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Autor Thema: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...  (Gelesen 2792 mal)

Offline Johann

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citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« am: Oktober 03, 2013, 03:19:49 Vormittag »
Im Zuge der Übersetzungen von des Ehrwürdigen Thanissaro's, ist da das "Problem" von "counciousness" für vinnana und "awarness" für ceto, citta (in manchen Fällen) aufgekommen.

Um das Wesen besser zu treffen und weder auf Herz noch Geist, oder andere greifbarere Dinge zurück zu greifen, würde ich gerne "Wesen", "Wesenheit" bzw. "Wesensdrang" verwenden, da dies wohl am besten citta und ceto beschreibt.

Gibt es da Gründe, dies nicht so zu tun?
« Letzte Änderung: Oktober 03, 2013, 04:03:55 Vormittag by Johann »
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Offline Moritz

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #1 am: Oktober 03, 2013, 04:38:46 Nachmittag »
Was gibt es da denn so für Beispiele?
So aus der Erinnerung kommt mir da wohl "ceto-vimutti" -> "awareness release" in den Sinn.
Wesensbefreiung? Befreiung des Wesensdrangs? "Befreiung vom Wesensdrang" klingt vielleicht ganz passend, finde ich.

Ansonsten ist da so mein Orientierungsstandard: awareness -> Gewahrsein; consciousness -> Bewusstsein

"Befreiung des Gewahrseins" würde ich persönlich auch als ganz passend empfinden.

:-*

Sadhu!

für all die neuen Übersetzungen.

:-*

Offline Johann

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #2 am: Oktober 03, 2013, 06:57:51 Nachmittag »
Werter Moritz,

Also ich merke, ohne da immer etwas im Pali Original "nachzuwühlen", kann man sich schon gut vertun. Das Gewahrsein... ich weiß nicht. Wenn Leute von etwas tief in ihnen Drinnen sprechen (hier sagt man vielleicht Seele dazu), dann würde man denke ich nicht Gewahrsein her nehmen. Denkt man an cetana, so ist da Absicht, Neigung oder Tendenz gemeint.

Hier der letzte Fall, wo es mir zuletzt "auf/unter/hochgekommen" ist.

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa

Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly with his awareness, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?"

Dann, mit seinem Wesen das Wesen der gesamten Versammlung umschlungen, fragte sich der Befreite: "Nun, wer hier ist fähig das Dhamma zu verstehen?"

Gar nicht so leicht zu finden, für jemanden der vielleicht 100 paliwörter kennt.

- Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa -

Atha kho bhagavā sabbāvantaṃ parisaṃ cetasā cetoparicca manasākāsi 'ko nu kho idha bhabbo dhammaṃ viññātuṃ?"

da mal nachgegangen

paricca

Source: Pali-English Dictionary, TW Rhys Davids, William Stede,

Description:

Paricca (indecl.) [ger. of pari+i, cp. Sk. (Gr.) parītya & P. pariyeti] lit. "going round," i. e. having encircled, grasped, understood; grasping, finding out, perceiving; freq. in phrase cetasā ceto paricca (pajānāti) grasping fully with one's mind, e. g. at D i.79; M i.445; iii.12; S ii.121, 233; It 12; Vbh 329; Vism 409 (=paricchinditvā). See pariyeti.


cetasa

Source: A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera, Concise Pali-English and English-Pali Dictionary [available as digital version from Metta Net, Sri Lanka]

Description:

cetasa : [adj.] (in cpds.), having the purpose of. pāpacetasa = evil-minded.


Source: Pali-English Dictionary, TW Rhys Davids, William Stede,

Description:

Cetasa1 N. of a tree, perhaps the yellow Myrobalan J v.420.


Source: Pali-English Dictionary, TW Rhys Davids, William Stede,

Description:

Cetasa2 (adj.) [orig. the gen. of ceto used as nominative] only in -- ˚: sucetasa of a good mind, good -- hearted S i.4=29, 46=52; paraphrased by Buddhaghosa as sundaracetasa; pāpa˚ of a wicked mind, evil -- minded S i.70=98; a˚ without mind S i.198; sabba˚ all-hearted, with all one's mind or heart, in phrase aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā sabbacetaso samannāharitva ohitasoto (of one paying careful & proper attention) S i.112 sq.=189, 220; A ii.116; iii.163, 402; iv.167. The editors have often misunderstood the phrase & we freq. find vv. ll. with sabbaŋ cetaso & sabbaŋ cetasā, -- appamāṇa˚ S iv.186; avyāpanna˚ S v.74.

manaskāra

Source: Sarvastivada Abhidharma, Sanskrit-English Glossary, by Bhikkhu KL Dhammajoti

Description:

manaskāra: (also: manasikāra) Mental application, attention.


viññāta

Source: A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera, Concise Pali-English and English-Pali Dictionary [available as digital version from Metta Net, Sri Lanka]

Description:

viññāta : [pp. of vijānāti] known; understood; perceived; recongized.


Source: Pali-English Dictionary, TW Rhys Davids, William Stede,

Description:

Viññāta [pp. of vijānāti] apperceived, (re)cognized, under- stood, cogitated (Cpd. 37), learned Sn 323 (˚dhamma, one who has recognized or understood the Dhamma); Vv 4418 (=viññāta -- sāsana -- dhamma VvA 192); J i.2; Sdhp 429. -- Often in sequence diṭṭha suta muta viññāta to denote the whole range of the cognitional & apperceptional faculties (see muta), e. g. D iii.232; Sn 1086, 1122.
« Letzte Änderung: Oktober 03, 2013, 07:11:30 Nachmittag by Johann »
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Offline Moritz

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #3 am: Oktober 04, 2013, 04:05:22 Vormittag »
Das Gewahrsein... ich weiß nicht. Wenn Leute von etwas tief in ihnen Drinnen sprechen (hier sagt man vielleicht Seele dazu), dann würde man denke ich nicht Gewahrsein her nehmen.
Hmm, stimmt vielleicht. Ich dachte da nur an so etwas wie "consciousness without surface" oder so, wie es glaube ich auch irgendwo vorkommt, wenn ich das Recht im Sinn hab, als Beschreibung von Nibbana, oder vielleicht von nirodha-sampathi oder (?) - was auch immer das Original im Pali ausgedrückt sein mag.
Das käme dann "awareness release - Befreiung des Gewahrseins" vielleicht schon irgendwie nahe.
(Ist aber vielleicht so, dass man das nicht alles miteinander verrühren sondern besser genauere Unterscheidungen treffen sollte. Und auch möglich, dass ich eh da völlig falsche Eindrücke und Ideen von hab.)
Denkt man an cetana, so ist da Absicht, Neigung oder Tendenz gemeint.


Hier der letzte Fall, wo es mir zuletzt "auf/unter/hochgekommen" ist.

...

Das hab ich mal versucht, nachzuvollziehen. Und kurzerhand wegen der dabei mir aufkommenden Verständnisschwierigkeiten mal bei einem wohl Pali besser kennenden (Jim Anderson , Leiter einer E-Mail-Studiengruppe für Pali) nachgefragt, vielleicht da etwas aufzuhellen:

Zitat
...

(Question came up here (in German): https://sangham.net/index.php?topic=814.msg2545#msg2545)

In Bhante Thanissaro's translation of the Kutthi Sutta (Ud 5.3 - PTS: Ud48)
http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/kn/ud/ud.5.03.than_en.html:

> Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly
> with his awareness, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding
> the Dhamma?"

The Pali original is:

> Atha kho bhagavā sabbāvantaṃ parisaṃ cetasā cetoparicca manasākāsi 'ko nu
> kho idha bhabbo dhammaṃ viññātuṃ?"
>

And here my broken reverse analyis of this:

Atha kho bhagavā ...
Then the Blessed One ...

sabbāvantaṃ parisaṃ ...
(of) the entire assembly

cetasā cetoparicca manasākāsi

Thanissaro's translation of this part seems to be: "having encompassed the awareness [of the entire assembly] with his awareness"

So, "cetasā" and "ceto" seem -  to me who I don't really know any Pali - to correspond to the two occurences of "awareness".

