjhima commentary it is said that, omitting the precincts of the monastery and the village, the distance to be measured is that between where the two stones fall. This is the measure here.

51. Even if the village is close by and the sounds of men are audible to people in the monastery, still if it is not possible to go straight to it because of rocks, rivers, etc., in between, the five hundred bow-lengths can be reckoned by that road even if one has to go by boat. But anyone who blocks the path to the village here and there for the purpose of [lengthening it so as to be able to say that he is] taking up the practice is cheating the ascetic practice.

52. If a forest-dwelling bhikkhu’s preceptor or teacher is ill and does not get what he needs in the forest, [73] he should take him to a village abode and attend him there. But he should leave in time to meet the dawn in a place proper for the practice. If the affliction increases towards the time of dawn, he must attend him and not bother about the purity of his ascetic practice. These are the directions.

53. This too has three grades. Herein, one who is strict must always meet the dawn in the forest. The medium one is allowed to live in a village for the four months of the Rains. And the mild one, for the winter months too.

If in the period defined any one of these three goes from the forest and hears the Dhamma in a village abode, his ascetic practice is not broken if he meets the dawn there, nor is it broken if he meets it as he is on his way back after hearing [the Dhamma]. But if, when the preacher has got up, he thinks “We shall go after lying down awhile” and he meets the dawn while asleep or if of his own choice he meets the dawn while in a village abode, then his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
54. The benefits are these. A forest-dwelling bhikkhu who has given attention to the perception of forest (see MN 121) can obtain hitherto unobtained concentration, or preserve that already obtained. And the Master is pleased with him, according as it is said: “So, Nágita, I am pleased with that bhikkhu’s dwelling in the forest” (A III 343). And when he lives in a remote abode his mind is not distracted by unsuitable visible objects, and so on. He is free from anxiety; he abandons attachment to life; he enjoys the taste of the bliss of seclusion, and the state of the refuse-rag wearer, etc., becomes him.

55.
He lives secluded and apart,
Remote abodes delight his heart;
The Saviour of the world, besides,
He gladdens that in groves abides.
The hermit that in woods can dwell
Alone, may gain the bliss as well
Whose savour is beyond the price
Of royal bliss in paradise.
Wearing the robe of rags he may
Go forth into the forest fray;
Such is his mail, for weapons too
The other practices will do.
One so equipped can be assured
Of routing Mára and his horde.
So let the forest glades delight
A wise man for his dwelling’s site.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the forest-dweller’s practice. [74]
56. ix. The tree-root-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a roof” or “I undertake the tree-root-dweller’s practice.”
The tree-root dweller should avoid such trees as a tree near a frontier, a shrine tree, a gum tree, a fruit tree, a bats’ tree, a hollow tree, or a tree standing in the middle of a monastery. He can choose a tree standing on the outskirts of a monastery.
These are the directions.

57. This has three grades too. Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to have a tree that he has chosen tidied up. He can move the fallen leaves with his foot while dwelling there. The medium one is allowed to get it tidied up by those who happen to come along. The mild one can take up residence there after summoning monastery attendants and novices and getting them to clear it up, level it, strew sand and make a fence round with a gate fixed in it. On a special day, a tree-root dweller should sit in some concealed place elsewhere rather than there.

The moment any one of these three makes his abode under a roof, his ascetic practice is broken. The reciters of the Aòguttara say that it is broken as soon as he knowingly meets the dawn under a roof. This is the breach in this instance.

58. The benefits are these. He practices in conformity with the dependence, because of the words “The going forth by depending on the root of a tree as an abode” (Vin I 58, 96); it is a requisite recommended by the Blessed One thus “Valueless, easy to get, and blameless” (A II 26); perception of impermanence is aroused through seeing the continual alteration of young leaves; avarice about abodes and love of [building] work are absent; he dwells in the company of deities; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.

59.
The Blessed One praised roots of trees
As one of the dependencies (Vin I 58);
Can he that loves secludedness
Find such another dwelling place?
Secluded at the roots of trees
And guarded well by deities
He lives in true devotedness
Nor covets any dwelling place. [75]
And when the tender leaves are seen
Bright red at first, then turning green,
And then to yellow as they fall,
He sheds belief once and for all
In permanence. Tree roots have been
Bequeathed by him; secluded scene
No wise man will disdain at all
For contemplating [rise and fall].

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the tree-root-dweller’s practice.

60. x. The open-air-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse a roof and a tree root” or “I undertake the open-air-dweller’s practice.”

An open-air dweller is allowed to enter the Uposatha-house for the purpose of hearing the Dhamma or for the purpose of the Uposatha. If it rains while he is inside, he can go out when the rain is over instead of going out while it is still raining. He is allowed to enter the eating hall or the fire room in order to do the duties, or to go under a roof in order to ask elder bhikkhus in the eating hall about a meal, or when teaching and taking lessons, or to take beds, chairs, etc., inside that have been wrongly left outside. If he is going along a road with a requisite belonging to a senior and it rains, he is allowed to go into a wayside rest house. If he has nothing with him, he is not allowed to hurry in order to get to a rest house but he can go at his normal pace and enter it and stay there as long as it rains. These are the directions for it. And the same rule applies to the tree-root dweller too.

61. This has three grades too. Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to live near a tree or a rock or a house. He should make a robe-tent right out in the open and live in that. The medium one is allowed to live near a tree or a rock or a house so long as he is not covered by them. The mild one is allowed these: a [rock] overhang without a drip-ledge cut in it, [15] a hut of branches, cloth stiffened with paste, and a tent treated as a fixture, that has been left by field watchers, and so on. The moment any one of these three goes under a roof or to a tree root to dwell there,[76] his ascetic practice is broken. The reciters of the Aòguttara say that it is broken as soon as he knowingly meets the dawn there. This is the breach in this case.
62.  The benefits are these: the impediment of dwellings is severed; stiffness and torpor are expelled; his conduct deserves the praise “Like deer the bhikkhus live unattached and homeless” (S I 199); he is detached; he is [free to go in] any direction; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.
63.
The open air provides a life
That aids the homeless bhikkhu’s strife,
Easy to get, and leaves his mind
Alert as a deer, so he shall find
Stiffness and torpor brought to halt.
Under the star-bejewelled vault
The moon and sun furnish his light,
And concentration his delight.
The joy seclusion’s savour gives
He shall discover soon who lives
In open air; and that is why
The wise prefer the open sky.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the open-air-dweller’s practice.
64. xi. The charnel-ground-dweller’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse what is not a charnel ground” or “I undertake the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice.”

Now, the charnel-ground dweller should not live in some place just because the people who built the village have called it “the charnel ground” for it is not a charnel ground unless a dead body has been burnt on it. But as soon as one has been burnt on it, it becomes a charnel ground. And even if it has been neglected for a dozen years, it is so still.
65. One who dwells there should not be the sort of person who gets walks, pavilions, etc., built, has beds and chairs set out and drinking and washing water kept ready, and preaches Dhamma; for this ascetic practice is a momentous thing. Whoever goes to live there should be diligent. And he should first inform the senior elder of the Order or the king’s local representative in order to prevent trouble. When he walks up and down, he should do so looking at the pyre with half an eye. [77] On his way to the charnel ground he should avoid the main roads and take a by-path. He should define all the objects [there] while it is day, so that they will not assume frightening shapes for him at night. Even if non-human beings wander about screeching, he must not hit them with anything. It is not allowed to miss going to the charnel ground even for a single day. The reciters of the Aòguttara say that after spending the middle watch in the charnel ground he is allowed to leave in the last watch. He should not take such foods as sesame flour, pease pudding, fish, meat, milk, oil, sugar, etc., which are liked by non-human beings. He should not enter the homes of families.
16
These are the
directions
for it.

66. This has three grades too. Herein, one who is strict should live where there are always burnings and corpses and mourning. The medium one is allowed to live where there is one of these three. The mild one is allowed to live in a place that possesses the bare characteristics of a charnel ground already stated. When any one of these three makes his abode in some place not a charnel ground, his ascetic practice is broken. It is on the day on which he does not go to the charnel ground, the Aòguttara reciters say. This is the breach in this case.
67. The benefits are these. He acquires mindfulness of death; he lives diligently; the sign of foulness is available (see Ch. VI); greed for sense desires is removed; he constantly sees the body’s true nature; he has a great sense of urgency; he abandons vanity of health, etc.; he vanquishes fear and dread (MN 4); non-human beings respect and honour him; he lives in conformity with [the principles of] fewness of wishes, and so on.

68.
Even in sleep the dweller in a charnel ground shows naught
Of negligence, for death is ever present to his thought;
He may be sure there is no lust after sense pleasure preys
Upon his mind, with many corpses present to his gaze.
Rightly he strives because he gains a sense of urgency,
While in his search for final peace he curbs all vanity.
Let him that feels a leaning to Nibbána in his heart
Embrace this practice for it has rare virtues to impart.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the charnel-ground dweller’s practice. [78]
69. xii. The any-bed-user’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse greed for resting places” or “I undertake the any-bed-user’s practice.”
The any-bed user should be content with whatever resting place he gets thus:
“This falls to your lot.” He must not make anyone else shift [from his bed]. These are the directions
.
70. This has three grades too. Herein, one who is strict is not allowed to ask about the resting place that has fallen to his lot: “Is it far?” or “Is it too near?” or “Is it infested by non-human beings, snakes, and so on?” or “Is it hot?” or “Is it cold?”. The medium one is allowed to ask, but not to go and inspect it. The mild one is allowed to inspect it and, if he does not like it, to choose another. As soon as greed for resting places arises in any one of these three, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
71. The benefits are these. The advice “He should be content with what he gets” (J-a I 476; Vin IV 259) is carried out; he regards the welfare of his fellows in the life of purity; he gives up caring about inferiority and superiority; approval and disapproval are abandoned; the door is closed against excessive wishes; he lives in conformity with [the principles] of fewness of wishes, and so on.

