Pāḷi; √ adhiṭṭhāna
alt. sp.: IPA: əd̪ʰɪʈʈʰɑːn̪ə, Velthuis: adhi.t.thaana, readable: adhit't'haana, simple: adhitthana
translation ~: …
adhiṭṭhāna: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
1. 'Foundation': four 'foundations' of an Arahat's mentality, mentioned and explained in MN 140: the foundation of wisdom (paññā), of truthfulness (sacca) of liberality (cāga) and of peace (upasama). See also DN 33 and Commentary.
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
The Pāli dictionaries broadly concur with the renderings given here, though DOP says ’fixes the mind on’ and ‘supervise’ and ‘not undertaken’ where we prefer ‘concentrate’ and ‘organise’ and ‘firmly reject.’
On ignoring the dictionaries
In translation, dictionary renderings are mostly ignored. For example,
Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, obstinate adherence
And what Ānanda, is the perception of disgust for the whole world [of phenomena]?
In this regard, Ānanda, for whatever in the world [of phenomena] there is clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification, a bhikkhu abides abandoning, not grasping.
bhikkhu ye loke upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te pajahanto viharati na upādiyanto. (AN v 111)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, resolve
For a brahman, learning the sacred texts is his resolve (mantādhiṭṭhānā).
For a householder, gaining a craft is his resolve (sippādhiṭṭhānā).
For a woman, having a son is her resolve (puttādhiṭṭhānā).
For a thief, gaining a caravan is his resolve (saṭhādhiṭṭhānā).
Illustration: anadhiṭṭhānā, firmly reject
Some ascetic or Brahmanist may… in every way firmly reject the ties to individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence
sabbaso kāmasaṁyojanānaṁ anadhiṭṭhānā. (MN ii 237)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, doggedly assume
He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood.”
so rūpaṁ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti. (SN iii 114)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, concentrate
In this regard a bhikkhu possesses faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom. He thinks, ‘Oh, that at the demise of the body at death, I might be reborn in the company of wealthy khattiyas.’ He fixes his mind on that idea, concentrates on it, and develops it
so taṁ cittaṁ dahati taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti).
These aspirations and musings of his, when developed and cultivated, lead to his rebirth there. (MN iii 99)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, organise
When a bhikkhu is having a hut built for himself by a benefactor, then standing where there are no crops (appaharite ṭhitena), he should organise the use of a method that involves two or three layers of facing material (dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṁ adhiṭṭhātabbanti) around the door. Should he organise the use of more than that, even if standing where there are no crops (tato ce uttariṁ appaharite pi ṭhito adhiṭṭhaheyya), it is an offence of pācittiya.
If he organises (the work) standing where there are crops it is a dukkaṭa offence (sace harite ṭhito adhiṭṭhāti āpatti dukkaṭassa). (Vin.4.47-8)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbā, concentrate
When resentment has arisen for someone (āghāto jāyetha), one can concentrate on the ownership of karmically consequential conduct by that person
kammassakatā tasmiṁ puggale adhiṭṭhātabbā
‘This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious’
kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo… tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti).
This is how resentment for that person can be dispelled
evaṁ tasmiṁ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo) (AN iii 185)
Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi, properly concentrate
Out of tender concern the Teacher gave me a [clean] foot-cloth, [saying]: ‘Properly concentrate on this pure thing somewhere quiet.’
Anukampāya me satthā pādāsi pādapuñchaniṁ
Etaṁ suddhaṁ adhiṭṭhehi ekamantaṁ svadhiṭṭhitaṁ. (Tha 560)
Commentary: manasikārena svadhiṭṭhitaṁ katvā.
Rhys Davids: 'Fix thou thy mind on this clean thing, the while/Well concentrated thou dost sit apart.
Suppose a foolish mountain cow―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about roaming mountains, improficient―were to think, 'How about if I ate grass I have never eaten before and drank water I have never drunk before?' She would lift her hind hoof without having firmly placed her front hoof and thus would not go where she had never gone before. And neither would she safely return to where she had come from.
In the same way, a bhikkhu―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about first jhāna, improficient―enters first jhāna but does not stick with that [successful] meditation object (so taṁ nimittaṁ na āsevati), does not develop it (na bhāveti), cultivate it (na bahulīkaroti), or properly concentrate on it (na svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhāti). The thought occurs to him, 'How about if I entered second jhāna?’ He is not able to so. And when he tries to re-enter first jhāna he is not able to do that either. This is called a bhikkhu who has slipped and fallen from both sides, like the foolish mountain cow. (AN iv 418)
Illustration: adhiṭṭheyyāsi, concentrate
If the torpor is unabandoned, then focus on the mental image of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikareyyāsi), concentrate on the mental image of day (divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi). As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day (yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā).