On the other hand, the website dicionary.buddhistdoor.com offers the following explanation for the apparently common phrase "cetasā ceto paricca":
"cetasā ceto paricca (pajānāti)" - "grasping fully with one's mind"

So, according to this, the translation, broken up into chunks, until here would be:

Then the Blessed One | (of) the entire assembly | grasped fully with his mind | "manasākāsi": ...

So, following this construction, "cetasā" and "ceto" cannot refer to the two different instances of "awareness", since the whole phrase "cetasā ceto paricca" is rendered as "grasping fully with his mind", without reference to another instance of mind/awareness, i.e. the Buddha's mind/awareness and the assembly's mind awareness.
The whole phrase "cetasā ceto paricca", according to dictionary.buddhistdoor.com apparently makes reference only to one instance of "mind" or "awareness".


If you have a quick answer to dissolve my perplexion here, I would be immensely grateful.
Otherwise I will gladly ask the question on the Pali study group mailing list.

_/\_

So eine Pali-Studiengruppe ist sicher eine gute Sache. Ich habe da gebeten, mich aufnehmen zu lassen. Vielleicht kann man da mal irgendwas von lernen.


Hast du, Johann, da ähnliche Gedankengänge gehabt in der Pali-Interpretation? Oder zu was für einem Ergebnis, Klarheiten, Unklarheiten bist du da gekommen?

Danke für die Wörterbuchzitate und ein bisschen Beispiel des Sprach-Erforschens. Ist sicherlich ein hilfreicher Anstoß, um da mal tiefer zu gehen und vielleicht mal richtig Pali zu lernen.

:-*

Offline Johann

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #4 am: Oktober 04, 2013, 05:24:03 Vormittag »
Werter Moritz

Freut mich, wenn es Interesse erregt. Bin absolut kein Sprachenkenner und schau mir das meist innen an ob es passt, vor allem anregt und lockert,und such dann außen nach Mittel um es zu transportieren und literarisch zu rechtfertigen und als Lockerung zulässig zu machen. Und so bohre ich dahin.

Freu mich auch, wenn sich da Gelehrte einbringen, wobei ich es verstehen kann, wenn man da schnell zu dem Schluß kommt "nicht mal die Grundlagen kennen und ins eingemachte gehen wollen", also ich denke es ist sicher nicht leicht jemandem mit eben einem besonderen Talent dazu zu bringen, die Kunst zum Zweck auf einfache Art zu nutzen.

Freu mich wenn wir mehr über all die cittas, cetos und cetanas erfahren.

"consciousness without surface" das ist ja immer klar als Bewusstsein (vinnana) ausgedrückt und hat ja mit dem Geist (citta - Wesen) soweit mal nichts zu tun. Dieses als Nibbana zu beschreiben, ich weiß nicht. Ich denke, wir sind da vielleicht etwas zu "ungenau" oder besser, wollen vielleicht Dinge festnageln, die man nicht festnageln sollte.

 :-*

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Offline Vorapol

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #5 am: Oktober 05, 2013, 07:52:38 Nachmittag »
Equal of word is just by sabhaava, not at all.
Citta,  vinnaana, mano is refer to the same sabhaava, but maybe in different environment/context.

Citta maybe citta 89, mano maybe vinnaana maybe citta 10, etc.   

See commentary and their sub for more explanation of each word.

Offline Johann

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #6 am: Oktober 05, 2013, 08:15:10 Nachmittag »
Thanks for your hints, I see.

So there is much possibility for creativity. Do you know any good collection where all this has some references to specific environments.

 :-*
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Offline Vorapol

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #7 am: Oktober 05, 2013, 09:50:44 Nachmittag »
Look at context of each word. It will let you know about environment that can be. If you still can't get a meaning,  you should look at commentaries and their sub.

Example--

Zitat
Cittaniddese cittavicittatāya cittaṃ. Ārammaṇaṃ minamānaṃ jānātīti mano. Mānasanti mano eva. ‘‘Antalikkhacaro pāso yvāyaṃ carati mānaso’’ti (saṃ. ni. 1.151; mahāva. 33) hi ettha pana sampayuttakadhammo ‘mānaso’ti vutto.

‘‘Kathañhi bhagavā tuyhaṃ, sāvako sāsane rato;
Appattamānaso sekkho, kālaṃ kayirā jane sutā’’ti. (saṃ. ni. 1.159);

Ettha arahattaṃ ‘mānasa’nti vuttaṃ. Idha pana ‘manova’ mānasaṃ. Byañjanavasena hetaṃ padaṃ vaḍḍhitaṃ.

Hadayanti cittaṃ. ‘‘Cittaṃ vā te khipissāmi, hadayaṃ vā te phālessāmī’’ti (saṃ. ni. 1.237; su. ni. āḷavakasutta) ettha uro hadayanti vuttaṃ. ‘‘Hadayā hadayaṃ maññe aññāya tacchatī’’ti (ma. ni. 1.63) ettha cittaṃ. ‘‘Vakkaṃ hadaya’’nti (dī. ni. 2.377; ma. ni. 1.110) ettha hadayavatthu. Idha pana cittameva abbhantaraṭṭhena ‘hadaya’nti vuttaṃ. Tameva parisuddhaṭṭhena paṇḍaraṃ. Bhavaṅgaṃ sandhāyetaṃ vuttaṃ. Yathāha – ‘‘pabhassaramidaṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ, tañca kho āgantukehi upakkilesehi upakkiliṭṭha’’nti (a. ni. 1.49). Tato nikkhantattā pana akusalampi, gaṅgāya nikkhantā nadī gaṅgā viya, godhāvarito nikkhantā godhāvarī viya ca, paṇḍarantveva vuttaṃ.

Mano manāyatananti idha pana manoggahaṇaṃ manasseva āyatanabhāvadīpanatthaṃ. Tenetaṃ dīpeti – ‘nayidaṃ devāyatanaṃ viya manassa āyatanattā manāyatanaṃ, atha kho mano eva āyatanaṃ manāyatana’nti. Tattha nivāsaṭhānaṭṭhena ākaraṭṭhena samosaraṇaṭhānaṭṭhena sañjātidesaṭṭhena kāraṇaṭṭhena ca āyatanaṃ veditabbaṃ. Tathā hi loke ‘issarāyatanaṃ vāsudevāyatana’ntiādīsu nivāsaṭṭhānaṃ āyatananti vuccati. ‘Suvaṇṇāyatanaṃ rajatāyatana’ntiādīsu ākaro. Sāsane pana ‘‘manorame āyatane sevanti naṃ vihaṅgamā’’tiādīsu (a. ni. 5.38) samosaraṇaṭṭhānaṃ. ‘‘Dakkhiṇāpatho gunnaṃ āyatana’’ntiādīsu sañjātideso. ‘‘Tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati satiāyatane’’tiādīsu (ma. ni. 3.158) kāraṇaṃ. Idha pana sañjātidesaṭṭhena samosaraṇaṭhānaṭṭhena kāraṇaṭṭhenāti tidhāpi vaṭṭati.

Phassādayo hi dhammā ettha sañjāyantīti sañjātidesaṭṭhenapi etaṃ āyatanaṃ. Bahiddhā rūpasaddagandharasaphoṭṭhabbā ārammaṇabhāvenettha osarantīti samosaraṇaṭhānaṭṭhenapi āyatanaṃ. Phassādīnaṃ pana sahajātādipaccayaṭṭhena kāraṇattā kāraṇaṭṭhenapi āyatananti veditabbaṃ. Manindriyaṃ vuttatthameva.

Vijānātīti viññāṇaṃ viññāṇameva khandho viññāṇakkhandho. Tassa rāsiādivasena attho veditabbo. Mahāudakakkhandhotveva saṅkhyaṃ gacchatīti (a. ni. 4.51). Ettha hi rāsaṭṭhena khandho vutto. ‘‘Sīlakkhandho samādhikkhandho’’tiādīsu (dī. ni. 3.355) guṇaṭṭhena. ‘‘Addasā kho bhagavā mahantaṃ dārukkhandha’’nti (saṃ. ni. 4.241) ettha paṇṇattimattaṭṭhena. Idha pana ruḷhito khandho vutto. Rāsaṭṭhena hi viññāṇakkhandhassa ekadeso ekaṃ viññāṇaṃ. Tasmā yathā rukkhassa ekadesaṃ chindanto rukkhaṃ chindatīti vuccati, evameva viññāṇakkhandhassa ekadesabhūtaṃ ekampi viññāṇaṃ ruḷhito viññāṇakkhandhoti vuttaṃ.

Tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātūti tesaṃ phassādīnaṃ dhammānaṃ anucchavikā manoviññāṇadhātu. Imasmiñhi pade ekameva cittaṃ minanaṭṭhena mano, vijānanaṭṭhena viññāṇaṃ, sabhāvaṭṭhena nissattaṭṭhena vā dhātūti tīhi nāmehi vuttaṃ. Iti imasmiṃ phassapañcamake phasso tāva yasmā phasso eva, na tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātusamphassajo, cittañca yasmā tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu eva, tasmā imasmiṃ padadvaye ‘tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātusamphassajā’ti paññatti na āropitā. Vitakkapadādīsu pana labbhamānāpi idha pacchinnattā na uddhaṭā.

Imesañca pana phassapañcamakānaṃ dhammānaṃ pāṭiyekkaṃ pāṭiyekkaṃ vinibbhogaṃ katvā paññattiṃ uddharamānena bhagavatā dukkaraṃ kataṃ. Nānāudakānañhi nānātelānaṃ vā ekabhājane pakkhipitvā divasaṃ nimmathitānaṃ vaṇṇa gandharasānaṃ nānatāya disvā vā ghāyitvā vā sāyitvā vā nānākaraṇaṃ sakkā bhaveyya ñātuṃ. Evaṃ santepi taṃ dukkaranti vuttaṃ. Sammāsambuddhena pana imesaṃ arūpīnaṃ cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ ekārammaṇe pavattamānānaṃ pāṭiyekkaṃ pāṭiyekkaṃ vinibbhogaṃ katvā paññattiṃ uddharamānena atidukkaraṃ kataṃ. Tenāha āyasmā nāgasenatthero –

‘‘Dukkaraṃ, mahārāja, bhagavatā katanti. ‘Kiṃ, bhante nāgasena, bhagavatā dukkaraṃ kata’nti. ‘Dukkaraṃ, mahārāja, bhagavatā kataṃ, yaṃ imesaṃ arūpīnaṃ cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ ekārammaṇe pavattamānānaṃ vavatthānaṃ akkhātaṃ – ayaṃ phasso, ayaṃ vedanā, ayaṃ saññā, ayaṃ cetanā, idaṃ citta’nti. ‘Opammaṃ, bhante, karohī’ti. ‘Yathā, mahārāja, kocideva puriso nāvāya samuddaṃ ajjhogāhetvā hatthapuṭena udakaṃ gahetvā jivhāya sāyitvā jāneyya nu kho, mahārāja, so puriso – idaṃ gaṅgāya udakaṃ, idaṃ yamunāya udakaṃ, idaṃ aciravatiyā udakaṃ, idaṃ sarabhuyā udakaṃ, idaṃ mahiyā udaka’nti? ‘Dukkaraṃ, bhante, jānitu’nti. ‘Tato dukkarataraṃ kho, mahārāja, bhagavatā kataṃ yaṃ imesaṃ arūpīnaṃ cittacetasikānaṃ dhammānaṃ…pe… idaṃ citta’’’nti (mi. pa. 2.7.16).
http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/abh01a.att4.xml#para5

For reference (go to link then go to each reference to get more hints):
http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/Pali_Dictionary_R_DAVID/orgpage.html?page=270

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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #8 am: Oktober 06, 2013, 05:28:46 Vormittag »
Thanks you very much. Seeing the dictionary I remembered PTS:

Zitat von: Citta
Citta

Citta1 & Citra (adj.) [to cetati; *(s)qait to shine, to be bright, cp. Sk. citra, Sk. P. ketu, Av. ciprō, Lat. caelum, Ags. hador, Ohg. heitar, see also citta2] variegated, manifold, beautiful; tasty, sweet, spiced (of cakes), J iv.30 (geṇḍuka); Dh 171 (rājaratha); Vv 479; Pv ii.112 (aneka˚); iv.313 (pūvā=madhurā PvA 251). Citta (nt.) painting Th 1, 674. -- Sn 50 (kāmā=Nd2 240 nānāvaṇṇā), 251 (gāthā); J v.196 (geṇḍuka), 241 vi.218. -- sucitta gaily coloured or dressed S i.226 (b); Dh 151 (rājaratha); Pv i.109 (vimāna).

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   -- akkhara (adj.) with beautiful vowels S ii.267 (Cp. ˚vyañjana); -- attharaka a variegated carpet DA i.256; -- āgāra a painted house, i. e. furnished with pictures; a picture gallery Vin iv.298; -- upāhana a gaily coloured sandal D i.7≈; -- kata adorned, dressed up M ii.64= Dh 147=Th 1, 769; DhA iii.109 (=vicitta); -- katha (adj.) =next S i.199 (+bahussuta); -- kathin a brilliant speaker, a wise speaker, an orator, preacher. Freq. combd w. bahussuta (of wide knowledge, learned), e. g. paṇḍita . . . medhāvin kalyāṇapaṭibhāna S iv.375, samaṇa bahussuta c. uḷāra Vv 8426. -- A iii.58; J i.148; Miln 1, 21; -- kathika=˚kathin A i.24; Th 2, 449 (+bahussuta), expld at ThA 281 by cittadhammakatha; -- kamma decoration, ornamentation, painting J iv.408; vi.333; Miln 278; Vism 306; PvA 147; DhsA 334; (m.) a painter J vi.481; -- kāra a painter, a decorator (cp. rajaka) S ii.101=iii.152; Th 2, 256; J vi.333; -- chatta at J vi.540 to be changed into ˚patta; -- patta (adj.) having variegated wings J vi.540, 590; -- pāṭalī (f.) N. of a plant (the "pied" trumpet -- flower) in the world of Asuras J i.202; DhA i.280; -- pekhuna having coloured wings J i.207; vi.539; -- bimba ( -- mukhi) (a woman whose face is) like a painted image J v.452 (cp cittakata); -- miga the spotted antelope J vi.538; -- rūpa (nt.) a wonder, something wonderful J vi.512; as adv. ˚ŋ (to citta2?) easily Vin ii.78=iii.161; iv.177, 232; -- latā the plant Rubia Munjista J vi.278; ˚vana the R.M. grove, one of Indra's gardens [Sk. caitraratha] J i.52, 104; ii.188; vi.590, etc.; -- vitāna a bright canopy DhA iv.14; -- vyañjana (adj.) with beautiful consonants (cp. ˚akkhara) S ii.267=A i.73=iii.107; -- sāṇī variegated cloth J ii.290; DhA iv.14; -- sālā a painted room or picture gallery DA i.253; -- sibbana with fine sewing; a cover of various embroidery Sn 304= J iv.395; J vi.218.