72.
One vowed to any bed will be
Content with what he gets, and he
Can sleep in bliss without dismay
On nothing but a spread of hay.
He is not eager for the best,
No lowly couch does he detest,
He aids his young companions too
That to the monk’s good life are new.
So for a wise man to delight
In any kind of bed is right;
A Noble One this custom loves
As one the sages’ Lord approves.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and benefits, in the case of the any-bed-user’s practice.
73. xiii. The sitter’s practice is undertaken with one of the following statements: “I refuse lying down” or “I undertake the sitter’s practice.” The sitter can get up in any one of three watches of the night and walk up and down: for lying down is the only posture not allowed. These are the directions. [79]

74. This has three grades too. Herein, one who is strict is not allowed a back-rest or cloth band or binding-strap [to prevent falling while asleep]. [17]
The medium one is allowed any one of these three. The mild one is allowed a back-rest, a cloth band, a binding-strap, a cushion, a “five-limb” and a “seven-limb.” A “five-limb” is [a chair] made with [four legs and] a support for the back. A “seven-limb” is one made with [four legs,] a support for the back and an [arm] support on each side. They made that, it seems, for the Elder Pìþhábhaya (Abhaya of the Chair). The elder became a non-returner, and then attained Nibbána. As soon as any one of these three lies down, his ascetic practice is broken. This is the breach in this instance.
75. The benefits are these. The mental shackle described thus, “He dwells indulging in the pleasure of lying prone, the pleasure of lolling, the pleasure of torpor” (M I 102), is severed; his state is suitable for devotion to any meditation subject; his deportment inspires confidence; his state favours the application of energy; he develops the right practice.
76.
The adept that can place crosswise
His feet to rest upon his thighs
And sit with back erect shall make
Foul Mára’s evil heart to quake.
No more in supine joys to plump
And wallow in lethargic dump;
Who sits for rest and finds it good
Shines forth in the Ascetics’ Wood.
The happiness and bliss it brings
Has naught to do with worldly things;
So must the sitter’s vow befit
The manners of a man of wit.

This is the commentary on the undertaking, directions, grades, breach, and
benefits, in the case of the sitter’s practice.

77. Now, there is the commentary according to the stanza:
(4) As to the profitable triad,
(5) “Ascetic” and so on distinguished,
(6) As to groups, and also (7) singly,
The exposition should be known (see §3).

78.
4. Herein, as to the profitable triad: (Dhs, p.1) all the ascetic practices, that is to say, those of trainers, ordinary men, and men whose cankers have been destroyed, may be either profitable or [in the Arahant’s case] indeterminate. [80] No ascetic practice is unprofitable.
But if someone should say: There is also an unprofitable ascetic practice because of the words “One of evil wishes, a prey to wishes, becomes a forest dweller” (A III 219), etc., he should be told: We have not said that he does not live in the forest with unprofitable consciousness. Whoever has his dwelling in the forest is a forest dweller; and he may be one of evil wishes or of few wishes. But, as it was said above (§11), they “are the practices (aòga) of a bhikkhu who is ascetic (dhuta) because he has shaken off (dhuta) defilement by undertaking one or other of them. Or the knowledge that has got the name “ascetic” (dhuta) because it shakes off (dhunana) defilement is a practice (aòga) belonging to these, thus they are “ascetic practices” (dhutaòga). Or alternatively, they are ascetic (dhuta) because they shake off (niddhunana) opposition, and they are practices (aòga) because they are a way (paþipatti).” Now, no one called “ascetic” on account of what is unprofitable could have these as his practices; nor does what is unprofitable shake off anything so that those things to which it belonged as a practice could be called “ascetic practices.” And what is unprofitable does not both shake off cupidity for robes, etc., and become the practice of the way. Consequently it was rightly said that no ascetic practice is unprofitable.

79. And those who hold that an ascetic practice is outside the profitable triad [18]
have no ascetic practice as regards meaning. Owing to the shaking off of what is non-existent could it be called an ascetic practice? Also there are the words “Proceeded to undertake the ascetic qualities” (Vin III 15), and it follows
[19]
that those words are contradicted. So that should not be accepted.
This, in the first place, is the commentary on the profitable triad.
80.
5. As to “ascetic and so on distinguished,” the following things should be understood, that is to say, ascetic, a preacher of asceticism, ascetic states, ascetic practices, and for whom the cultivation of ascetic practices is suitable.
81. Herein, ascetic means either a person whose defilements are shaken off, or a state that entails shaking off defilements.
A
preacher of asceticism: one is ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism, another is not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism, another is neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism, and another is both ascetic and a preacher of asceticism.
82. Herein, one who has shaken off his defilements with an ascetic practice but does not advise and instruct another in an ascetic practice, like the Elder Bakkula, is “ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism,” according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Bakkula was ascetic but not a preacher of asceticism.”
One who [81] has not shaken off his own defilements but only advises and instructs another in an ascetic practice, like the Elder Upananda, is “not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism,” according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Upananda son of the Sakyans was not ascetic but a preacher of asceticism.”
One who has failed in both, like Lá¿udáyin, is “neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism,” according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Lá¿udáyin was neither ascetic nor a preacher of asceticism.

One who has succeeded in both, like the General of the Dhamma, is “both ascetic and a preacher of asceticism,” according as it is said: “Now, the venerable Sáriputta was ascetic and a preacher of asceticism.”
83.
Ascetic states
: the five states that go with the volition of an ascetic practice, that
is to say, fewness of wishes, contentment, effacement, seclusion, and that specific quality
20
are called “ascetic states’ because of the words “Depending on fewness of wishes” (A III 219), and so on.
84. Herein,
fewness of wishes
and
contentment
are non-greed.
Effacement
and
seclusion
belong to the two states, non-greed and non-delusion. That specific quality is knowledge. Herein, by means of non-greed a man shakes off greed for things that are forbidden. By means of non-delusion he shakes off the delusion that hides the dangers in those same things. And by means of non-greed he shakes off indulgence in pleasure due to sense desires that occurs under the heading of using what is allowed. And by means of non-delusion he shakes off indulgence in self-mortification that occurs under the heading of excessive effacement in the ascetic practices. That is why these states should be understood as “ascetic states.”
85.
Ascetic practices: these should be understood as the thirteen, that is to say, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice
...
the sitter’s practice, which have already been described as to meaning and as to characteristic, and so forth.
86.
For whom the cultivation of ascetic practices is suitable: [they are suitable] for one of greedy temperament and for one of deluded temperament. Why? Because the cultivation of ascetic practices is both a difficult progress
21
and an abiding in effacement; and greed subsides with the difficult progress, while delusion is got rid of in those diligent by effacement. Or the cultivation of the forest-dweller’s practice and the tree-root-dweller’s practice here are suitable for one of hating temperament; for hate too subsides in one who dwells there without coming into conflict.
This is the commentary “as to ‘ascetic’ and so on distinguished.” [82]

87.
6. and 7. As to groups and also singly
. Now,
6.
as to groups
: these ascetic practices
are in fact only eight, that is to say, three principal and five individual practices.
Herein, the three, namely, the house-to-house-seeker’s practice, the one-sessioner’s practice, and the open-air-dweller’s practice, are principal practices. For one who keeps the house-to-house-seeker’s practice will keep the alms-food-eater’s practice; and the bowl-food-eater’s practice and the later-food-refuser’s practice will be well kept by one who keeps the one-sessioner’s practice. And what need has one who keeps the open-air-dweller’s practice to keep the tree-root-dweller’s practice or the any-bed-user’s practice? So there are these three principal practices that, together with the five individual practices, that is to say, the forest-dweller’s practice, the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice, the triple-robe-wearer’s practice, the sitter’s practice, and the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice, come to eight only.
88. Again they come to four, that is to say, two connected with robes, five connected with alms food, five connected with the resting place, and one connected with energy. Herein, it is the sitter’s practice that is connected with energy; the rest are obvious.
Again they all amount to two only, since twelve are dependent on requisites and one on energy. Also they are two according to what is and what is not to be cultivated. For when one cultivating an ascetic practice finds that his meditation subject improves, he should cultivate it; but when he is cultivating one and finds that his meditation subject deteriorates, he should not cultivate it. But when he finds that, whether he cultivates one or not, his meditation subject only improves and does not deteriorate, he should cultivate them out of compassion for later generations. And when he finds that, whether he cultivates them or not, his meditation subject does not improve, he should still cultivate them for the sake of acquiring the habit for the future. So they are of two kinds as what is and what is not to be cultivated.
89. And all are of one kind as volition. For there is only one ascetic practice, namely, that consisting in the volition of undertaking. Also it is said in the Commentary: “It is the volition that is the ascetic practice, they say.”
90. 7. Singly: with thirteen for bhikkhus, eight for bhikkhunìs, twelve for novices, seven for female probationers and female novices, and two for male and female lay followers, there are thus forty-two.
91. If there is a charnel ground in the open that complies with the forest-dweller’s practice, one bhikkhu is able to put all the ascetic practices into effect simultaneously. But the two, namely, the forest-dweller’s practice and the later-food-refuser’s practice, are forbidden to bhikkhunìs by training precept. [83] And it is hard for them to observe the three, namely, the open-air-dweller’s practice, the tree-root-dweller’s practice, and the charnel-ground-dweller’s practice, because a bhikkhunì is not allowed to live without a companion, and it is hard to find a female companion with like desire for such a place, and even if available, she would not escape having to live in company. This being so, the purpose of cultivating the ascetic practice would scarcely be served. It is because they are reduced by five owing to this inability to make use of certain of them that they are to be understood as eight only for bhikkhunìs.

