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Author Topic: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift  (Read 1028 times)

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Online Johann

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Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« on: January 24, 2018, 07:26:02 AM »
Die allgemeine Lauschrift, die für Khmer verwendet wird, etspricht nicht der Lautschrift, so wie sie für Pali verwendet wird.

Wurde man nach der "weltlichen" Umschift ins Latein gehen, dann würde man Thamma und Puttha schreiben (statt Dhamma und Buddha). Etwas, das man oft sieht, wenn man thailändische Romanisierungen sieht.

Atma würde allgemein dahin tendieren, sich an das Pali zu halten, und auch raten, das Alphabet, den Grundstock, dem Pali nach zu lernen und zu schreiben: Khmer - Pāḷī Alphabet / ខ្មែរបាឡិ

Die zwei Serien:

Die Konsunanten werden in zwei Serien, oder Klassen, eingeteilt.
  • Stimmlos, អឃោសៈ aghosa oder សំឡេងតូច somleng tuc (kleine Stimme) oder សំឡេងស្រាល somleng sral (leichte Stimme):

    Der Konsonant enthält ein "a:"

  • Stimmhaft, ឃោសៈ ghosa oder សំឡេងធំ somleng dhom (große Stimme) oder សំឡេងធ្ងន់ somleng dhngon (schwere Stimme):

    Der Konsonant enthält ein "o"
Je nach Serie erhalten die Vokale einen anderen wert. Die Werte der Vokale sind daher von der jeweiligen Konsonantenserie abhängig.

Bis auf wenige Konsonanten, haben alle ein Gegenstück in der anderen Serie.

Die stimmlosen Konsonanten ohne Gegenpart sind:

ប ស ហ អ

Um sie in die stimmhafte Serie zu verwandeln, wird ein Sonderzeichen, genannt ត្រីស័ព្ទ traisab verwendet: ប៊ ស៊ ហ៊ អ៊ po so ho o

Die stimmhaften Konsonanten ohne Gegenpart sind:

ង ញ ម រ វ

Um sie in die stimmhafte Serie zu verwandeln, wird ein Sonderzeichen, genannt មុសីកទន្ទ mosaika:thon verwendet: ង៉ ញ៉ ម៉ រ៉ វ៉ nga: nya: ma: ra: la: wa:

Wenn der Platz oberhalb des Konsunanten von einem Vokal beansprucht wird, wird statt der genannten Sonderzeichen das Symbol gleich dem o verwendet

z.B: ស៊ី (សី៊) sie (essen, fressen) oder មឺុន (មឺ៊ន) moen
« Last Edit: January 26, 2018, 05:37:41 AM by Johann »
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Online Johann

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Re: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« Reply #1 on: January 24, 2018, 07:42:30 AM »
Mitlaute (Konsonanten) អក្សរ a(k)so(r) (from pi. akkhara)

Erste "Gruppe", Velare (Gaumensegellaut oder Hintergaumenlaut), kaṇṭhajā កណ្ឋជា

ក ខ គ ឃ ង

ka: kha: go gho ngo

LautFußvoller Lautohne NachklangPali
អក្សរជើងអក្សរបាឡិ
ក្ក ka: k ka k
ខ្ខ kha: kh kha kh
គ្គ go g gea g
ឃ្ឃ gho gh ghea gh
ង្ង ngo ng ngea ṅea

ka: der Nacken, Beginn einer Konstruktion

កក ka:(k) gefrohren

កុក ko(k) (Art) Storch

កម្ម kamm Kamma, Karma, kamma

kho Einbrenn (ähnl. Curry, Gulasch)

ខាង kha(ng) Seite, Richtung

ខេមរ khema(r) Khmer, Menschen bzw. Land in Frieden, Sicherheit, khema(ra)

គង់ gong sitzen, bleiben, verweilen (gehoben, königl. bzw. Mönche)

គឃរ gogho(r) laut, ungut

គុណ gun Güte, Gönnen, guṇa

ឃរណី ghoronei Frau des Hauses, Ehefrau, gharaṇī

ឃោស ghos Stimme, Klang, ghosa

ងក់ ngok (den Kopf) senken, beugen

* Johann : Audio nachträglich ersetzt!
« Last Edit: January 26, 2018, 11:51:13 AM by Johann »
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Online Johann