Citta2 (nt.) [Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit, cp. yutta> yuñjati, mutta>muñcati. On etym. from cit. see cinteti].
  I. Meaning: the heart (psychologically), i. e. the centre & focus of man's emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i. e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted (see kamma II. introd.), for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought (cetasā cinteti; cp. Gr. frh/n, although on the whole it corresponds more to the Homeric qumo/s). As in the verb (cinteti) there are two stems closely allied and almost inseparable in meaning (see § III.), viz. cit & cet (citta & cetas); cp. ye should restrain, curb, subdue citta by ceto, M i.120, 242 (cp. attanā coday' attānaŋ Dhp 379 f.); cetasā cittaŋ samannesati S i.194 (cp. cetasā cittaŋ samannesati S i.194). In their general use there is no distinction to be made between the two (see § III.). -- The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or "thought" more than its mental & rational side (for which see manas & viññāṇa). It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term "thought" in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart), & out of 150 cases in the Nikāyas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kāma & the senses in general. <-> On the whole subject see Mrs. Rh. D. Buddh. Psych. Eth. introd. & Bud. Psy. ch. II.
  II. Cases of citta (cetas), their relation & frequency (enumd for gram. purposes). -- The paradigma is (numbers denoting %, not including cpds.): Nom. cittaŋ; Gen. (Dat.) cetaso (44) & cittassa (9); Instr. cetasā (42) & cittena (3); Loc. citte (2) & cittamhi (2). -- Nom. cittaŋ (see below). Gen. cittassa only (of older passages) in c˚ upakkileso S iii.232; v.92; A i.207; c˚ damatho Dh 35 & c˚ vasena M i.214; iii.156. Instr. cittena only in S i. viz. cittena nīyati loko p. 39; upakkiliṭṭha˚ p. 179; asallīnena c˚ p. 159. Loc. citte only as loc. abs. in samāhite citte (see below) & in citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi v. hoti A i.162; cittamhi only S i.129 & cittasmiŋ only S i.132. -- Plural only in Nom. cittāni in one phrase: āsavehi cittāni (vi) mucciŋsu "they purified their hearts from intoxications" Vin i.35; S iii.132; iv.20; Sn p. 149; besides this in scholastic works=thoughts, e. g. Vbh 403 (satta cittāni).
  III. Citta & cetas in promiscuous application. There is no cogent evidence of a clear separation of their respective fields of meaning; a few cases indicate the rôle of cetas as seat of citta, whereas most of them show no distinction. There are cpds. having both citta˚ & ceto˚ in identical meanings (see e. g. citta -- samādhi & ceto˚), others show a preference for either one or the other, as ceto is preferred in ceto -- khila & ceto -- vimutti (but: vimutta -- citta), whereas citta is restricted to combn w. upakkilesa, etc. The foll. sentences will illustrate this. Vivaṭena cetasā sappabhāsaŋ cittaŋ bhāveti "with open heart he contemplates a radiant thought" S v.263=D iii.223=A iv.86; cetasā cittaŋ samannesati vippamuttaŋ "with his heart he scrutinizes their pure mind" S i.194; vigatâbhijjhena cetasā is followed by abhijjāya cittaŋ parisodheti D iii.49; anupārambhacitto bhabbo cetaso vikkhepaŋ pahātuŋ A v.149; cetaso vūpasamo foll. by vūpasanta -- citto A i.4; samāhite citte foll. by ceto -- samādhi D i.13≈; cittaŋ paduṭṭhaŋ foll. by ceto -- padosa A i.8; cp. It. 12, 13; cetaso tato cittaŋ nivāraye "a desire of his heart he shall exclude from this" S iv.195.
  IV. Citta in itṡ relation to other terms referring to mental processes.
  1. citta≈hadaya, the heart as incorporating man's personality: hadayaŋ phaleyya, cittavikkhepaŋ pāpuṇeyya (break his heart, upset his reason) S i.126; cittaŋ te khipissāmi hadayan te phālessāmi id. S i.207, 214; Sn p. 32; kāmarāgena cittaŋ me pariḍayhati S i.188>nibbāpehi me hadaya -- pariḷāhaŋ Miln 318 ("my heart is on fire"); cp. abhinibbutatto Sn 343=apariḍayhamāna -- citto SnA 347; cittaŋ adhiṭṭhahati to set one's heart on, to wish DhA i.327.
  2. c. as mental status, contrasted to (a) physical status: citta>kāya, e. g. kilanta˚ weary in body & mind D i.20=iii.32; ātura˚ S iii.2 -- 5; nikaṭṭha˚ A ii.137; ṭhita˚ steadfast in body & soul (cp. ṭhitatta) S v.74; ˚passaddhi quiet of body & soul S v.66. The Commentators distinguish those six pairs of the sankhārākkhandha, or the cetasikas: citta -- kāya -- passaddhi, -- lahutā, etc. as quiet, buoyancy, etc., of (a) the viññāṇakkhandha (consciousness), (b) the other 3 mental khandhas, making up the nāma -- kāya (DhsA 150 on Dhs. 62: Compendium of Phil. 96, n. 3); passaddha˚ D iii.241, 288. -- (b) intellectual status: citta>manas & viññāṇa (mind>thought & understanding). These three constitute the invisible energizer of the body, alias mind in its manifestations: yañ ca vuccati cittan ti vā mano ti vā viññāṇan ti vā: (a) ayaŋ attā nicco dhuvo, etc., D i.21; (b) tatr' assutavā puthujjano n' âlaŋ nibbindituŋ, etc. S ii.94; (g) taŋ rattiyā ca divasassa ca añña -- d -- eva uppajjati aññaŋ nirujjhati S ii.95, cf. ThA. 1 on 125. -- Under ādesanā -- pāṭihāriya (thought reading): evam pi te mano ittham pi te mano iti pi te cittaŋ (thus is your thought & thus your mind, i. e. habit of thinking) D i.213=iii.103; A i.170. -- niccaŋ idaŋ c. niccaŋ idaŋ mano S i.53; cittena niyyati loko "by thoughts the world is led" S i.39=A ii.177 (cp. KS 55); apatiṭṭhita -- citto ādīna -- manaso avyāpaṇnacetaso S v.74; vyāpanna -- citto paduṭṭha -- manasankappo S iii.93; paduṭṭha -- citto=paduṭṭha -- manaso PvA 34, 43.