92. Except for the triple-robe-wearer’s practice all the other twelve as stated should be understood to be for novices, and all the other seven for female probationers and female novices. The two, namely, the one-sessioner’s practice and the bowl-food-eater’s practice, are proper for male and female lay followers to employ. In this way there are two ascetic practices. This is the commentary “as to groups and also singly.”

93. And this is the end of the treatise on the ascetic practices to be undertaken for the purpose of perfecting those special qualities of fewness of wishes, contentment, etc., by means of which there comes about the cleansing of virtue as described in the Path of Purification, which is shown under the three headings of virtue, concentration, and understanding, contained in the stanza, “When a wise man, established well in virtue” (I.1).

The second chapter called “The Description of the Ascetic Practices” in the Path of Purification composed for the purpose of gladdening good people.



1. Nibbacana—”derivative name (or verbal derivative)”; gram. term not in PED; M-a I 61,105; Vism XVI.16.
2. Patati—”to gather (or to wander)”: not in PED.
3. Avakhaóðana—”hiatus” and dána—”gap” : not in PED.

4. Such references to “the Commentary” are to the old Sinhalese commentary, no longer extant, from which Bhadantácariya Buddhaghosa drew his material

5. “‘Ekasaògìtika’: one who knows one of the five collections (nikáya) beginning with the Collection of Long Discourses (Dìgha Nikáya). (Vism-mhþ 76)”
6. “That elder, it seems, was a sitter, but no one knew it. Then one night the other saw him by the light of a flash of lightning sitting up on his bed. He asked, ‘Are you a sitter, venerable sir?’ Out of fewness of wishes that his ascetic practice should get known, the elder lay down. Afterwards he undertook the practice anew. So the story has come down. (Vism-mhþ 77)

7. “The name of a street in Mahágáma (S.E. Sri Lanka). Also in Anurádhapura, they
say” (Vism-mhþ 77).

8. On certain occasions, when the going forth was given by the Buddha with only the words, “Ehi bhikkhu (Come, bhikkhu),” owing to the disciple’s past merit robes appeared miraculously upon him (see e.g. Vin Mahávagga, Kh. 1).

9. Apádana— ”institution (or production),” not in PED.

10. Tatraþþhaka-paccattharaóa— ”a bedspread that remains there”; “A name for what has been determined upon as a bedspread in one’s own resting place or in someone else’s. They say accordingly (it is said in a commentary) that there is no breach of the ascetic practice even when these two, that is, the bedspread and the undyed cloth, are kept as extra robes” (Vism-mhþ 78–79). For tatraþþhaka (fixture) see also §61.

11. “A meal to be given by setting it out in a principal house only.” (Vism-mhþ 79) This meaning of dhura-bhatta not in PED.
12. “Tickets that are not for actual food, but deal with medicine, etc.” (Vism-mhþ 79) Paþikkamana—”refectory” (28) = bojun hal (eating hall) in Sinhalese translation.

13. Sakkará— ”sugar”: spelt sakkhará in PED.

14. Subbata—”truly devoted”: fm. su + vata (having good vows). See also §59.

15. Reading acchinna-mariyádaí with Vism-mhþ, which says: “‘Without a drip-ledge cut (acchinna-mariyádaí)’ means without a drip-ledge (mariyáda) made above, which might come under the heading of a drip-ledge (mariyáda-saòkhepena) made to prevent rain water from coming in. But if the rain water comes under the overhang (pabbhára) and is allowed to go in under it, then this comes under the heading of the open air (abbhokásika-saòkhepa)” (Vism-mhþ 84). This seems to refer to the widespread habit in ancient Sri Lanka of cutting a drip-ledge on overhanging rocks used for bhikkhus’ dwellings so that the rain that falls on top of the rock drips down in front of the space under the overhang instead of trickling down under the rock and wetting the back and floor. Pabbhára in this context is “over hang” rather than “slope.”

16. “He should not go into families’ houses because he smells of the dead and is followed by pisáca goblins” (Vism-mhþ 84).

17. Áyogapatta— ”a binding-strap”: this is probably the meaning. But cf. Vin II 135 and Vin-a 891.

18. For the triads of the Abhidhamma Mátiká (Abhidhamma Schedule) see Ch. XIII, n.20. “‘Those who hold’: a reference to the inhabitants of the Abhayagiri Monastery at Anurádhapura. For they say that ascetic practice is a concept consisting in a name (náma-paññatti). That being so, they could have no meaning of shaking off defilements, or possibility of being undertaken, because in the ultimate sense they would be non- existent [concepts having no existence]” (Vism-mhþ 87). Cf. IV.29.
19. Ápajjati (and its noun ápatti) is the normal word used for undesirable consequences that follow on some unsound logical proposition. See XVI.68f. This meaning is not in PED

20. Idamatthitá — ”that specific quality”: “Owing to these profitable states it exists, (thus it is ‘specific by those’; imehi kusaladhammehi atthi=idam-atthi). The knowledge by means of which one who has gone forth should be established in the refuse-rag-wearer’s practice, etc., and by means of which, on being so instructed one undertakes and persists in the ascetic qualities—that knowledge is idamatthitá”(Vism-mhþ 88). 21. See XXI.117.