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Re: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« Reply #2 on: January 24, 2018, 12:09:35 PM »
Zweite "Gruppe", Palatale (stimmhafter palataler Nasalt), tālujā តាលុជា

ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ

ca: cha: jo jho nyo

LautFußvoller Lautohne NachklangPali
អក្សរជើងអក្សរបាឡិ
ច្ច ca: c ca c
ឆ្ឆ cha: ch cha ch
ជ្ជ jo j jea j
ឈ្ឈ jho jh jhea jh
ញ្ញ nyo ny ñea ñ

ca: spalten

ចា ca ja (von Frauen)

ចចក់ ca:ca:k "Mini"-Hausgecko

ចន្ទ ca:n(d) Mond, Strahlen, pi. canda

ឆទ្វារ chadvea sechs Sinne, sechs Tore, pi. chadvāra

ឆន្ទៈ (ឆន្ទ) chandea Wollen, Streben, pi. chanda

ជក់ jok rauchen (Zigaretten)

ជា jea werden, sein, geheilt, ist

ជាតិ jeat Geburt, Rasse, Nation, Stand, pi. jāti

ឈប់ jhop anhalten, stoppen, Halt

ឈាន jean vorwärts gehen, Schritt tun, wandern, meditativ sammeln, pi. jhāna

ញញួរ nyonyuar Hammer

ញតិ nyeat Verwandter, pi. ñāti
« Last Edit: January 24, 2018, 04:24:57 PM by Johann »
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Re: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« Reply #3 on: January 24, 2018, 04:23:15 PM »
Dritte "Gruppe", Retroflexe, mudḍajā មុទ្ធជា

ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ

ta: tha: do dho na:

LautFußvoller Lautohne NachklangPali
អក្សរជើងអក្សរបាឡិ
ដ្ដ ta: t ṭa
ឋ្ឋ tha: th ṭha ṭh
ឌ្ឌ do d ḍea
ឍ្ឍ dho dh ḍhea ḍh
ណ្ណ na n ṇa

ta: kleines Fährboot

ដក ta:(k) heraus ziehen

ដង ta:ng (aus dem Wasser) schopfen

ឋាន tha:n Reich, Platz, Aufenthalt

ឌមជន domochon einfache Leute

ឍាមរា dheamorea (Art von) Gans

ណា na Welcher? Wo?

ណែ nai erklären, anleiten
« Last Edit: January 26, 2018, 06:47:18 AM by Johann »
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Online Johann

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Re: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« Reply #4 on: January 26, 2018, 01:54:30 PM »
Dritte "Gruppe", Dentale, dantajā ទនតជា

ត ថ ទ ធ ន

ta: tha: do dho no

LautFußvoller Lautohne NachklangPali
អក្សរជើងអក្សរបាឡិ
ត្ត ta: t ta t
ថ្ធ tha: th tha th
ទ្ទ do d dea d
ធ្ធ dho dh dhea dh
ន្ន no n nea n

ta: (etwas) verbinden

តា ta Großvater

តន័យ tanay Sohn, pi. tanaya

ថយ tha:y zurück tretten, weichen

ថា tha sagen, benennen

ទទេ dode leer, nichts

ទា dea Ente

ទាន dean Gabe, Großzügigkeit, pi dāna

ធន dhon Reichtum Schatz, pi. dhana

ធម៌/ធម្ម dhoa/dhomm Dhamma, Rechtschaffenheit, Richtigkeit, pi dhamma

នគរ nogor Hauptstadt, Königreich, Imperium, pi. nagara


This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Online Johann

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Re: Khmer Alphabet und Lautschrift
« Reply #5 on: January 27, 2018, 01:14:50 AM »
Dritte "Gruppe", Labiale, oṭṭhajā ឪដ្ឍជា

ប ផ ព ភ ម

pa: pha: bo bho mo

LautFußvoller Lautohne NachklangPali
អក្សរជើងអក្សរបាឡិ
ប្ប pa: p pa p
ផ្ផ pha: ph pha ph
ព្ព bo b bea b
ភ្ភ bho bh bhea bh
ម្ម mo m mea m
This post and Content has come to be by Dhamma-Dana and so is given as it       Dhamma-Dana: Johann

Tags:
 

Plauderbox

 

Johann

October 12, 2018, 04:13:16 PM
Good to see Nyom Norum.
 