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  3. c. as emotional habitus: (a) active=intention, contrasted or compared with: (a) will, c. as one of the four samādhis, viz. chanda, viriya, c., vīmaŋsā D iii.77; S v.268; Vbh 288. -- (b) action, c. as the source of kamma: citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaŋ hoti "when the intention is evil, the deed is evil as well" A i.262; cittaŋ appamāṇaŋ . . . yaŋ kiñci pamāṇakataŋ kammaŋ, etc. A v.299. -- Esp. in contrast to kāya & vācā, in triad kāyena vācāya cittena (in deed & speech & will otherwise as k. v. manasā, see under kāya III.) S ii.231, 271=iv.112. Similarly taŋ vācaŋ appahāya (cittaŋ˚, diṭṭhiŋ˚) S iv.319=D iii.13, 15; & under the constituents of the dakkhiṇeyyasampatti as khetta -- sampatti, citta˚, payoga˚ (the recipient of the gift, the good -- will, the means) VvA 30, 32. -- (b) passive=mood, feelings, emotion, ranging with kāya & paññā under the (3) bhāvanā D iii.219; S iv.111; A iii.106; cp. M i.237; Nett 91; classed with kāya vedanā dhammā under the (4) satipaṭṭhānas D ii.95, 100, 299 sq.; S v.114, etc. (see kāya cpds.). As part of the sīlakkhandha (with sīla ethics, paññā understanding) in adhisīla, etc. Vin v.181; Ps ii.243; Vbh 325; cp. tisso sampadā, scil. sīla, citta, diṭṭhi (see sīla & cp. cetanā, cetasika) A i.269. -- citta & paññā are frequently grouped together, e. g. S i.13 = 165; D iii.269; Th i.125 sq. As feeling citta is contrasted with intellection in the group saññā c. diṭṭhi A ii.52; Ps ii.80; Vbh 376.
  4. Definitions of citta (direct or implied): cittan ti viññāṇaŋ bhūmikavatthu -- ārammaṇa -- kiriyādi -- cittatāya pan' etaŋ cittan ti vuttaŋ DhA i.228; cittan ti mano mānasaŋ KhA 153; cittaŋ manoviññāṇaŋ ti cittassa etaŋ vevacanaŋ Nett 54. yaŋ cittaŋ mano mānasaŋ hadayaŋ paṇḍaraŋ, etc. Dhs 6=111 (same for def. of manindriya, under § 17; see Buddh. Psych.). As rūpâvacara citta at Vism 376.
  V. Citta in its range of semantical applications: (1) heart, will, intention, etc. (see I.).
  (a) heart as general status of sensory -- emotional being; its relation to the senses (indriyāni). A steadfast & constrained heart is the sign of healthy emotional equilibrium, this presupposes the control over the senses; samādahaŋsu cittaŋ attano ujukaŋ akaŋsu, sārathī va nettāni gahetvā indriyāni rakkhanti paṇḍitā S i.26; ujugato -- citto ariyasāvako A iii.285; ṭhita c. S i.159≈; A iii.377=iv.404 (+ānejjappatta); c. na kampati Sn 268; na vikampate S iv.71; opp. capalaŋ c. Dh 33; khitta˚ a heart unbalanced A ii.52 (+visaññin); opp.: avikkhitta˚ A v.149; PvA 26; c. rakkhitaŋ mahato atthāya saŋvattati a guarded heart turns to great profit A i.7; similarly: c. dantaŋ, guttaŋ, saŋvutaŋ ibid. -- cittaŋ rakkhetha medhāvī cittaŋ guttaŋ sukhāvahaŋ Dh 36; cakkhundriyaŋ asaŋvutassa viharato cittaŋ vyāsiñcati . . . rūpesu S iv.78; ye cittaŋ saññamessanti mokkhanti Mārabandhanā "from the fetters of Māra those are released who control their heart" Dh 37; pāpā cittaŋ nivāraye Dh 116; bhikkhuno c. kulesu na sajjati, gayhati, bajjhati S ii.198 (cp. Schiller: "Nicht an die Güter hänge dein Herz").
  (b) Contact with kāma & rāga: a lustful, worldly, craving heart. -- (a) kāmā: kāmā mathenti cittaŋ Sn 50; S iv.210; kāmarāgena ḍayhāmi S i.188; kāme nâpekkhate cittaŋ Sn 435; mā te kāmaguṇe bhamassu cittaŋ Dh 371; manussakehi kāmehi cittaŋ vuṭṭhapetvā S v.409; na uḷāresu kāmaguṇesu bhogāya cittaŋ namati A iv.392; S i.92; kāmāsavā pi cittaŋ vimuccati A ii.211, etc.; kāmesu c. na pakkhandati na ppasīdati na sanṭiṭṭhati (my h. does not leap, sit or stand in cravings) D iii.239; kāmesu tibbasārāgo vyāpannacitto S iii.93; kāmāmise laggacitto (divide thus!) PvA 107. -- (b) rāgā: rāgo cittaŋ anuddhaŋseti (defilement harasses his heart) S i.185; ii.231=271; A ii.126; iii.393; rāga -- pariyuṭṭhitaŋ c. hoti A iii.285; sārattacitto S iv.73; viratta˚ S iv.74; Sn 235; PvA 168. <-> (g) various: patibaddha -- c. (fettered in the bonds of ˚) A iv.60; Sn 37, 65; PvA 46, 151, etc. -- pariyādinna˚ (grasping, greedy), usually combd w. lābhena abhibhūta: S ii.226, 228; iv.125; A iv.160; D iii.249. -- upakkiliṭṭha˚ (etc.) (defiled) S i.179; iii.151, 232 sq.; v.92 (kāmacchando cittassa upakkileso); A i.207; v.93 sq. -- otiṇṇa˚ fallen in love A iii.67; SnA 322.
  (c) A heart, composed, concentrated, settled, selfcontrolled, mastered, constrained. -- (a) c. pasīdati (pasanna -- ˚c) (a heart full of grace, settled in faith) S i.98; A i.207; iii.248; Sn 434; pasanna˚: A iv.209, 213; Sn 316, 403, 690, cp. c. pakkhandati pasīdati S iii.133; A iii.245; also vippasanna˚: S v.144; Sn 506; cp. vippasannena cetasā Pv i.1010. -- (b) c. santiṭṭhati in set s. sannisīdati, ekodihoti, samādhiyati (cp. cetaso ekodibhāva) S ii.273; iv.263; A ii.94, 157. -- (g) c. samādhiyati (samāhita -- c˚, cp. ceto -- samadhi quiescence) D i.13=iii.30, 108; S i.120, 129, 188; iv.78=351; A i.164; ii.211; iii.17, 280; iv.177; Vbh 227; Vism 376, etc. -- (d) supatiṭṭhita -- c˚ always in formula catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu -- s -- c˚: S iii.93; v.154; 301; D iii.101; A v.195. -- (e) susaṇṭhita c. S v.74. -- vasībhūta c. S i.132; A i.165. -- danta c. Dh 35. -- (d) "with purpose of heart," a heart set on, striving after, endeavouring, etc. -- (a) cittaŋ namati (inclines his h. on, with dat: appossukkatāya S i.137); nekkhamma -- ninna S iii.233; viveka˚ D iii.283; A iv.233; v.175. -- (b) cittaŋ padahati (pa+dhā: pro -- ti/qhti) in phrase chandaŋ janeti vāyamati viriyaŋ ārabbhati c˚ ŋ paggaṇhāti padahati D iii.221; A ii.15=iv.462; S v.269; Nd2 97; Nett 18. In the same ṣense pa -- ni -- dahati (in paṇidhi, paṇihita bent down on) (cp. ceto -- paṇidhi) S i.133 (tattha) iv.309 (dup˚); v.157; Dh 42=Ud 39; Dh 43 (sammā˚).
  (e) An evil heart ("out of heart proceed evil thoughts" Mk. 7, 21) -- (a) paduṭṭha -- c˚ (cp. ceto -- padosa) D i.20= iii.32; A i.8 (opp. pasanna -- c˚); iv.92; It 12, 13; Pv A 33, 43, etc. -- (b) vyāpanna -- c˚: citte vyāpanne kāyakammam pi vyāpannaŋ hoti A i.262. Opp. a˚: S iv.322; A ii.220. -- (g) samoha -- c˚ (+sarāga, etc.) D i.79; ii.299; iii.281; Vism 410, & passim.
  (f) "blessed are the pure in heart," a pure, clean, purified (cp. Ger. geläutert), emancipated, free, detached heart. (a) mutta -- c˚, vimutta -- c˚, etc. (cp. cetaso vimokkho, ceto -- vimutti, muttena cetasā), āsavehi cittāni mucciŋsu S iii.132, etc.; vi˚ Sn p. 149. -- vimutta: S i.28 (+subhāvita), 29, 46=52; iii.45 (+viratta), 90; iv.236 (rāgā); Sn 23 (+sudanta); Nd2 587. -- suvimutta: S i.126, 141, 233; iv.164; A iii.245; v.29; Sn 975 (+satimā). -- (b) cittaŋ parisodheti M i.347; A ii.211; S iv.104. -- (g) alīna c. (unstained) S i.159; A v.149; Sn 68; 717; Nd2 97 (cp. cetaso līnatta).
  (g) good -- will, a loving thought, kindliness, tenderheartedness, love ("love the Lord with all your heart"). -- (a) metta -- c˚ usually in phrase mettacittaŋ bhāveti "to nourish the heart with loving thought," to produce good -- will D i.167; S ii.264; A i.10; v.81; Sn 507 (cp. mettā -- sahagatena cetasā). -- (b) bhāvita -- c˚ "keep thy heart with all diligence" (Prov. 4, 23) S i.188 (+susamāhita); iv.294; v.369 (saddhā -- paribhāvita); A i.6 (+bahulīkata, etc.); Sn 134 (=S i.188); Dh 89=S v.29; PvA 139.
  (h) a heart calmed, allayed, passionless (santa˚ upasanta˚) D.iii.49; S i.141; Sn 746.
  (i) a wieldy heart, a heart ready & prepared for truth, an open & receptive mind: kalla˚, mudu˚, udagga˚, pasanna˚ A iv.186; kalla˚ PvA 38 (sanctified); lahu˚ S i.201; udagga˚ Sn 689, 1028; S i.190 (+mudita); mudu˚ PvA 54.
  (k) Various phrases. Abbhuta -- cittajātā "while wonder filled their hearts" S i.178; evaŋcitto "in this state of mind" S ii.199; Sn 985; cittam me Gotamo jānāti (G. knows my heart) S i.178; theyya -- citto intending to steal Vin iii.58; āraddha -- citto of determined mind M i.414; S ii.21, cp. 107; Sn p. 102; aññācittaŋ upaṭṭhāpeti S ii.267; nānā˚ of varying mind J i.295; nihīnacitto low -- minded PvA 107; nikaṭṭha˚ A ii.137; āhata˚ A iv.460=v.18; supahata˚ S i.238 (cp. Miln 26); visankhāragata˚ Dh 154; sampanna˚ Sn 164; vibbhanta˚ S i.61=A i.70=ii.30=iii.391.