Kapitel II
Die asketischen Praktiken[/size]
(Dhutaòga-niddesa)
1.  [59] Nun, während ein Meditierender sich in Tugend übt, sollte er daran gehen, die asketischen Praktiken auf sich zu nehmen, um jene speziellen Qualitäten von Wenigkeit von Wünschen, Zufriedenheit und so weiter zu perfektionieren, durch welche die Tugend in der Weise wie beschrieben gereinigt wird. Denn wenn seine Tugend solchermaßen von Befleckungen rein gewaschen ist, durch das Wasser solcher speziellen Qualitäten wie Wenigkeit von Wünschen, Zufriedenheit, Zurückhaltung, Zurückgezogenheit, Loslösung, Energie und bescheidene Notwendigkeiten, wird er gut gereinigt; und seine Entschlüsse (vows) werden ebenfalls erfolgreich sein. Und- so, wenn sein ganzes Verhalten durch die spezielle Qualität der schuldlosen Tugend und Entschlüsse gereinigt ist und er gefestigt ist in den [ersten] dreien der alten Verweilstätten der Edlen, mag er würdig werden, die vierte zu erlangen, genannt “Entzückung an Entwicklung” (A II 27). Wir werden daher die Erklärung der asketischen Praktiken beginnen.
[Die 14 ARTEN DER ASKETISCHEN PRAKTIKEN]
2. Dreizehn Arten von asketischen Praktiken wurden vom Erhabenen für Stammesleute erlaubt, welche die Dinge des Fleisches aufgegeben und ohne Rücksicht auf Körper und Leben begehren, eine Praxis in Übereinstimmung [mit ihrem Ziel] zu unternehmen. Sie sind:
  • die Weggeworfene-Lumpen-Träger-Praxis
  • di Dreifachrobenträger-Praxis,
  • die Almosenesser-Praxis
  • die Haus-zu-Haus-Sucher-Praxis
  • die Eine-Sitzung-Praxis
  • die Almosenschüssel-Esser-Praxis
  • die Spätere-Nahrung-Ablehner-Praxis
  • die Wald-Verweiler-Praxis
  • die Baumwurzel-Verweiler-Praxis
  • die Freie-Luft-Verweiler-Praxis
  • die Leichenplatz-Verweiler-Praxis
  • die Jedes-Bett-Benutzer-Praxis
  • die Sitzer-Praxis
3. Hierin:
(1) In Bezug auf Bedeutung,(2) Characteristik, und so weiter
(3) Die Unternehmung und Anweisungen
Und den Grad, wie auch den Bruch,
Und die Vorteile jeder darüber hinaus,
(4) In Bezug auf die gewinnbringende Dreiergruppe,
(5) "Asketisch" und so weiter bezeichnet,
(6) Und in Bezug auf die Gruppen und auch (7) einzeln,
Sollte die Darstellung gekannt werden. [60]
4. 1. Hierin, in Bezug auf Bedeutung, an erster Stelle
i.  Es ist “weggeworfen” (paísukúla), da, aufgrund seines Auffindens in Weggeworfenem in jedwedem solchen Platz wie einer Straße, einem Leichenplatz, oder einer Müllgrube, es, sozusagen, zum Abfall gehört, im Sinne davon, weggeworfen zu sein an irgendeinem dieser Plätze. Oder alternativ: Wie Abfall gerät es in einen abscheulichen Zustand (PAÍSU viya KUcchitabhávaí ULAti), daher ist es “Weggeworfenes” (paísukúla); es gerät in einen abscheulichen Zustand, ist, was gemeint ist. Das Tragen von Weggeworfenem (Lumpen), welches seinen abgeleiteten Namen[1] in dieser Weise erhalten hat, ist die “Lumpen-[Gewand-Tragen]”-Praxis (paísukúla). Das ist seine Gewohnheit, daher ist er ein “Lumpen[gewand]träger” (paísukúlika). Die Praxis (aòga) des Lumpengewand[gewand]trägers ist die “Lumpen[gewand]träger-Praxis” (paísukúlikaòga). Es ist die Handlung, welche die “Praxis” genannt wird. Daher sollte es verstanden werden als ein Begriff für das Ausführen dessen, wodurch man ein Lumpen[gewand]träger wird.
ii. In derselben Weise hat er die Gewohnheit, die dreifache Robe (ti-cìvara) [zu tragen] — in anderen Worten, den Umhang aus Flicken, das obere Gewand, und das innere Kleid — daher ist er ein “Dreifachrobenträger” (tecìvarika). Seine Praxis wird die “Dreifachrobenträger-Praxis“ genannt.
5. iii. Das Weggeworfene (páta) an Brocken (pióða) von materieller Nahrung (ámisa) genannt Almosen (bhikkhá) ist “Almosenspeise” (pióðapáta); das Fallen (nipatana) in die Schüssel von Klumpen (pióða) gegeben von anderen, ist, was gemeint ist. Er erhält die Almosenspeise (das Fallen von Klumpen), er sucht danach, in dem er solch und solche eine Familie besucht, daher wird er ein “Almosenspeiseesser” (pióðapátika) genannt. Oder sein Entschluss ist, die Brocken (pióða) zu sammeln (patituí)[2] , daher ist er ein “Brockensammler” (pióðapátin). Zu “sammeln” ist, danach zu wandern. Ein Brockensammler “Brockensammler” (pióðapátin) ist das gleiche wie ein “Almosenspeiseesser” (pióðapátika).
Die Praxis des Almosenspeiseessers ist “Almosenspeiseesser-Praxis.”
6.  iv. Es ist ein Brauch (avakhaóðana), der eine “Lücke” (dána) genannt wird.3
Es ist entfernt (apeta) von der Lücke, daher wird es “lückenlos” (apadána) genannt; Die Bedeutung ist, es ist ohne Auszeit.
Es ist zusammen mit (saha) was lückenlos (apadána) ist, daher ist es “mit dem Lückenlosen” (sapadána); ohne eine Pause von Haus zu Haus — ist, was gemeint ist. Sein Brauch ist, darauf zu wandern, was-mit-dem-lückenlosen-ist, daher ist er ein “lückenloser Wanderer” (sapadána-cárin). Ein lückenloser Wanderer ist dasselbe wie ein “Haus-zu-Haus-Sucher” (sapadána-cárika). Seine Praxis ist die “Haus-zu-Haus-Sucher-Praxis”.
7. v. Essen in einer Sitzung ist “Eine-Sitzung”. Er hat diese Gewohnheit, daher ist er ein “Einsitzer”. Seine Praxis ist die “Einsitzerpraxis“.
vi. Almosen (pióða) in einer Schüssel (patta) nur aufgrund der Ablehnung eines zweiten Gefäßes ist  “Schüssel-Almosen” (patta-pióða). Nun “Schüssel-Almosen” (patta-pióða) den Namen für das Nehmen von Almosenspeise in der Schale zu machen: Schüsselalmosenspeise ist seine Gewohnheit, daher ist er ein “Schüssel-Speisen-Esser” (pattapióðika). Seine Praxis ist die “Schüssel-Speisen-Esser-Praxis”.
8. vii. “No” (khalu) ist ein Partikel im Sinne einer Ablehnung. [61] Speise (bhatta), die von jemandem später erhalten wurde, nachdem er gezeigt hat, dass er schon zufrieden ist, wird “Später-Speise” (pacchá-bhatta) genannt. Das Essen dieser späteren Speise wird “Später-Speise-Essen” genannt. Das macht “Später-Speise” (pacchá-bhatta) zum Namengeber für das Später-Speise-Essen: Später-Speise ist seine Gewohnheit, daher ist er ein “Später-Speise-[Ess-]er” (pacchábhattika). Nicht ein Später-Speise-Esser ist er ein “Nicht-Später-Speise-Esser” (khalu-pacchábhattika), [das heißt, ein “Später-Speise-Ablehner”]. Dies ist der Name für einen, der als eine Gewohnheit zusätzliche Speise ablehnt. Aber es wird im Kommentar[4] gesagt: “Khalu ist eine bestimmte Art von Vogel. Wenn er eine Frucht in seinen Schnabel genommen hat und diese herunter fällt, isst er sie nicht mehr. Dieser [Bhikkhu] ist wie das.” Daher ist er “ein Später-Speisen-Ablehner” khalu-pacchá-bhattika). Seine Praxis ist die “Später-Speisen-Ablehner-Praxis”.
9. viii. Seine Gewohnheit ist Verweilen im Wald, daher ist er ein “Waldverweiler”. Seine Praxis ist die “Waldverweiler-Praxis.”
ix. Verweilen an der Wurzel eines Baumes ist “Baumwurzel-Verweilen.” Er hat diese Gewohnheit, daher ist er ein “Baumwurzel-Verweiler”. Die Praxis des Baumwurzelverweilers ist die “Baumwurzelverweiler-Praxis”.
x., xi. Ebenso mit dem Freie-Luft-Verweiler und Leichenplatz-Verweiler.
10. xii. Nur, was verteilt wurde (yad eva santhata) ist “wie verteilt” (yathásanthata). Dies ist ein Begriff für den Ruheplatz, der zu erst so zugewiesen wurde: “Dieser fällt dir zu.” Er hat die Gewohnheit, in diesem, wie zugewiesen zu verweilen, daher ist er ein “Wie-zugewiesen-Benutzer” (yathásanthatika), [das heißt, ein “Jedes-Bett-Benutzer”]. Seine Praxis ist die “Jedes-Bett-Benutzer-Praxis”.
xiii. Er hat die Gewohnheit, sich im Sitzen [in der Position, wenn er ruht] zu halten, ablehnend, sich hinzulegen, daher ist er ein “Sitzer.” Seine Praxis ist die “Sitzer-Praxis“.
11. All diese, allerdings, sind die Praktiken (aòga) eines Bhikkhu, der ein Asket (dhuta) ist, weil er Befleckung abgeschüttelt (dhuta) hat, indem er die eine oder andere davon aufnimmt. Oder das Wissen, das den Namen “asketisch” (dhuta) bekommen hat, weil es Befleckungen abschüttelt (dhunana) ist eine Praxis ( aòga), die zu diesen gehört, daher sind sie “asketische Praktiken” (dhutaòga). Oder alternativ, sie sind asketisch (dhuta), weil sie (niddhunana) Opposition abschütteln, und sie sind Praktiken (aòga), weil sie ein Weg (paþipatti) sind.
Dies, zu erst, ist, wie die Exposition hier verstanden werden sollte, in Bezug auf die Bedeutung.
12. 2. Alle von diesen haben als ihre Charakteristik die Absicht des Unternehmens. Denn es wird gesagt [im Kommentar]: “Er, der die Unternehmung aufnimmt, ist eine Person. Das, wodurch er die Unternehmung macht, sind Zustände des Bewusstseins, und Bewusstseins-Begleitmerkmale. He who does the undertaking is a person. Die Absicht in Aufnehmen des Unternehmens ist die asketische Praxis. Was es ablehnt, ist die Instanz.” Alle haben die Funktion, Begierde zu eliminieren, und sie manifestieren sich mit der Produktion von Nichtbegierde. Als die nächste Ursache haben sie die edlen Zustände, bestehend aus Wenigkeit von Wünschen, und so weiter. [62] Dies ist, wie die Exposition hier in Bezug auf Charakteristik und so weiter verstanden werden sollte.

1. Nibbacana—”abgeleiteter Name (oder verbale Ableitung)”; gramm. Term nicht im PED; M-a I 61,105; Vism XVI.16.
2. Patati—”sammeln (oder wandern)”: nicht im PED.
3. Avakhaóðana—”Pause” und dána—”Lücke”: nicht im PED
4. Solche Referenzen zu “dem Kommentar” sind zu den alten singhalesischen Kommentaren, nicht mehr von Bestand, aus welchen Bhadantácariya Buddhaghosa sein Material entnahm.[/color]

* Moritz : Nur der erste Abschnitt mitsamt etwas ungehobelter Übersetzung bisher bis hier. Es ist etwas aufwändig, das Stück für Stück aus dem PDF zu kopieren. Sorry wegen der schlechten Sonderzeichen. Werde wenn wohl ohne Übersetzung versuchen, weiter zu führen. Gerade zu viel um die Ohren (oder zwischen diesen).

_/\_
« Last Edit: July 23, 2014, 11:33:30 PM by Moritz »

Offline Kusaladhamma

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #2 on: July 19, 2014, 08:15:52 AM »
Als exakteste Übersetzung des Visuddhimagga gilt heute die Übersetzung des ehrwürdigen Nyanatiloka (überarbeitet vom ehrwürdigen Nyanaponika) und diese findet man hier Visuddhi Magga II "Die Läuterungsübungen (dhutanga)"

Man erspart sich den Umweg vom Pali über Englisch ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
Da die zur Zeit vorliegenden Übersetzungen ins Englische oftmals nicht als ganz so exakt gelten,
besteht noch mehr die Möglichkeit zur Ungenauigkeit, wenn man dann ins Deutsche übersetzt.

Der ehrwürdige Nyanatiloka (und der ehrwürdige Nyanaponika) haben direkt mit großer Kenntnis vom Pali ins Deutsche übersetzt.

Dies nur als Anmerkung und soll keinen davon abhalten das zu tun was er möchte.

 _/\_

Offline Johann

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #3 on: July 19, 2014, 11:14:55 AM »
Wohh! sadhu! Und ein persönliches Danke, werter Moritz.

Danke auch für's Teilen, werte Kusaladhamma.