Johann

October 07, 2018, 10:38:10 AM
Maybe of support for lasting satifaction: Seeds of Becoming .
 

Johann

October 07, 2018, 06:57:38 AM
When ever love arises, dislike will be it's end. Who ever seeks out for friends, will get his enemy. Why? Because not willing to leave home. May wanderer gus find the way to never return. Mudita

gus

October 07, 2018, 03:38:58 AM
Vandami.

gus

October 07, 2018, 03:38:22 AM
Nevertheless my courage of active participation  has been fallen down. Anyway I hope to come time to time.
Okasa dwarattayena katam sabbam accayam khamata me bhante.

gus

October 07, 2018, 03:37:11 AM
Okasa bhante,

I didn't accepted Dymitros invitation to start a Theravada forum, because I thought this forum is pure Theravada. Now I regret about it, yet think this forum is comparatively good.  I learnt many valuable things from you and grateful to you. Nevertheless my courage of active partici
 

Johann

October 07, 2018, 02:20:29 AM
What ever one searches for, that he/she will find. Less are those seeing the nature of combined thing, leaving home and go beyond Maras domain.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 11:45:18 PM
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 11:39:12 PM
When one is born in outer regions ... your island has drifted away.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 11:30:00 PM
macchariya, a boarder hard to cross to the middle way, abounding home, sakayaditthi, doubt and rituals.

gus

October 06, 2018, 02:33:02 PM
However much one say, West is West, East is East.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 02:28:29 PM
Where ever there is east, there is west. And vici versa. Where ever there is nama, there is rupa. Where ever one seeks for a home, there he will suffer.

gus

October 06, 2018, 02:03:31 PM
West is West

gus

October 06, 2018, 09:56:42 AM
belief of kamma, gratitude, independence, honesty, devotion : These are hard to find in people
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 05:49:14 AM
Again, a latin proverb mit be useful: Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi , patisota is always harmful if not just one own defilements or having a proper stand to help. Sota is the virtue required to resist in borderlands.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 05:41:52 AM
If in a borderland it's better to simply serve and support the Sangha. It's not smart to seek for other householders to nurish on traced imperfections of something required to uphold, wanderer gus.

gus

October 06, 2018, 04:54:48 AM
Okasa, happy to hear such things reagarding kamma. Many monks I have met don't directly speak about kamma because they have been tired after practicing some years and now bit relaxed.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 04:17:26 AM
Such can be total kusala and total akusala or simply defuse. Set your mind right and be mindful, that nothing will be of harm for yourself and others.
 

Johann

October 06, 2018, 04:15:27 AM
There is nothing not permitted. Merits or demerits are the actors responsibility. One is full in charge of ones action in this Domain here, wanderer gus.

gus

October 06, 2018, 03:50:00 AM
Bhante, is it permitted to ask questions or post things on behalf of other/future people ?

gus

October 05, 2018, 09:19:32 AM
We have been advised like this:
"No matter however much monks reject you,
Never leave the place."
 

Johann

October 05, 2018, 09:09:37 AM
It's good when wanderer gus takes a rest, turns to a lonly place, enjoys the merits done and find a good place for his mind and fixes possible open wholes when clear where he likes to go some hours later.
 

Johann

October 05, 2018, 08:59:03 AM
Wanderer Gus knows how foolish this statement is. That is not the way to get out of a hole.

gus

October 05, 2018, 08:42:59 AM
okasa,
falling down from a status is suffering.
So, if I could stay in the hell-being status from the beginning, then no suffering.
 

Johann

October 05, 2018, 07:33:20 AM
From a state of a young Bhikkhu equal tradition...to householder... ...asura (now) on the border to animal, peta, hell-state. It can go quick if not having firm nissaya.
 

Johann

October 05, 2018, 07:29:27 AM
Aniccam vatta samsara...

gus

October 05, 2018, 06:56:28 AM
Evolution:
Bhante subhuti =>
Upasaka gus =>
Deva gus =>
Asura gus.

In the future:
Asura gus =>
Peta gus =>
Animal gus =>
Hell-being gus ???

gus

October 05, 2018, 05:51:42 AM
Okasa, I think bhante thinks me as a patriot because of some content of my posts. But it is not.
Vandami.
 