-- 268 --

  (2) thought: mā pāpakaŋ akusalaŋ cittaŋ cinteyyātha (do not think any evil thought) S v.418; na cittamattam pi (not even one thought) PvA 3; mama cittaŋ bhaveyya (I should think) PvA 40. For further instances see Dhs & Vbh Indexes & cp. cpds. See also remarks above (under I.). Citta likened to a monkey Vism 425.
   -- âdhipati the influence of thought (adj. ˚pateyya) Nett 16; Dhs 269, 359; DhsA 213. Commentators define c. here as javanacittuppāda, our "thought" in its specialized sense, Compendium of Phil. 177, n. 2. -- ânuparivattin consecutive to thought Dhs 671, 772, 1522; -- ânupassanā the critique of heart, adj. ˚ânupassin D ii.299; iii.221, 281; M i.59 & passim (cp. kāy˚); -- āvila disturbance of mind Nd2 576 (˚karaṇa); -- ujjukatā rectitude of mind Dhs 51, 277, etc.; -- uppāda the rise of a thought, i. e. intention, desire as theyya ˚ŋ uppādesi he had the intention to steal (a thought of theft) Vin iii.56; -- M i.43; iii.45; J ii.374; -- ekaggatā "one -- pointedness of mind," concentration Nett 15, 16; Vism 84, 137, 158; DhA iii.425; ThA 75; cp. ekagga -- citto A iii.175; -- kali a witch of a heart, a witch -- like heart Th 1, 356; -- kallatā readiness of heart, preparedness of mind VvA 330; -- kilesa stain of h. Dh 88 (DhA ii.162=pañca nīvaraṇā); -- kelisā pastime of the mind Th 1, 1010; -- kkhepa derangement of the mind, madness Vin v.189=193 (ummāda+); A iii.219 (ummāda+); DhA iii.70 (=ummāda); PvA 39; Dh 138; cp. ˚vikkhepa; -- cetasika belonging to heart & thought, i. e. mental state, thought, mind D i.213; Dhs 1022 ( -- dhammā, Mrs. Rh. D.: emotional, perceptual & synthetic states as well as those of intellect applied to sense -- impressions), 1282; Ps i.84; Miln 87; Vism 61, 84, 129, 337; -- dubbhaka a rogue of a heart, a rogue -- like heart Th 1, 214; -- pakopana shaking or upsetting the mind It 84 (dosa); -- pamaddin crushing the h. Th 2, 357 (=ThA 243; v. l. pamāthin & pamādin); -- pariyāya the ways (i. e. behaviour) of the h. A v.160 (cp. ceto -- paricca); -- passaddhi calm of h., serenity of mind (cp. kāya˚) S v.66; Dhs 62; -- bhāvanā cultivation of the h. M iii.149; -- mala stain of h. PvA 17; -- mudutā plasticity of mind (or thought) Dhs 62, 277, 325; -- rucita after the heart's liking J i.207; -- rūpaŋ according to intention, as much as expected Vin i.222; ii.78; iii.161; iv.177, 232; -- lahutā buoyancy of thought Dhs 62, 323, 1283; Vism 465; -- vikkhepa (cp. ˚kkhepa) madness S i.126 (+ummāda); Nett 27; Vism 34; -- vippayutta disconnected with thought Dhs 1192, 1515; -- visaŋsaṭṭha detached fr. thought Dhs 1194, 1517; -- vūpasama allayment of one's h. S i.46; -- sankilesa (adj.) with impure heart (opp. c. -- vodāna) S iii.151; -- saññatti conviction Miln 256; -- santāpa "heart -- burn," sorrow PvA 18 (=soka); -- samādhi (cp. ceto -- samādhi) concentration of mind, collectedness of thought, self -- possession S iv.350; v.269; Vbh 218; -- samodhāna adjustment, calming of thoughts ThA 45; -- sampīḷana (adj.) h.<-> crushing (cp. ˚pamaddin & ˚pakopana) Nett 29 (domanassa). -- sahabhū arising together with thought Dhs 670, 769, 1520. -- hetuka (adj.) caused by thought Dhs 667, 767.

Citta2 [cp. Sk. caitra, the first month of the year: March- April, orig. N. of the star Spica (in Virgo); see E. Plunket, Ancient Calendars, etc., pp. 134 sq., 171 sq.] N. of the month Chaitra PvA 135. Cp. Citra -- māsa KhA 192.

Zitat von: Ceto
Ceto

Ceto (nt.) [Sk. cetas]=citta, q. v. for detail concerning derivation, inflexion & meaning. Cp. also cinteti. <-> Only the gen. cetaso & the instr. cetasā are in use; besides these there is an adj. cetaso, der. from nom. base cetas. Another adj. -- form is the inflected nom. ceto, occurring only in viceto S v.447 (+ummatto, out of mind).
  I. Ceto in its relation to similar terms: (a) with kāya & vācā: kāyena vācāya cetasā (with hand, speech & heart) Sn 232; Kh IX. kāya (vācā˚, ceto˚) -- muni a saint in action, speech & thought A i.273= Nd2 514. In this phrase the Nd has mano˚ for ceto˚, which is also a v. l. at A -- passage. -- (b) with paññā (see citta iv. b) in ceto -- vimutti, paññā -- vimutti (see below iv.). -- (c) with samādhi, pīti, sukha, etc.: see ˚pharaṇatā below.
  II. Cetaso (gen.) (a) heart. c˚ upakkilesa (stain of h.) D iii.49, 101; S v.93. līnatta (attachment) S v.64. appasāda (unfaith) S i.179; ekodibhāva (singleness) D iii.78; S iv.236 (see 2nd jhāna); āvaraṇāni (hindrances) S 66. -- vimokkha (redemption) S i.159. santi (tranquillity) Sn 584, 593. vūpasama (id.) A i.4; S v.65. vinibandha (freedom) D iii.238= A iii.249; iv.461 sq. -- (b) mind. c˚ vikkhepa (disturbance) A iii.448; v.149: uttrāsa (fear) Vbh 367. abhiniropanā (application) Dhs 7. -- (c) thought. in c˚ parivitakko udapādi "there arose a reflection in me (gen.)" S i.139; ii.273; iii.96, 103.
  III. Cetasā (instr.) -- (a) heart. mettā -- sahagatena c. (with a h. full of love) freq. in phrase ekaŋ disaŋ pharitvā, etc. e. g. D i.186, iii.78, 223; S iv.296; A i.183; ii.129; iv.390; v.299, 344; Vbh 272. ujubhūtena (upright) S ii.279; A i.63; vivaṭena (open) D iii.223= S v.263; A iv.86. macchera -- maḷa -- pariyuṭṭhitena (in which has arisen the dirt of selfishness) S iv.240; A ii.58. santim pappuyya c. S i.212. taṇhādhipateyyena (standing under the sway of thirst) S iii.103. -- vippasannena (devout) S i.32=57, 100; Dh 79; Pv i.1010. muttena A iv.244. vimariyādi -- katena S iii.31. vigatâbhijjhena D iii.49. pathavī -- āpo etc. -- samena A iv.375 sq. ākāsasamena A iii.315 sq. sabba˚ S ii.220. abhijjhā -- sahagatena A i.206. satārakkhena D iii.269; A v.30. -- migabhūtena cetasā, with the heart of a wild creature M i.450. -- acetasā without feeling, heartlessly J iv.52, 57. -- (b) mind: in two phrases, viz. (a) c. anuvitakketi anuvicāreti "to ponder & think over in one's mind" D iii.242; A i.264; iii.178; <-> (b) c. pajānāti (or manasikaroti) "to know in one's mind," in the foll. expressions: para -- sattānaŋ para -- puggalānaŋ cetasā ceto -- paricca pajānāti "he knows in his mind the ways of thought (the state of heart) of other beings" (see ceto -- paricca & ˚pariyāya) M ii.19; S ii.121, 213; v.265; A i.255=iii.17=280. puggalaŋ paduṭṭha -- cittaŋ evaŋ c˚ ceto -- paricca p. It 12, cp. 13. Arahanto . . . Bhagavanto c˚ cetoparicca viditā D iii.100. para -- cittapariyāya kusalo evaŋ c˚ ceto<-> paricca manasikaroti A v.160. Bhagavā [brāhmaṇassa] c˚ ceto -- parivitakkaŋ aññāya "perceiving in his mind the thought of [the b.]" S i.178; D iii.6; A iii.374; Miln 10.
  IV. Cpds. -- khila fallowness, waste of heart or mind, usually as pañca c -- khilā, viz. arising from doubt in the Master, the Norm, the Community, or the Teaching, or from anger against one's fellow -- disciples, D iii.237, 278; M i.101; A iii.248=iv.460=v.17; J iii.291; Vbh 377; Vism 211. -- paṇidhi resolution, intention, aspiration Vv 4712 (=cittassa samma -- d -- eva ṭhapanaŋ VvA 203); Miln 129; -- padosa corruption of the h., wickedness, A i.8; It 12, 13 (opp. pasāda): -- paricca "as regards the heart," i. e. state of heart, ways of thought, character, mind (=pariyāya) in ˚ñāṇa Th 2, 71=227 (expld at ThA 76, 197 by cetopariyañāṇa) see phrase cetasā c -- p. above (iii. b.); -- pariyāya the ways of the heart (=paricca), in para -- ceto -- pariyāya -- kusalo "an expert in the ways of others' hearts" A v.160; c. -- p -- kovido encompassing the heart of others S i.146, 194=Th 1, 1248; i.196=Th 1, 1262. Also with syncope: ˚pariyañāṇa D i.79; iii.100; Vism 431; DA i.223. -- parivitakka reflecting, reasoning S i.103, 178; -- pharaṇatā the breaking forth or the effulgence of heart, as one of five ideals to be pursued, viz. samādhi, pīti -- pharaṇatā, sukha˚, ceto˚, āloka˚ D iii.278; -- vasippatta mastery over one's h. A ii.6, 36, 185; iv.312; M i.377; Vism 382; Miln 82, 85; -- vimutti emancipation of h. (always w. paññā -- vimutti), which follows out of the destruction of the intoxications of the heart (āsavānaŋ khayā anāsavā c. -- v.) Vin i.11 (akuppā); D i.156, 167, 251; iii.78, 108, 248 (muditā); S ii.265 (mettā); M i.197 (akuppā), 205, 296; iii.145 (appamāṇā, mahaggatā); A i.124; ii.6, 36; iii.84; Sn 725, 727=It 106; It 20 (mettā), 75, 97; Pug 27, 62; Vbh 86 (mettā) Nett 81 (virāgā); DA i.313 (=cittavimutti); -- vivaraṇa setting the h. free A iv.352; v.67. See also arahant II D. -- samatha calm of h. Th 2, 118; -- samādhi concentration of mind (=cittasamādhi DA i.104) D i.15; iii. 30; S iv.297; A ii.54; iii.51; -- samphassa contact with thought Dhs 3.