* Johann:  Offtopic herausgeschnitten
« Last Edit: December 13, 2015, 02:40:40 PM by Johann »
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Moritz

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #4 on: July 24, 2014, 09:18:10 AM »
Ich habe den Rest des Dutanga-Abschnitts im ersten Posts auf Englisch ergänzt.
Wegen der Länge tritt wohl irgendwo ein Formatierungsfehler auf, dass es rechtsbündig wird. Vielleicht werde ich es noch einmal ordentlicher in mehrere Einzelposts unterteilen.

Sorry wegen der Verzögerung. Dank an Kusaladhamma für Link zur deutschen Version.
Vielleicht versuche ich es gleich, abschnittsweise, Deutsch und Englisch aus den verschiedenen Quellen nebeneinander zu zitieren.

_/\_

Offline Johann

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #5 on: July 24, 2014, 09:42:59 AM »
sadhu!
* Johann meint., das es sich vielleicht um versteckte zeichen handelt, oder um eine zeichenserie, die einen tag erzeugt. Mit der Länge hat es sich nicht zu tun.

Im dreirobenteil kommt übrigens die Quelle der in Thailand und Kambodscha üblichen " Unterwäsche" vor, das Achsel- oder Schulter tuch, das eine Handspanne breit und drei unterarmlängen lang sein darf.
die Quelle des  brauches heute ist hier im Visuddhimagga zu finden und an keiner anderen Stelle, soweit mir bekannt und erfragt, zu finden. Die Einträger Unterleibchen, nicht selten mit taschen und Zipps versehen, werden von den meisten Mönchen auswärts schlicht und berechtigt als Haushälterkleidung (weil zugeschnitten, wie Gewand genäht) angesehen. Üblich ist hier (unter Vinayamönchen) unter den normalen Klostermönchen, ein etwa doppelt so breites etwas längeres Tuch, mit einem Bändchen unter der rechten Achsel gesichert, unter der Robe bzw. Als sozusagen, Hausgewand zu tragen.
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Johann

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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #6 on: March 07, 2015, 12:37:38 PM »
Hier ein Sutta aus der Suttasammlung, das vielleicht etwas die Verbindung zwiachen den Ergaenzenden Kommentaren undwie dem Visudhamagga und den klaren Texten der alten Ueberlieferungen zum Thema herstellt:
Ariya-vamsa Sutta: Die Lehrrede über die Gepflogenheiten der Noblen

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa



Diese vier Gepflogenheiten der Noblen, ursprünglich, seit langem bestehend, traditionell, altertümlich, unverfälscht, unverfälscht von Beginn an, sind nicht offen für Verdächtigung, werden niemals für Verdächtigung offen sein und sind unverworfen von wissensfähigen Besinnlichen und Brahmanen. Welche vier?

Da ist der Fall, in dem ein Bhikkhu völlig zufrieden mit jeglichem alten Robenstoff ist. Er spricht im Lob über die Genügsamkeit mit jeglichem alten Robenstoff. Er tut nichts unziemliches oder unpassendes für einen Robenstoff. Keinen Stoff bekommend, ist er nicht aufgewühlt. Stoff bekommend, nutzt er ihn, nicht gebunden daran, unvernarrt, schuldlos, die Auswirkungen (von Anhaftung an ihn) sehend, und bedenkt das Entkommen von diesen. Wegen seiner Genügsamkeit mit jeglichem alten Robenstoff, verherrlicht er weder sich, noch verunglimpft er damit andere. In diesem ist er geschickt, kraftvoll, wachsam und achtsam. Dieses, Bhikkhus, wird ein Bhikkhu, gefestigt in der altertümlichen, ursprünglichen Gepflogenheit der Noblen genannt.

Weiters ist der Bhikkhu völlig zufrieden mit jeglicher alten Almosenspeise. Er spricht im Lob über die Genügsamkeit mit jeglicher alten Almosenspeise. Er tut nichts unziemliches oder unpassendes für eine Almosenspeise. Keine Almosenspeise bekommend, ist er nicht aufgewühlt. Almosenspeise bekommend, nutzt er sie, nicht gebunden daran, unvernarrt, schuldlos, die Auswirkungen (von Anhaftung an ihn) sehend und bedenkt das Entkommen von diesen. Wegen seiner Genügsamkeit mit jeglicher alten Almosenspeise, verherrlicht er weder sich, noch verunglimpft er damit andere. In diesem ist er geschickt, kraftvoll, wachsam und achtsam. Dieses, Bhikkhus, wird ein Bhikkhu, gefestigt in der altertümlichen, ursprünglichen Gepflogenheit der Noblen genannt.Weiters ist der Bhikkhu völlig zufrieden mit jeglicher alten Unterkunft. Er spricht im Lob über die Genügsamkeit mit jeglicher alten Unterkunft. Er tut nichts unziemliches oder unpassendes für eine Unterkunft. Keine Unterkunft bekommend, ist er nicht aufgewühlt. Unterkunft bekommend, nutzt er sie, nicht gebunden daran, unvernarrt, schuldlos, die Auswirkungen (von Anhaftung an ihn) sehend und bedenkt das Entkommen von diesen. Wegen seiner Genügsamkeit mit jeglicher alten Unterkunft verherrlicht er weder sich, noch verunglimpft er damit andere. In diesem ist er geschickt, kraftvoll, wachsam und achtsam. Dieses, Bhikkhus, wird ein Bhikkhu, gefestigt in der altertümlichen, ursprünglichen Gepflogenheit der Noblen genannt.Weiters findet der Bhikkhu Freude und Verzückung im Entwickeln (geschickter Qualitäten), findet Freude und Verzückung im Ablegen (ungeschickter Qualitäten). Wegen seiner Freude und Verzückung am Entwickeln und Ablegen, verherrlicht er weder sich, noch verunglimpft er damit andere. In diesem ist er geschickt, kraftvoll, wachsam und achtsam. Dieses, Bhikkhus, wird ein Bhikkhu, gefestigt in der altertümlichen, ursprünglichen Gepflogenheit der Noblen genannt.Diese sind die vier Gepflogenheiten der Noblen, ursprünglich, seit langem bestehend, traditionell, altertümlich, unverfälscht, unverfälscht von Beginn an, die nicht offen für Verdächtigung sind, niemals für Verdächtigung offen sein werden, und unverworfen von wissensfähigen Besinnlichen und Brahmanen.Und weiters besiegt ein Bhikkhu, bestückt mit diesen vier Gepflogenheiten der Noblen, wenn er im Osten lebt, Unbehagen und wird von Unbehagen nicht besiegt. Wenn er im Westen... im Norden... im Süden lebt, besiegt er Unbehagen und wird von Unbehagen nicht besiegt. Warum ist das? Weil der Weise beides, Behagen und Unbehagen, erträgt.Dies wurde vom Befreiten gesprochen. Dies gesagt, sprach er weiter:

Unbehagen besiegt den Erleuchteten nicht.    Unbehagen drückt ihn nicht. Er besiegt Unbehagen,    weil er es erträgt. Alle Taten abgeworfen:    wer könnte ihn behindern? Wie ein Schmuck aus feinstem Gold:    Wer ist gerüstet, Fehler an ihm zu finden? Selbst die Devas preisen ihn,    selbst von Brahma er gepriesen ist.
Aa
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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #7 on: March 10, 2015, 09:33:43 AM »
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Antw:Tudong - Dutanga - Bhaya-bherava Sutta: Angst und Terror
« Reply #8 on: October 12, 2015, 10:39:31 AM »

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa

Bhaya-bherava Sutta: Angst und Terror

Ich habe gehört, daß der Befreite zu einem Anlaß nahe Savatthi, in Jetas Hain, Anathapindikas Kloster verweilte. Da ging Janussonin, der Brahmane zum Befreiten, und mit Ankunft, tauschte er zuvorkommende Grüße mit Ihn aus. Nach dem Austausch von freundlichen Grüßen und Höflichkeiten, setzte er sich an eine Seite. Als er dort saß, sagte er zum Befreiten: "Meister Gotama, die Söhne von guten Familien, welche aus dem Hausleben, fort in die Hauslosigkeit, aus Überzeugung in den Meister Gotama, gezogen sind: ist Meister Gotama deren Anführer? Ist Meister Gotama deren Helfer? Ist Meister Gotama deren Anreger? Nehmen diese Meister Gotama als ihr Vorbild?"

"Ja, Brahmane, so ist es. Die Söhne aus guten Familien, welche aus dem Hausleben, fort in die Hauslosigkeit, aus Überzeugung in mich, gezogen sind: Ich bin deren Anführer. Ich bin deren Helfer. Ich bin deren Anreger. Sie nehmen mich als ihr Vorbild."

"Aber, Meister Gotama, es ist nicht leicht, abgeschiedene Wald- oder Wildnisverweilstätten, zu ertragen. Es ist nicht leicht, Zurückgezogenheit zu erhalten, nicht leicht, es zu genießen, alleine zu sein. Der Wald, so wie er wäre, plündert den Geist eines Bhikkhus, der noch keine Konzentration erlangt hat."

"Ja, Brahmane, so ist es. Es ist nicht leicht, abgeschiedene Wald- oder Wildnisverweilstätten, zu ertragen. Es ist nicht leicht, Zurückgezogenheit zu erhalten, nicht leicht, es zu genießen, alleine zu ein. Der Wald, so wie er wäre, plündert den Geist eines Bhikkhus, der noch keine Konzentration erlangt hat. Vor meinem Erwachen, als ich noch ein unerwachter Bodhisatta war, kam auch mir der Gedanke auf: 'Es ist nicht leicht, Zurückgezogenheit zu erhalten, nicht leicht, es zu genießen, alleine zu sein. Der Wald, so wie er wäre, plündert den Geist eines Bhikkhus, der noch keine Konzentration erlangt hat.'