Johann

October 05, 2018, 05:41:33 AM
What ever one likes to, not touched like the moon, does not mean to praise what is blameworthy and vici-versa and to have metta not to let people run into hell if ways can be pointed out. Yet other choices at least are their. Be quick, your island drifts away!

gus

October 05, 2018, 05:34:15 AM
Okasa,
As long as I don't do exactly what you say, I think I'll not be able to make you happy or satisfied.
Vandami.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 02:12:55 PM
If thinking that this is for sure, if delighting in believing that connected things are a refuge and give space to rest: one may do so. Ones own choice. When ever one stops to nurish inwardly, ouwardly path and fruits die. Good as well as bad.

gus

October 04, 2018, 11:28:51 AM
If bhante didn't let the weak person to live in avatar/deva mode, then he will lose both openness and connection. Up to now I have secured at least the connection.
Vandami.

gus

October 04, 2018, 11:22:24 AM
Yet I appreciate and pay vandana for your care and advice on openness.
Vandami.

gus

October 04, 2018, 11:19:56 AM
Please forgive me  bhante if I have made you tired. I don't like to accumulate akusala by making a monk tired in expecting a naughty chicken to be a good duck.
Okasa dwarattayena katam sabbam accayam Khamtu me bhante!
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 11:07:06 AM
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 11:01:00 AM
Differnt asked "why is Bhante not happy, dwell not in outwardly seeming being not touched?" Because it would not only confirm and show sign of aggreement of unwise acts, but also very incompassionate and cruel. Also place for suspecting corrupt ways and invite others to follow the comfortable dwelli
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 10:54:12 AM
No one is able to make my person angry, which does not mean that he would not appear angry so to possible prevent from doing what is not conductive for liberation, even lead in lower states. Nothing to worry, but also no invitation to test it foolish since it could hurt one self and others.

gus

October 04, 2018, 10:46:39 AM
Okasa bhante, Isn't there at least single way to stay anonymous without making you angry?
Vandami.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 10:33:12 AM
corr: "it's, the domain of the Noble Ones, is nobody's personal domain" there are no wards around fields for merits and no tickets to pay
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 10:29:31 AM
What ever Deva gus feels inspired. It's oneones personal domain and all giving is good in the distance of the brigh cool moon. One should not fear, should not be shy to do what is good and praised by the wise but be quick!

gus

October 04, 2018, 10:21:39 AM
Bhante, is that mean you don't like me to talk about higher subjects and like to talk about basics only?
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 10:02:12 AM
It would be more than good if teaching others a lot on the topic vandami (paying respect) and khamatu (asking for forgiviness) since unknown and not practiced here around this field of merits in compassion to former relatives, Deva gus.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:55:38 AM
...total no problem to dwell and lay down in the cool shadow to heal at all and no need to ask for pardon when intended for progressing and to get fit for the battles so hard to win.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:52:39 AM
But they would not feed them in ways which might look as nurishing relations for wordly sake directly, for people not understanding would think "look, he is herding, carry for his cattle, he wasts the gift of the land, the heritage of the Gems for his becoming and own gain. Understood? Total no prob
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:45:29 AM
Never would people of integrity send away pets, petas or sick, for they are not able to change for now but possible can gain of what they need to change.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:42:28 AM
If, just to think about, one lives deliberatly with sign showing a rejection of firm trust in kamma, one lives in nurishing the danger of falling into grave wrong views and give ways that others follow what is improper to do. Just to reflect. How ever wishing to do.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:36:03 AM
What ever one does, holds as refuge or abounds, either good or bad refuge, one does for one self. Ones own choices, ones own fruits, ones own limitations, hindrences.

gus

October 04, 2018, 09:28:15 AM
Khamatu me bhante!
My previous  post was this.
"Please forgive me and give birth to kindness ao as to let me live here anonymous "
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:21:35 AM
... doing so based on gratitude without just trading in giving, or out of duty in a relation one resits, one is able to get not only to the borders, but into Noble ones domain.
 

Johann

October 04, 2018, 09:19:27 AM
And to put much into such sacrifies of giving ones honor, ones dwelling, ones source of food (family), one possession (even intelectual), the Dhamma one has made his own

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