Ven. Thanissaro uses awarness for ceto related word, and since there is only one word for consciousness and awareness in German, I try to find a proper word to keep this separation. 
My favorite goes into the direction of "entity" in english, which has a notion of "being" and "characteristic", "tendency".

So if I rephrase the sample we used here, by using "entity" for awarness:
Atha kho bhagavā sabbāvantaṃ parisaṃ cetasā cetoparicca manasākāsi 'ko nu kho idha bhabbo dhammaṃ viññātuṃ?"

it would be like that:
Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the entity of the entire assembly with his entity, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?"

Not that it is a better word for English translation, but to understand the German notion behind the use.
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Re: citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #9 am: September 24, 2014, 12:27:00 Nachmittag »
Today Attma had a discussion with Ven. Bhante Ratana and we ended up in definitions. As Ven. Bhante Ratana is very lerned in Abhidhamma incl the commentaries Ven Bhante Ratana brought up a definition from the commentaries of when is used which word for actually the same factor.

Bhante remembered three kinds of ten and after a short language-problem-cleansing it ended up with such:

If talked about citta in a way of remembering, mano is used. (Dhp 1 for example).
If talked about citta in a way of knowing, seeing, vinnana is used (all kind of vi-passana suttas).
If talked about citta in a way of dicerning, reflection, contemplation, citta is used.

After that Ven. Bhante Ratana was so kind to seek for the text passage (matthasangaha, atthakatha, Abhidhamma) an even helped to retranscript from his pfd by typing. Here you my find the khmer translation from the Thai Commentary. I will try to give a translation into German or english, but it could need a little. Please feel free to share, if there is already a translation of it acessable.

Zitat
អភិធម្មត្ថសង្គហៈ បរិច្ឆេទទី ១ (Abidhamma Matthasangaha Paramattha 1 [part 1])
ចិត្តបរមត្ថ (Citta-Paramattha [part])
(ភិក្ខុ អគ្គធីរោ គង់ សុមិត្ត) [Bhikkhu Akkathiro Gung Sumitta]

ក្នុអដ្ឋសាលិនី ពោលទុកថា យំ ចិត្តំ មនោ ហទយំ មានសំ បណ្ឌរំ មនាយតនំ មនិន្ទ្រិយំ វិញ្ញាណំ វិញ្ញាណាណក្ខន្ធោ តជ្ជា មនោវិញ្ញាណធាតុ ឥទំ ចិត្តំ ។
In the Aṭṭhasālinī it is said: "yaṃ cittaṃ mānasaṃ paṇḍaraṃ ma nāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇāṇkkhandho tacchā manoviññāṇadhātu idaṃ cittaṃ."


១. ធម្មជាតិណា រមែងគិត ធម្មជាតិនោះ ឈ្មោះថា ចិត្ត dhammajatiṇā (nature, phenomena) appearing thinging is called citta (mind)
២. ធម្មជាតិណា រមែងបង្អោនទៅ ធម្មជាតិនោះ ឈ្មោះថា មនោ dhammajatiṇā that bend to this dhammajāti (nature, phenomena) is called mano (intelect)
៣. ធម្មជាតិដែងរួបរួមអារម្មណ៍ទុកខាងក្នុង ឈ្មោះថា ហទយះ dhammajatiṇā that serves uniting ārammaṇa (awarness) placing inwardly is called hadaya (heart)
៤. ចិត្តនុ៎ះឯង មានឆន្ទៈ គឺ សេចត្តីពេញចិត្ត ឈ្មោះថា មានសៈ This citta having chanda (desire) which is likeing is called manosa (?)
៥. ចិត្តនោះ ជាធម្មជាតិថ្លាផូរផង់ ឈ្មោះថា បណ្ឌរ This citta being dhammajāti of transparency is called paṇḍara (?)
៦. មនៈ ដែលជាអាយតនខាងក្នុង ឈ្មោះថា មនាយតនៈ mano  which is innwardly āyatana sensebase/sensation is called manāyatana (?)
៧. មនៈ ដែលជាឥន្ទ្រិយ ឈ្មោះថា មនិន្ទ្រិយ mano which is indriya (power, force) is called manindriya (power of intelect?)
៨. ធម្មជាតិ ដែលដឹងច្បាស់នូវអារម្មណ៍ ឈ្មោះថា វិញ្ញាណ dhammajāti that knows clearly in ārammaṇa (awarness) is called viññāṇa (consciousness/knowing)
៩. ខន្ធ គឺ គំនរនៃវិញ្ញាណ មានវិញ្ញាណជាអតីតជាដើម ឈ្មោះថា វិញ្ញាណក្ខន្ធ khandhā (aggregat) being accumulation of viññāṇā having viññāṇā as former forrunner is called viññāṇakkhandha (knowing aggregate)
១០. មនៈ ដែលជាធាតុ ដឹងច្បាស់ នូវអារម្មណ៍ ឈ្មោះថា មនោវិញ្ញាណធាតុ ។ mano being clearly knowing dhātu (property) of ārammaṇa (awarness) is called manoviññāṇānadhatu (intellect-knowing-property?)

« Letzte Änderung: Juni 14, 2017, 06:08:44 Nachmittag by Johann »
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Antw:citta, ceto... Herz, Geist, Gewahrsamkeit, Bewußtsein...
« Antwort #10 am: Juni 14, 2017, 04:00:12 Nachmittag »
The matter of different uses of words for mind from the commentary have been arosen and brought to mind for my person again here , while Upasaka Saptha Visuddhi here tries to answere it, recalling his teachers Sri Lanken resources the question of recources in english or german arose, or explainings about the matter discussed in "matthasangaha, atthakatha, Abhidhamma" came up and my person thought of asking if Bhante Anandajoti Bhikkhu , Ayya @Agganyani @Agganyani  or Upasaka Robert K might be able and willing to help here out or in additions, my person being somehow ignorant in regard of literary Abhidhamma.

Or maybe Upasaka Vorapol likes to make an effort to provide a english transation on the Thai or even Pali text.

Wishing much joy in taking on share of Dhamma all of you.
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Johann

Juni 25, 2017, 01:38:38 Nachmittag
Alles Zufälle. Nissaya. Und wenn da keine starke Grundlagenursache aufkommt, upanissayapaccayena, na dann war's das, und alles is weg. Lebewesen sind Erben ihrer Taten (im Geist, Wort und Körper).
 