"Der Gedanke kam mir auf: 'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die ungereinigt, in deren körperlichen Handlungen sind, zu abgeschiedenen Wald- oder Wildnisverweilstätten flüchten, ist es der Fehler, deren ungereinigter körperlichen Handlungen, daß sie ungeschickter Angst und Terror, Aufkommen geben. Aber es ist nicht der Fall, daß ich ungereinigt in meinen körperlichen Handlungen bin, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte. Ich bin einer dieser Noblen, die gereinigt in deren körperlichen Handlungen sind, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte.' Diese Reinheit, von körperlichen Handlungen, in mir sehend, fühlte ich mich noch unerschrockener, über das Verbleiben in der Wildnis.

"Der Gedanke kam mir auf: "Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die ungereinigt in deren sprachlichen Handlungen... ungereinigt in deren geistigen Handlungen... ungereinigt in deren Lebensunterhalt sind, zu abgeschiedenen Wald- oder Wildnisverweilstätten flüchten, dann ist der Fehler, deren ungereinigter Lebensunterhalt, das sie Angst und Terror, Aufkommen geben. Aber es ist nicht der Fall, daß ich ungereinigt in meinem Lebensunterhalt bin, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte. Ich bin einer dieser Noblen, die gereinigt in deren Lebensunterhalt sind, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte.' Diese Reinheit, des Lebensunterhaltes, in mir sehend, fühlte ich mich noch unerschrockener, über das Verbleiben in der Wildnis.

"Dann kam mir der Gedanke auf: 'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die begehrlich und heftig verlangend nach Sinnesvergnügen sind... ist es nicht der Fall, daß ich begehrlich und heftig verlangend nach Sinnesvergnügen... bin...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die einen Geist von Übelwollen haben, mit zerstörerischer Haltung... ist es nicht der Fall, daß ich einen Geist... habe...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die eingenommen von Faulheit und Trägheit sind... ist es der Fall, das ich frei von Faulheit und Trägheit... bin...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die rastlos und mit einem ungestillten Geist sind... ist des der Fall, daß ich einen gestillten Geist... habe...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die unsicher und zweifelnd sind... ist es der Fall, daß ich über Unsicherheit und Zweifel... hinausgegangen bin...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die sich selbst loben und andere herabsetzten... ist es nicht der Fall, daß ich mich selbst lobe und anderen herabsetzte...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnlichen, die dazu neigen panisch und gequält zu sein... ist es der Fall, daß ich über Schaudern... hinausgegangen bin...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die gierig nach Gewinn, Gaben und Ansehen sind... ist es der Fall, daß ich mit wenig Wünschen... bin...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die faul und leer in Beharrlichkeit sind... ist es der Fall, daß meine Beharrlichkeit... aufgekommen ist...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die durcheinander in deren Achtsamkeit und unwachsam sind... ist es der Fall, daß ich Achtsamkeit... eingerichtet habe...'...

"...'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die unkonzentriert sind, mit zerstreutem Geist... ist es der Fall, daß ich vollkommen in Konzentration... bin...'...

"Der Gedanke kam mir auf: 'Wenn Brahmanen oder Besinnliche, die geifernde Idioten sind, zu abgeschiedenen Wald- oder Wildnisverweilstätten flüchten, ist es der Fehler deren geifernder Idiotie, daß sie ungeschickter Angst und Terror, Aufkommen geben. Aber es ist nicht der Fall, daß ich ein geifender Idiot bin, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte. Ich bin vollkommen in Einsicht. Ich bin einer dieser Noblen, die vollkommen in Einsicht sind, wenn ich zu abgeschiedenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte.' Diese Reinheit, von körperlichen Handlungen, in mir sehend, fühlte ich mich noch unerschrockener über das Verbleiben in der Wildnis.

"Der Gedanke kam mir auf: 'Was wenn ich, in den anerkannten, bestimmten Nächten, wie der achten, vierzehnten und fünfzehnten, der Mond Halbmonate, an einer Art der Platze bleiben würde, die furchtgebietend sind und die Haare zu Berge stehen lassen, wie Parkschreine, Waldschreine und Baumschreine? Vielleicht würde ich Angst und Terror zu sehen bekommen.' So blieb ich zu einer späteren Zeit, an anerkannten, bestimmten Nächten, wie der achten, vierzehnten und fünfzehnten, der Mond Halbmonate, an einer Art der Platze, die furchtgebietend sind und die Haare zu Berge stehen lassen, wie Parkschreine, Waldschreine und Baumschreine. Und während ich dort blieb, würde da ein wildes Tier kommen, oder ein Vogel, würde einen Ast zu Fall bringen, oder der Wind würde die fallenden Blätter zum Rascheln bringen. Der Gedanke würde mir aufkommen: 'Ist dieses aufkommende Angst und Terror?' Dann kam mir der Gedanke auf: 'Warum bleibe ich dabei, auf Angst nur zu erwarten? Was wenn ich Angst und Terror, in welchem Zustand sie aufkommen, bändigen würde?' So wenn Angst und Terror, während ich zurück und vorwärts ging, aufkam, würde ich nicht aufstehen oder hin setzten oder mich hin legen. Ich würde weiter zurück und vorwärts gehen, bis ich diese Angst und Terror gebändigt hatte. Wenn Angst und Terror, während ich saß, auf kam, würde ich nicht mich nicht hinlegen oder aufstehen oder gehen. Ich würde weiter sitzen, bis ich diese Angst und Terror gebändigt hatte. Wenn Angst und Terror, während ich lag, auf kam, würde ich mich nicht aufsetzen oder aufstehen oder gehen. Ich würde weiter liegen, bis ich diese Angst und Terror gebändigt hatte.

"Das sind einige Brahmanen und Besinnliche, Brahmane, welche die Vorstellung von 'Tag' haben, wenn es Nacht ist, und 'Nacht' wenn es Tag ist. Dieses, sage ich Euch, ist deren Sein im Verweilen in Verwirrung. Was mich betrifft, habe ich die Vorstellung von 'Tag', wenn es Tag ist, und von 'Nacht', wenn es Nacht ist. Wenn irgend jemand, wenn rechtens sprechend, sagen würde: 'Ein Wesen, nicht Gegenstand von Verwirrung, ist in der Welt, für den Nutzen und Glück für viele, aus Anteilnahme für die Welt, für das Wohlergehen, Nutzen und Glück von menschlichen und himmlischen Wesen, aufgekommen', würde er rechtens von mir sprechen.

"Unermüdliche Beharrlichkeit war in mir aufgekommen, und nicht durcheinander gebrachte Achtsamkeit eingerichtet. Mein Körper was gestillt und unaufgebracht, mein Geist konzentriert und Eins. Recht zurückgezogen von Sinnlichkeit, zurückgezogen von ungeschickten geistigen Qualitäten, betrat und verweilte ich im ersten Jhana: Verzücken und Wohl, geboren aus Rückzug, begleitet von gerichteten Gedanken und Erwägungen. Mit dem Stillen von gerichteten Gedanken und Erwägungen, betrat und verweilte ich im zweiten Jhana: Verzücken und Wohl, geboren aus Gestilltheit, Einheit des Wesens, frei von gerichteten Gedanken und Erwägungen, innere Sicherheit. Mit dem Schwinden von Verzücken, verblieb ich in Gleichmut, achtsam und wachsam, und körperlich empfindlich gegenüber Wohl. Ich betrat und verweilte im dritten Jhana, von dem die Noblen erklären; 'Gleichmütig und achtsam, hat er einen angenehmen Verbleib'. Mit dem Ablegen von Wohl und Weh, so wie mit dem vorhergehenden Verschwinden von Hochgefühl und Bedrängnis, betrat und verweilte ich im vierten Jhana: Reinheit von Gleichmut und Achtsamkeit, weder Wohl noch Weh.

"Als der Geist in dieser Weise konzentriert, gereinigt, strahlend, tadellos, Trübungen los, geschmeidig, biegsam, bleibend war und Unstörbarkeit erlangte, richtete ich ihn zum Wissen der Wiedererinnerung meiner vergangenen Leben. Ich wiedererinnerte mich meiner vielfältigen vergangenen Leben, d.h. einer Geburt, zwei... fünf, zehn.. fünfzig, einhundert, eintausend, einhunderttausend, vieler Äeons kosmischer Schrumpfung, vieler Äeons kosmischer Ausdehnung: 'Dort hatte ich solchen Namen, gehörte solcher Sippe an, hatte solche Erscheinung. So war meine Nahrung, so meine Erfahrung von Wohl und Weh, so, das Ende meines Lebens. Von diesem Zustand scheidend, kam ich dort wieder auf. Auch dort, hatte ich solch Namen, gehörte solch einer Sippe an, hatte so eine Erscheinung. Solcher Art war meine Nahrung, solcher Art meine Erfahrungen von Wohl und Weh, so, das Ende meines Lebens. Von diesem Zustand scheidend, kam ich hier wieder auf.' So wiedererinnerte ich mich meiner vielfältigen vergangenen Leben, deren Arten und Details.

"Dieses war das erste Wissen, daß ich in der ersten Nachtwache erlangte. Unwissenheit war zerstört; Wissen kam auf; Dunkelheit war zerstört; Licht kam auf, wie es in jemandem passiert, der gewissenhaft, begeistert und entschlossen ist.