If the torpor is unabandoned, then perceiving the constant nature of reality (pacchāpuresaññī), concentrate on pacing back and forth (caṅkamaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi), your senses inwardly immersed (antogatehi indriyehi), your mind not straying outwards (abahigatena mānasena). (AN iv 86)
Illustration: adiṭṭhāti, concentrate
Possessed of three factors a shopkeeper is unable to either gain or develop wealth. What three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on his business
na sakkaccaṁ kammantaṁ adiṭṭhāti
Likewise, possessed of three factors a bhikkhu is incapable of either gaining an unattained spiritually wholesome factor, or developing an attained spiritually wholesome factor. Which three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on an object of meditation
na sakkaccaṁ samādhinimittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. (AN i 115)
Illustration: adhiṭṭheyya, concentrate on
The Mettā Sutta says an arahant would have an unlimited attitude to all beings (sabbabhūtesū mānasaṁ bhāvaye aparimānaṁ) and that as long as he was free of torpor (yāvatassa vigatamiddho) he would concentrate on this [practice] mindfully (etaṁ satiṁ adhiṭṭheyya) (Snp 151).
Illustration: adhiṭṭhenti, organise
Those bhikkhus who organised the building work
yepi bhikkhū navakammaṁ adhiṭṭhenti. (Vin.2.159)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhāyā, organise
It is an offence for a bhikkhu to commit an act of murder either by doing it himself or by organising someone else to do it, which is defined as:
• ‘by organising’ means: while organising he orders “Hit thus. Strike thus. Kill thus”’
Adhiṭṭhāyā ti adhiṭṭhahitvā āṇāpeti evaṁ vijjha evaṁ pahara evaṁ ghātehī ti. (Vin.3.74)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhātuṁ, formally determine [as personal possessions]
I allow you bhikkhus to formally determine the three robes [as personal possessions]
Anujānāmi bhikkhave ticīvaraṁ adhiṭṭhātuṁ. (Vin.1.297)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbo, formally determine [as a water-strainer]
Bhikkhus travelling a highroad should carry a water-strainer.
• If there is no strainer or regulation water-pot, then a corner of the outer robe should be formally determined [as a water-strainer] with the words “I will drink [water] having strained it with this.’
Sace na hoti parissāvanaṁ vā dhammakarako vā saṅghāṭikaṇṇo pi adhiṭṭhātabbo iminā parissāvetvā pivissāmī ti. (Vin.2.119)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhahaṁ, resolve
If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence. Therefore Soṇa, resolve [to apply yourself] moderately energetically.
accāraddhaṁ viriyaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvattati. Atilīnaṁ viriyaṁ kosajjāya saṁvattati. Tasmātiha tvaṁ soṇa viriyasamataṁ adhiṭṭhaha. (AN iii 376)
Illustration: anadhiṭṭhāya, firmly rejecting
Firmly rejecting the ego, I saw the supreme landing-place.
Anadhiṭṭhāya attānaṁ titthamaddakkhimuttamaṁ. (Tha 766)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhāya, firmly established
The Blessed One suppressed his illness with energy and lived on having firmly established the aspiration for further life.
Illustration: adhiṭṭhito, committed
They considered him wise when he was committed to faring alone, but now that he is devoted to sexual intercourse he is harassed as a fool.
Paṇḍito ti samaññāto ekacariyaṁ adhiṭṭhito
Athāpi methune yutto mandova parikissati. (Snp 824)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, firmly established
The Buddha, cleanser of virulent spiritual flaws, removed the spiritual shackle [of grasping] which had long been lurking in me, long been firmly established in me.
Buddho me pānudi ganthaṁ visadosappavāhano ti. (Tha 768)
Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, controlled
Being [yourself] controlled by the power of the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view], mind, you lead me round and round like an ox around the threshing-floor.
Catubbipallāsavasaṁ adhiṭṭhitaṁ gomaṇḍalaṁ va parinesi citta maṁ. (Tha 1143)
Catubbipallāsa: ‘the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view].’ Cattāro'me bhikkhave saññāvipallāsā cittavipallāsā diṭṭhivipallāsā. Katame cattāro? Anicce bhikkhave niccanti… Dukkhe bhikkhave sukhanti… Anattani bhikkhave attāti… Asubhe bhikkhave subhan ti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso. (AN ii 52)
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Suttas and Dhammadesanā