Johann

Juni 25, 2017, 01:27:24 Nachmittag
Schwupps und weg. Waffen und Nahrung geholt.

Oh, was sag ich. Wenn man's doch nehmen kann, auch ohne das Gefühl zu nehmen... Unsinn hier. Hat doch keiner interesse Verdienste zu tun.
 

Johann

Juni 25, 2017, 01:21:28 Nachmittag
Mirco. Wie geht es?
 

Johann

Juni 25, 2017, 01:20:43 Nachmittag
Es ist doch viel angenehmer, wenn man sich nehmen kann was und wann immer man will, oder? Warum sollte man sich so viel antun, da sind genügend die Anbieten.
 

Johann

Juni 14, 2017, 06:45:07 Nachmittag
Jetzt aber vorerst. Möge jeder guten Unterhalt (ung) im Dhamma und Stärkung finden uud sich davon reichlich nehmen.
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

Juni 11, 2017, 08:24:45 Vormittag
Werter Harry,

ich freue mich darüber, nach einigen Monaten wieder auf sangham.net Sie zu grüßen.

Herzliche Grüße aus Sri Lanka nach Deutschland!
 

Johann

Juni 09, 2017, 05:05:59 Nachmittag
Mögen sich alle, möge sich Gast der Uposatha-Einhaltung nicht nur heute annehmen, und glücksverheißende Zeit verbringen.

May all, may Gast not only today observe the Uposatha and spend auspicious time
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

Juni 03, 2017, 01:48:08 Vormittag
Sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann,

es geht mir zur Zeit gut. Ich glaube, dass es Ihnen auch gut geht.

Dhamma Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!
 

Johann

Juni 02, 2017, 11:19:32 Nachmittag
Wie geht es Upasaka Mohan?
 

Mohan Gnanathilake

Juni 02, 2017, 10:51:50 Nachmittag
Wie sehr ehrwürdiger Samanera Johann geschrieben hat, hatte ich am 10. Mai 2017 meinen  Geburtstag, an dem Tag  in diesem Jahr das Wesakfest gefeiert wurde.
Beste Grüße an Sie aus Sri Lanka!
Mohan Barathi Gnanathilake
 

Johann

Juni 02, 2017, 12:33:54 Nachmittag
Wußte doch, daß so Nahrung immer gefressen werden will.  :)
"Sehr gut, weiter hungern."

Freut das Nyom Marcel wohlauf ist.
 

Marcel

Juni 02, 2017, 12:20:52 Nachmittag
weil "keines" immer noch die bezugnahme auf eines hat!
 

Johann

Juni 02, 2017, 10:23:46 Vormittag
Wenn zwei mehr als eines sid, warum ist dann keines auch eines?
 

Johann

Mai 20, 2017, 04:30:26 Nachmittag
Moritz
 

Moritz

Mai 20, 2017, 03:42:08 Nachmittag
Namasakara, Bhante. _/\_
 

Johann

Mai 18, 2017, 09:56:06 Vormittag
Sadhu und Mudita.
 

Moritz

Mai 18, 2017, 09:53:33 Vormittag
_/\_ _/\_ _/\_
 

Sophorn

Mai 18, 2017, 09:22:19 Vormittag
 :-* :-* :-*
Wünsche allen einen guten Silatag.
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

Mai 16, 2017, 01:45:43 Nachmittag
Erfreulich
 

Maria

Mai 16, 2017, 12:09:45 Nachmittag
 :-*Werte Sophorn noch am Flughafen getroffen :)
sitzt im Flieger :-*
 

Johann

Mai 16, 2017, 02:20:58 Vormittag
Ein Dhammatalk, über ein paar Audiofiles, sicher auch gut für ihre Familie, Mutter... http://sangham.net/index.php/topic,7997.0.html
 

Sophorn

Mai 16, 2017, 02:17:07 Vormittag
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

Mai 16, 2017, 02:11:44 Vormittag
Vielleicht möchte Nyom Maria sie noch gerne am Flughafen verabschieden, wenn sie von der Gelegenheit weis.
 

Johann

Mai 16, 2017, 02:08:13 Vormittag
Gute Reise und beste Wünsche an alle.
 

Sophorn

Mai 16, 2017, 02:04:14 Vormittag
 :-* :-* :-*
 karuna tvay bongkum
kana macht sich in knapp 4h auf den weg nach Wien und dann Richtung K. Ankunft morgen in PP.
gerade ist kana am Sammeln vor der Abreise.
kana wünscht Bhante gute Genesung.
 :-* :-* :-*
 

Johann

Mai 16, 2017, 01:48:42 Vormittag
Nyom Sophorn. Wieder zurück im Land der Khmer? Mag Reise und Aufenthalt angenehm gewesen sein.
 

Johann

Mai 10, 2017, 09:51:50 Vormittag
Qi-Van-Chi
 

Johann

Mai 10, 2017, 01:30:17 Vormittag
Verdienstreiche und befreiende Vesak - Pūjā allen, heute.
 

Johann

Mai 09, 2017, 09:20:24 Vormittag
Atma will rest a little today and use the "hair cut day" to maintain his body a little for tomorrow's Puja, so see, Moritz has won a whole day today, maybe use it for same. Best wishes!
 

Moritz

Mai 09, 2017, 08:58:33 Vormittag
Namasakara Bhante.
May you have a good Vesakha Puja!
_/\_
 

Johann

Mai 08, 2017, 10:43:50 Vormittag
Viel Freude beim Aufräumen und angenehmes "Brotverdienen"
 

Moritz

Mai 08, 2017, 09:32:47 Vormittag
Muss nun hier aufräumen und bald los Brot verdienen. Wünsche einen angenehmen Tag.
_/\_
 

Moritz

Mai 08, 2017, 09:25:13 Vormittag
Namasakara, Bhante. _/\_
 

Johann

Mai 06, 2017, 05:42:48 Nachmittag
Nyom Senghour.
Darf Atma darauf vertrauen, daß es Ihm gut geht?
 

Johann

Mai 03, 2017, 08:26:24 Nachmittag
Hr. Bernd, Atma zieht sich für heute zurück. Viel Freude beim Entdecken.
 

Marcel

April 29, 2017, 11:44:21 Vormittag
 :-*
 

Johann

April 29, 2017, 11:29:06 Vormittag
Atma wird kurz etwas Wasser zum trinken abkochen.
 

Johann

April 29, 2017, 11:26:17 Vormittag
Sadhu der Nachfrage, Nyom Marcel. Alles soweit passend. Gut Nyom mal wieder anzutreffen. Vielleicht mag er ja etwas von seinen Verdiensten teilen.
 

Marcel

April 29, 2017, 11:07:15 Vormittag
 :-*ehwürdiger samana johann  :-*

wie geht es ihnen?
 

Johann

April 26, 2017, 08:11:22 Vormittag
Christian.
 

Johann

April 26, 2017, 02:45:50 Vormittag
Senghour, Atma verläßt nun für seinen Almosengang das Klosterhier.
 

Johann

April 24, 2017, 01:39:40 Nachmittag
Christian.
 

Johann

April 22, 2017, 07:23:20 Vormittag
Dylan.
 

Johann

April 22, 2017, 02:00:11 Vormittag
224. Sprecht Wahrheit, haltet nicht an Zorn, wenn gebeten, gebt, auch wenn nur wenig Ihr habt. Mit diesen drei Mittel, in Gegenwart der Götter, einer kann erreichen.
 

Johann

April 22, 2017, 01:55:53 Vormittag
224. Speak the truth; yield not to anger; when asked, give even if you only have a little. By these three means can one reach the presence of the gods.
 

Johann

April 13, 2017, 11:02:06 Vormittag
Hatte wohl kurzen Serverausfall gegeben.

Visitor

April 04, 2017, 09:44:42 Vormittag
Hallo!  :)
 

Johann

März 31, 2017, 09:59:39 Vormittag
Moritz, Maria
 

Maria

März 31, 2017, 08:09:04 Vormittag
 :-*
Guten Morgen Bhante
 

Maria

März 31, 2017, 08:08:39 Vormittag
 :-*
Guten Morgen Bhante

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