"Als der Geist in dieser Weise konzentriert, gereinigt, strahlend, tadellos, Trübungen los, geschmeidig, biegsam, bleibend war und Unstörbarkeit erlangte, richtete ich ihn zum Wissen über das Dahinscheiden und Wiedererscheinen von Lebewesen. Ich saß, mit dem Mittel des himmlischen Auges, gereinigt und das der Menschen übertreffend, Lebewesen dahin scheiden und wieder erscheinen und ich erkannte wie diese minder und überlegen, schön und häßlich, beglückt und unglücklich, im Einklang mit deren Kamma sind: 'Diese Lebewesen, die mit schlechtem Verhalten in Körper, Sprache und Geist waren, welche die Noblen verunglimpften, falsche Ansichten hielten und unter Einfluß von falschen Ansichten, Handlungen unternahmen, mit dem Zerfall des Körpers, mit dem Tod, sind in den Ebenen der Entbehrung wieder erschienen, dem schlechten Bestimmungsort, den niedrigen Reichen, in der Hölle. Aber diese Lebewesen, welche bestückt mit guten körperlichem, sprachlichem und geistigem Verhalten waren, welche rechte Ansicht hielten und Handlungen, unter Einfluß von rechter Ansicht, unternahmen, mit dem Zerfall des Körpers, mit dem Tod, erschienen, an guten Bestimmungsort, im der himmlischen Welt, wieder. So sah ich, mit dem Mittel des himmlischen Auges, gereinigt und das der Menschen übertreffend, Lebewesen dahin scheiden und wieder erscheinen und ich erkannte wie diese minder und überlegen, schön und häßlich, beglückt und unglücklich, im Einklang mit deren Kamma sind.

"Dieses war das zweite Wissen, daß ich in der zweiten Nachtwache erlangte. Unwissenheit war zerstört; Wissen kam auf; Dunkelheit war zerstört; Licht kam auf, wie es in jemandem passiert, der gewissenhaft, begeistert und entschlossen ist.

"Als der Geist in dieser Weise konzentriert, gereinigt, strahlend, tadellos, Trübungen los, geschmeidig, biegsam, bleibend war und Unstörbarkeit erlangte, richtete ich ihn zum Wissen über die Beendigung von geistigen Gärungen. Ich erkannte, so wie es ins Entstehen kam, daß 'Dieses ist Streß... Dieses ist die Entstehung von Streß... Dieses ist die Beendigung von Streß... Dieses ist der Pfad, der zur Beendigung von Streß führt... Dieses ist die Entstehung von Gärungen... Dieses ist die Beendigung von Gärungen... dieses ist der Pfad, der zur Beendigung von Gärungen führt.' Mein Herz, so wissend, war von der Gärung der Sinnlichkeit befreit, befreit von der Gärung des Werdens, befreit von der Gärung der Unwissenheit. Mit Befreiung, war das Wissen: 'Befreit'. Ich erkannte, daß 'Geburt ist zu ende, das heilige Leben erfüllt, die Aufgabe getan. Da ist nichts weiter für diese Welt.'

"Dieses war das dritte Wissen, daß ich in der dritten Nachtwache erlangte. Unwissenheit war zerstört; Wissen kam auf; Dunkelheit war zerstört; Licht kam auf, wie es in jemandem passiert, der gewissenhaft, begeistert und entschlossen ist.

"Nun, Brahmane, wenn Euch der Gedanke aufkommen sollte: 'Vielleicht ist Gotama, der Besinnliche, selbst heute, nicht frei von Begehren, nicht frei von Ablehnung, nicht frei von Verwirrung, was es ausmacht, daß er zu abgelegenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchtet', sollte es nicht in dieser Weise gesehen werden. Es ist durch Sehen zweier zwingender Gründe, daß ich zu abgelegenen Wald- und Wildnisverweilstätten flüchte: für mich selbst einen angenehmen Verbleib in der Gegenwart sehend und Anteilnahme für zukünftige Generationen fühlend."

"Wie wahrhaftig, wurde zukünftigen Generationen, Anteilnahme vom Meister Gotama, in der Weise, wie jemand würdig und rechtens Selbst-Erwacht ist, gezeigt! Hervorragend, Meister Gotama, hervorragend! Es ist, als ob Er etwas Verdrehtes aufrecht dreht, oder etwas freilegt hat, daß versteckt war, oder jemanden den Weg zeigt, der verloren war, oder eine Lampe hält, um die Dunkelheit zu vertreiben, sodaß jene, die Augen haben, sehen können. Ebenso, hat Meister Gotama die Lehre, durch viele Zeilen der Begründung, das Dhamma klar gemacht. Ich nehme Zuflucht, zu Meister Gotama, zum Dhamma und zur Sangha der Bhikkhus. Möge sich Meister Gotama, meiner als Laienanhänger erinnern, der von diesem Tag an, Zuflucht in ihn genommen hat, für ein Leben."



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Offline Johann

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Antw:Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #9 on: November 06, 2015, 11:10:47 AM »

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa

Dies wurde vom Befreiten gesagt, vom Arahat gesagt, so hab ich es gehört: "Diese vier Dinge sind nahezu Nichts, beides, einfach zu erlangen und tadellos. Welche vier? Fetzen-Bekleidung ist nahezu Nichts, beides, einfach zu erlangen und tadellos. Almosenspeise ist nahe zu Nichts, beides einfach zu erlangen und tadellos. Der Fuß eines Baumes als Verweilstätte ist nahezu Nichts, beides, leicht zu erlangen und tadellos. Medizin gemacht aus übelriechendem Urin[1] ist nahezu Nichts, beides, leicht zu erlangen und tadellos. Da sind diese vier Dinge, die nahezu Nichts sind, beides, leicht zu erlangen und tadellos. Wenn ein Bhikkhu mit dem zufrieden ist, was nahezu Nichts ist, dann sage ich, hat eine einen Bestandteil des besinnlichen Lebens."

Zufrieden mit dem was tadellos,
   nachzunichts,
   einfach zu erlangen,
sein Geist nicht verärgert
wegen   Bleibe, Bekleidung,
   Speise, oder Trank:
die vier Richtungen geben ihm
kein      Hindernis.
Diese Dinge sind erklärt
verwandt mit dem besinnlichen Leben zu sein,
   besessen von dem Bhikkhu
   gewissenhaft, genügsam.
 1. Dieses ist einer der grundlegenden Bedarfsmittel eines Bhikkhus. Da sind einige Uneinigkeiten, ob es sich auch Medizin in Urin eingelegt, oder der Nutzen von Urin als Medizin (wie es heute noch in Teilen von Asien praktiziert wird) bezieht.
Quote from: Iti §101
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Antw:Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #10 on: December 11, 2015, 11:07:53 AM »

 *sgift*

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa

Araññika Sutta: Ein in der Wildnis verweilender

"Ausgestattet mit [irgendeiner von] vier Eigenschaften, ist ein Bhikkhu nicht in der Lage, sich in isolierten Wald- und Wildnisherbergen aufzuhalten. Welchen vier? [Er ist ausgestattet] mit Gedanken der Sinnlichkeit, mit Gedanken des Übelwollens, mit Gedanken des Schädigens, und er ist eine Person von schwacher Einsicht, stumpf, ein sabbernder Idiot. Ausgestattet mit [irgendeiner von] diesen vier Eigenschaften ist ein Bhikkhu nicht in der Lage, sich in isolierten Wald- und Wildnisherbergen aufzuhalten.

"Ausgestattet mit vier Eigenschaften ist ein Bhikkhu in der Lage, sich in isolierten Wald- und Wildnisherbergen aufzuhalten. Welchen vier? [Er ist ausgestattet] mit Gedanken der Enthaltsamkeit, mit Gedanken des Nicht-Übelwollens, mit Gedanken der Harmlosigkeit, und er ist eine einsichtige Person, nicht stumpf, kein geifernder Idiot. Ausgestattet mit diesen vier Eigenschaften ist ein Bhikkhu in der Lage, sich in isolierten Wald- und Wildnisherbergen aufzuhalten."

Siehe auch: MN 19 ; Ud 2.10 ; Thag 18 .
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Re: Tudong - Dutanga
« Reply #11 on: December 13, 2015, 02:23:36 PM »

Aramika   *

Ein oder mehrer Beiträge wurden hier im Thema abgeschnitten und damit in neues Thema "Altagsgeschichten " eröffnet. Bitte scheuen Sie nicht davor zurück, etwaigen Rat oder Kritik dazu mitzuteilen.  Viel Freude und Inspiration auch im neuen Thema. Anumodana!

One or more posts have been cut out of this topic here. A new topic, based on it, has been created as "Altagsgeschichten " . Please do not hesitate to claim or give supporting hints.  Much joy and inspiration also in the new Topic. Anumodana!
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Offline Johann

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Dhamma-Dana und
« Reply #12 on: December 13, 2015, 02:38:12 PM »

Aramika   *

Ein oder mehrer Beiträge wurden hier im Thema abgeschnitten und damit in neues Thema "Dhamma-Dana und " eröffnet. Bitte scheuen Sie nicht davor zurück, etwaigen Rat oder Kritik dazu mitzuteilen.  Viel Freude und Inspiration auch im neuen Thema. Anumodana!

One or more posts have been cut out of this topic here. A new topic, based on it, has been created as "Dhamma-Dana und " . Please do not hesitate to claim or give supporting hints.  Much joy and inspiration also in the new Topic. Anumodana!
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

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Johann

October 16, 2017, 05:40:03 PM
Sokh chomreoun, Nyom. (Mag sukha sich für Nyom mehren). Thoamada (Dhammada - naturly, gewohnt). At mean ay pisech te (nichts besonders). Klach dukkh, klach sokh (wohl und weh wechseln sich ab). Nyom sokh sabay dea te? Sokh leumom dea te?
 

