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Topic Summary

Posted by: Johann
« on: January 13, 2018, 05:24:49 PM »

Quote from: by Upasaka Chris on BSE
Inter-relation between the four brahmaviharas?

I read once, online, someone (perhaps in the Tibetan tradition if that matters) saying that the four brahmaviharas are inter-related -- in particular, that too much of one is counteracted by a bit of another.

For example:

* Feeling too sorry for someone (too much compassion/karuna) is counteracted by a bit of mudita (remembering the ways in which that person is virtuous or fortunate)

* Similarly, too much of each of the other three is counter-balanced by a bit of each of the others
I was reminded of it by this answer ("in good there is seed of bad").

I don't remember the explanation I read, though, and I wasn't able to find the reference again.

Is that anything you've heard before? If you know the explanation but don't know a reference for it, that's OK too (I'd be happy to read just your explanation of it even without a reference).

Nyom Chris ,

particular answer might be already given in [Q&A] How to view people with metta and karuna? in regard of how to use relations and deeds, gratitude, obligation useful for the Brahmavihara developments.

To the question direct, my person doubts that such as a direct relation was directly pointed out by the Buddha, but can be seen if looking in a larger frame of his whole teachings.

How ever, the use of a, from there araving, relation, useful for the practice, is a common and usual tool, certainly best expressed in the common recitation:

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammā-sambuddhassa


The Sublime Attitudes - Die erhabenen Haltungen

Ahaṃ sukhito homi
May I be happy.
Möge Ich glücklich sein.

Niddukkho homi
May I be free from stress & pain.
Möge ich frei von Stress und Schmerz sein.

Avero homi
May I be free from animosity.
Möge ich frei von Anfeindung sein.

Abyāpajjho homi
May I be free from oppression.
Möge ich frei von Unterdrückung sein.

Anīgho homi
May I be free from trouble.
Möge ich frei von Schwierigkeiten sein.

Sukhī attānaṃ pariharāmi
May I look after myself with ease.
Möge ich auch mich selbst mit Leichtigkeit achten.

(METTĀ — GOOD WILL / WOHLWOLLEN)

Sabbe sattā sukhitā hontu.
May all living beings be happy.
Mögen alle Lebewesen glücklich sein.

Sabbe sattā averā hontu.
May all living beings be free from animosity.
Mögen alle Lebewesen frei von Feindselligkeit sein.

Sabbe sattā abyāpajjhā hontu.
May all living beings be free from oppression.
Mögen alle Lebeswesen frei von Unterdrückung sein.

Sabbe sattā anīghā hontu.
May all living beings be free from trouble.
Mögen alle Lebewesen frei von Schwierigkeiten sein.

Sabbe sattā sukhī attānaṃ pariharantu.
May all living beings look after themselves with ease.
Mögen alle Lebewesen mit Leichtigkeit auf sich selber achten.

(KARUṆĀ — COMPASSION / MITGEFÜHL)

Sabbe sattā sabba-dukkhā pamuccantu.
May all living beings be freed from all stress & pain.
Mögen alle Lebenwesen von Stress und Schmerz befreit werden.

(MUDITĀ — APPRECIATION / ANERKENNUNG)

Sabbe sattā laddha-sampattito mā vigacchantu.
May all living beings not be deprived of the good fortune they have attained.
Mögen alle Lebewesen nicht der guten Bestimmung die sie erlangt haben, verlieren.

(UPEKKHĀ — EQUANIMITY / GLEICHMUT)

Sabbe sattā kammassakā kamma-dāyādā kamma-yonī kamma-bandhū kamma-paṭisaraṇā.
All living beings are the owners of their actions, heir to their actions, born of their actions, related through their actions, and live dependent on their actions.
Alle Lebewesen sind Besitzer ihrer Taten, Erben ihrer Taten, geboren aus deren Taten, verbunden durch deren Taten und leben abhängig von deren Taten.

Yaṃ kammaṃ karissanti kalyāṇaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā tassa dāyādā bhavissanti.
Whatever they do, for good or for evil, to that will they fall heir.
Was immer sie tun, für ein Gutes oder Schlechtes, zu dessen Erbe werden sie fallen.

Sabbe sattā sadā hontu
Averā sukha-jīvino.

May all beings live happily,
always free from animosity.

Mögen alle Lebewesen glücklich leben,
stets frei von Feindseeligkeit.


Kataṃ puñña-phalaṃ mayhaṃ
Sabbe bhāgī bhavantu te.

May all share in the blessings
springing from the good I have done.

Mögen alle an dem Segen teilhaben,
der von dem Guten entspring, das ich getan.


Hotu sabbaṃ sumaṅgalaṃ
May there be every good blessing.
Mögen da jeder gute Segen sein.

Rakkhantu sabba-devatā
May the devas protect you.
Mögen die Devas Sie beschützen.

Sabba-buddhānubhāvena
Through the power of all the Buddhas,
Durch die Macht aller Buddhas,

Sotthī hontu nirantaraṃ
May you forever be well.
Mögen Sie für immer wohlauf sein.

Hotu sabbaṃ sumaṅgalaṃ
May there be every good blessing.
Mögen da jeder gute Segen sein.

Rakkhantu sabba-devatā
May the devas protect you.
Mögen die Devas Sie beschützen.

Sabba-dhammānubhāvena
Through the power of all the Dhamma,
Durch die Macht all des Dhammas,

Sotthī hontu nirantaraṃ
May you forever be well.
Mögen Sie für immer wohlauf sein.

Hotu sabbaṃ sumaṅgalaṃ
May there be every good blessing.
Mögen da jeder gute Segen sein.

Rakkhantu sabba-devatā
May the devas protect you.
Mögen die Devas Sie beschützen.

Sabba-saṅghānubhāvena
Through the power of all the Sangha,
Durch die Macht der gesamten Sangha,

Sotthī hontu nirantaraṃ
May you forever be well.
Mögen Sie für immer wohlauf sein.

More in relation of use can be found in the book [En] The Sublime Attitudes: Study Guide on the Brahmaviharas, Bhante Thanissaro

...As part of right concentration, all four brahmavihāras can function as objects of jhāna, the strong levels of concentration that strengthen the mind’s
ability to make the sublime attitudes truly unlimited. The concentration based on these attitudes can also provide the mind with the steadiness and inner strength it needs for discernment to break through to total release.

Because the brahmavihāras function both toward the beginning and again toward the end of the path, they have an interactive relationship with all the other path factors. On the one hand, they provide the motivation to practice right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness both for one’s own good and for the good of others. On the other hand, the development of concentration based on the brahmavihāras requires, as a prerequisite, that you work on making your thoughts, words, and deeds harmless, for otherwise your concentration will be undermined by hypocrisy. Actually, all the factors of the path have an interactive relationship, interpenetrating and strengthening one another along the way. This means that the brahmavihāras, as elements in right resolve and right concentration, also strengthen right view, the first factor of the path, just as right view gives them guidance.

To begin with, right view is not simply a collection of facts about the world. Instead, it focuses attention on a single problem, which is an issue of goodwill and compassion: how to understand causality in a way that helps put an end to suffering. In this way, the brahmavihāras provide direction for the use of discernment on the path.

At the same time, the brahmavihāras in the context of the path take their guidance from right view so that they don’t flounder around in wishful thinking or ineffectual resolves. Instead, grounded in a clear understanding of cause and effect, they are focused on the most effective ways of achieving their aspirations.
...

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