Marcel

October 16, 2017, 04:13:43 PM
 :-* ehrwürdiger samana johann! wie ist ihr befinden?  :-*
 

Marcel

October 07, 2017, 01:56:00 PM
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

October 07, 2017, 02:48:39 AM
Der Tathagata tut das, wenn man ihn in seinem Dhamma sieht, und dieser, entgegen Personen, kommt auf wenn man ihn nährt, und einmal da, geht er für einen nicht mehr verloren, bleibt Tor zur Todlosigkeit.
 

Marcel

October 06, 2017, 11:37:24 PM
 :-*
 

Marcel

October 06, 2017, 11:36:31 PM
 :-* ehrwürdiger samana johann :-* mögen sie noch lange leben,   für das wohl vieler.... anumodana, ich freue mich sehr! sie decken auf, was vorher verdeckt. so das vijja entstehen kann, und avijja gehen muss!! geht direkt ins herz!
 

Johann

October 06, 2017, 04:19:37 PM
Nyom Marcel.
 

Sophorn

September 28, 2017, 03:51:05 AM
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

September 27, 2017, 12:17:53 PM
Nyom Sophorn, Roben mag man immer geben können. Im Monat nach dem Vassa Ende, ist es für jene Mönche, die den Vassa gehalten haben, möglich und einfacher für den Eigenbedarf Roben anzunehmen.
 

Sophorn

September 27, 2017, 07:01:23 AM
Bhante, ist dann die Robengabe möglich ab dem 5. Okt. bid zum nächsten Vollmond oder darf man auch danach Roben geben? :-*
 

Sophorn

September 27, 2017, 05:44:45 AM
Wie geht es Bhante heute? Haben die Tropfen geholfen?
 ::) :-*
 

Johann

September 05, 2017, 01:21:44 AM
Gerestet: funktioniert tadellos. Nochmal alle Zugangsdaten gemailt, Nyom.
 

Sophorn

September 04, 2017, 02:06:42 PM
Kana hat mit U. Chamroeun das Login mit neuem Passwort erfolglos versucht.
Daraufhin versuchten kana das über die Veränderung über E-mail, aber da erschien, dass die E-mailadresse nicht gültig war (die hatten Bhante auch an kana in der Mail bestätigt)
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

September 04, 2017, 11:52:03 AM
Sollte email im Posteingang haben, Nyom Sophorn.
 

Johann

September 04, 2017, 11:41:14 AM
Kann nicht antworten auf was, Nyom Maria? Was und wo genauer?

Nyom Sophorn. Nyom Chomroeun kann kurzlich email Daten bekommen. Mal annehmend das PW auch vergessen, (abgesenhen von der Möglichkeit, link zu drücken wenn) wird Atma ein neues anlegen und ihm mailen.
 

Maria

September 04, 2017, 11:30:41 AM
 :-*
Werther Bhante , selbiges Problem was ich schon einmal hatte, Login geht aber kann nicht antworten, bin am Nachmittag bei neuen Computer, dieser hier ist schon über 12 Jahre alt.
 

Sophorn

September 04, 2017, 11:23:14 AM
Kana hat das File runtergeladen und U. Chamroeun gegeben,  der sich um die Kprrektur annehmen möchte. Kana wird auch gern das File den anderen Schülern zum Lesen teilen. Ev. sehen mehr Augen mehr.
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Sophorn

September 04, 2017, 11:17:06 AM
Verehrter Bhante, Chamroeun kann sich nicht einloggen. Ist das Passwort für E-mail oder sangham.net? In beiden Fällen haben kana das erfolglos probiert.
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Sophorn

September 04, 2017, 11:08:26 AM
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

August 20, 2017, 01:37:40 AM
Es ist vielleicht gut eine Pause zu tun, doch kann es gut sein, daß man nicht zurückkehrt, für ein gutes oder schlechtes, für sich selbt und andere. Gut dort wo gut genährt und unterstützt und for allem Konzentration steigt, oder dort wo satt in jeder Hinsicht.
 

Johann

August 10, 2017, 11:31:40 AM
Wenn jemand Lust hat, oder anderen etwas Gutes oder Besseres tun kann und möchte: Korrekturlesen http://sangham.net/index.php/topic,1018.msg9625.html#msg9625 Baue nach und nach, so gut wie möglich ein auf ZzE.
 

Johann

August 07, 2017, 02:24:55 AM
Einen ausübungsreichen Vollmond-Uposatha and Gelegenheit die Mönche zu besuchen wünscht meine Person.
 

Sophorn

July 25, 2017, 03:59:03 PM
... versteht und womöglich sieht, wenn er nicht den Weg hierher
findet.

Großer Dank an alle im Hintergrund.

Mögen all diese Früchte vielfach zurückkommen und inspirieren.

Ayu vanno sukkham balam

 :-* :-* :-*
 

Sophorn

July 25, 2017, 03:55:25 PM
 :-* :-* :-*
karuna tvay bongkum Preah metschah

Herzliches Hallo an alle nach sehr langem!

Ein herzliches Dankeschön aus tiefsten Herzen an alle, die sich hier aktiv und indirekt hier beteiligen. Vor allem ein großes Sadhu an Bhante, der unvergleichliche Arbeit leistet, die kaum jemand ver
 

Johann

July 24, 2017, 03:15:56 AM
Fehlinvestition: Was immer man nicht in die Juwelen, in den Pfad investiert, ist vergeude Mühe, schnurrr einen fest im Rad des Leidens. Prüfen Sie es!   :) Wiederholungstäter...
 

Johann

July 17, 2017, 01:50:17 AM
Moritz
 

Moritz

July 16, 2017, 02:28:02 PM
Namasakara, Bhante _/\_
 

Johann

July 14, 2017, 07:07:17 AM
Moritz. Gut ihn früh Morgens und nicht bis in den frühen Morgen zu sehen.
 

Moritz

July 14, 2017, 07:03:53 AM
Namasakara, Bhante _/\_
 

Johann

July 13, 2017, 08:12:46 AM
Moritz.
 

Moritz

July 13, 2017, 07:42:39 AM
Chom reap lea
_/\_
 

Moritz

July 13, 2017, 07:40:46 AM
Namasakara, Bhante _/\_
 

Johann

July 08, 2017, 02:26:09 AM
Vor mehr als 2500 Jahen wurde a diesem Vollmondtag das Rad des Dhammas in bewegung gesetzt. Anumodana!
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

July 02, 2017, 08:24:13 AM
Sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann,

ich bedanke mich bei Ihnen für Ihre nette Erklärung.

Dhamma Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!

 

Johann

July 01, 2017, 07:43:41 PM
Nyom Mohan. Besser: "Ich hoffe, daß es Ihnen gut geht." und bestens (ohne suggerieren, wenn interessiert) "Wie geht es Ihnen." Oder: "Möge es Ihnen Gut gehen." (wenn metta ausdrücken wollend)
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

July 01, 2017, 10:43:15 AM
Sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann,

ich glaube, dass es Ihnen gut geht.

Dhamma Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

July 01, 2017, 10:32:46 AM
Werter Micro,
herzliche Grüße aus Sri Lanka nach Deutschland!
 

Johann

July 01, 2017, 10:32:17 AM
Nyom Mohan.
 

Johann

June 25, 2017, 01:38:38 PM
Alles Zufälle. Nissaya. Und wenn da keine starke Grundlagenursache aufkommt, upanissayapaccayena, na dann war's das, und alles is weg. Lebewesen sind Erben ihrer Taten (im Geist, Wort und Körper).
 

Johann

June 25, 2017, 01:27:24 PM
Schwupps und weg. Waffen und Nahrung geholt.

Oh, was sag ich. Wenn man's doch nehmen kann, auch ohne das Gefühl zu nehmen... Unsinn hier. Hat doch keiner interesse Verdienste zu tun.
 

Johann

June 25, 2017, 01:21:28 PM
Mirco. Wie geht es?
 

Johann

June 25, 2017, 01:20:43 PM
Es ist doch viel angenehmer, wenn man sich nehmen kann was und wann immer man will, oder? Warum sollte man sich so viel antun, da sind genügend die Anbieten.
 

Johann

June 14, 2017, 06:45:07 PM
Jetzt aber vorerst. Möge jeder guten Unterhalt (ung) im Dhamma und Stärkung finden uud sich davon reichlich nehmen.
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

June 11, 2017, 08:24:45 AM
Werter Harry,

ich freue mich darüber, nach einigen Monaten wieder auf sangham.net Sie zu grüßen.

Herzliche Grüße aus Sri Lanka nach Deutschland!
 

Johann

June 09, 2017, 05:05:59 PM
Mögen sich alle, möge sich Guest der Uposatha-Einhaltung nicht nur heute annehmen, und glücksverheißende Zeit verbringen.

May all, may Guest not only today observe the Uposatha and spend auspicious time
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

June 03, 2017, 01:48:08 AM
Sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann,

es geht mir zur Zeit gut. Ich glaube, dass es Ihnen auch gut geht.

Dhamma Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!
 

Johann

June 02, 2017, 11:19:32 PM
Wie geht es Upasaka Mohan?
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

June 02, 2017, 10:51:50 PM
Wie sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann geschrieben hat, hatte ich am 10. Mai 2017 meinen  Geburtstag, an dem Tag  in diesem Jahr das Wesakfest gefeiert wurde.
Beste Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!
Mohan Barathi Gnanathilake
 

Johann

June 02, 2017, 12:33:54 PM
Wußte doch, daß so Nahrung immer gefressen werden will.  :)
"Sehr gut, weiter hungern."

Freut das Nyom Marcel wohlauf ist.
 

Marcel

June 02, 2017, 12:20:52 PM
weil "keines" immer noch die bezugnahme auf eines hat!

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