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adhiṭṭhāna {pi}

Pāḷi; √ adhiṭṭhāna
alt. sp.: IPA: əd̪ʰɪʈʈʰɑːn̪ə, Velthuis: adhi.t.thaana, readable: adhit't'haana, simple: adhitthana
translation ~:
khmer: អធិដ្ឋាន
thai: อธิฏฺฐาน
sinhal.: අධිට්ඨාන
burm.: အဓိဋ္ဌာန


[dic] adhiṭṭhāna (adhitthana)

adhiṭṭhāna: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

adhiṭṭhāna: Determination; resolution. One of the ten perfections (pāramīs).


Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

adhiṭṭhāna, as a doctrinal term, occurs chiefly in two meanings:

1. 'Foundation': four 'foundations' of an Arahat's mentality, mentioned and explained in MN 140: the foundation of wisdom (paññā), of truthfulness (sacca) of liberality (cāga) and of peace (upasama). See also DN 33 and Commentary.

2. 'Determination', resolution, in: adhiṭṭhāna-iddhi, 'magical power of determination' (see iddhi); adhiṭṭhāna-pāramī, 'perfection of resolution' (see pāramī).


PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:


Glossary Thanissaro

Adhiṭṭhāna (Vinaya): determining for use. see BMC NP 1, 3, 21, & 24 and Appendix IV.


Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:


Dictionaries: concurrence

The Pāli dictionaries broadly concur with the renderings given here, though DOP says ’fixes the mind on’ and ‘supervise’ and ‘not undertaken’ where we prefer ‘concentrate’ and ‘organise’ and ‘firmly reject.’

On ignoring the dictionaries

In translation, dictionary renderings are mostly ignored. For example,

  • 1) Horner says bhikkhus were ‘looking after’ repairs where we would say ‘organising’ (Vin.2.159).
  • 2) Bodhi says a shopkeeper ‘diligently applies’ himself to his work where we would say he ‘carefully concentrates’ (sakkaccaṁ kammantaṁ adiṭṭhāti) on it.
  • 3) Norman often rejects the usual translations for the word. We accept his ‘established’ at Tha 768, a rendering not noted in the dictionaries.


adhiṭṭhānā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, obstinate adherence

And what Ānanda, is the perception of disgust for the whole world [of phenomena]?

In this regard, Ānanda, for whatever in the world [of phenomena] there is clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification, a bhikkhu abides abandoning, not grasping.

bhikkhu ye loke upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te pajahanto viharati na upādiyanto. (AN v 111)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, resolve

For a khattiya (khattiyā), gaining power is his resolve (balādhiṭṭhānā).

For a brahman, learning the sacred texts is his resolve (mantādhiṭṭhānā).

For a householder, gaining a craft is his resolve (sippādhiṭṭhānā).

For a woman, having a son is her resolve (puttādhiṭṭhānā).

For a thief, gaining a caravan is his resolve (saṭhādhiṭṭhānā).

For an ascetic (samaṇā) maintaining virtue is his resolve (sīlādhiṭṭhānā) (AN iii 363).


anadhiṭṭhānā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhānā, firmly reject

Some ascetic or Brahmanist may… in every way firmly reject the ties to individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence

sabbaso kāmasaṁyojanānaṁ anadhiṭṭhānā. (MN ii 237)


adhiṭṭhāti: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, doggedly assume

He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood.”

so rūpaṁ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti. (SN iii 114)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, concentrate

In this regard a bhikkhu possesses faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom. He thinks, ‘Oh, that at the demise of the body at death, I might be reborn in the company of wealthy khattiyas.’ He fixes his mind on that idea, concentrates on it, and develops it

so taṁ cittaṁ dahati taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti).

These aspirations and musings of his, when developed and cultivated, lead to his rebirth there. (MN iii 99)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, organise

When a bhikkhu is having a hut built for himself by a benefactor, then standing where there are no crops (appaharite ṭhitena), he should organise the use of a method that involves two or three layers of facing material (dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṁ adhiṭṭhātabbanti) around the door. Should he organise the use of more than that, even if standing where there are no crops (tato ce uttariṁ appaharite pi ṭhito adhiṭṭhaheyya), it is an offence of pācittiya.

If he organises (the work) standing where there are crops it is a dukkaṭa offence (sace harite ṭhito adhiṭṭhāti āpatti dukkaṭassa). (Vin.4.47-8)


adhiṭṭhātabbā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbā, concentrate

When resentment has arisen for someone (āghāto jāyetha), one can concentrate on the ownership of karmically consequential conduct by that person

kammassakatā tasmiṁ puggale adhiṭṭhātabbā

‘This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious’

kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo… tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti).

This is how resentment for that person can be dispelled

evaṁ tasmiṁ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo) (AN iii 185)

svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi

svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhehi, properly concentrate

Out of tender concern the Teacher gave me a [clean] foot-cloth, [saying]: ‘Properly concentrate on this pure thing somewhere quiet.’

Anukampāya me satthā pādāsi pādapuñchaniṁ
Etaṁ suddhaṁ adhiṭṭhehi ekamantaṁ svadhiṭṭhitaṁ. (Tha 560)


Commentary: manasikārena svadhiṭṭhitaṁ katvā.

Rhys Davids: 'Fix thou thy mind on this clean thing, the while/Well concentrated thou dost sit apart.

Suppose a foolish mountain cow―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about roaming mountains, improficient―were to think, 'How about if I ate grass I have never eaten before and drank water I have never drunk before?' She would lift her hind hoof without having firmly placed her front hoof and thus would not go where she had never gone before. And neither would she safely return to where she had come from.

In the same way, a bhikkhu―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about first jhāna, improficient―enters first jhāna but does not stick with that [successful] meditation object (so taṁ nimittaṁ na āsevati), does not develop it (na bhāveti), cultivate it (na bahulīkaroti), or properly concentrate on it (na svādhiṭṭhitaṁ adhiṭṭhāti). The thought occurs to him, 'How about if I entered second jhāna?’ He is not able to so. And when he tries to re-enter first jhāna he is not able to do that either. This is called a bhikkhu who has slipped and fallen from both sides, like the foolish mountain cow. (AN iv 418)


adhiṭṭheyyāsi: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyyāsi, concentrate

If the torpor is unabandoned, then focus on the mental image of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikareyyāsi), concentrate on the mental image of day (divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi). As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day (yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā).

If the torpor is unabandoned, then perceiving the constant nature of reality (pacchāpuresaññī), concentrate on pacing back and forth (caṅkamaṁ adhiṭṭheyyāsi), your senses inwardly immersed (antogatehi indriyehi), your mind not straying outwards (abahigatena mānasena). (AN iv 86)


adiṭṭhāti: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adiṭṭhāti, concentrate

Possessed of three factors a shopkeeper is unable to either gain or develop wealth. What three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on his business

na sakkaccaṁ kammantaṁ adiṭṭhāti

Likewise, possessed of three factors a bhikkhu is incapable of either gaining an unattained spiritually wholesome factor, or developing an attained spiritually wholesome factor. Which three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on an object of meditation

na sakkaccaṁ samādhinimittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. (AN i 115)


adhiṭṭheyya: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyya, concentrate on

The Mettā Sutta says an arahant would have an unlimited attitude to all beings (sabbabhūtesū mānasaṁ bhāvaye aparimānaṁ) and that as long as he was free of torpor (yāvatassa vigatamiddho) he would concentrate on this [practice] mindfully (etaṁ satiṁ adhiṭṭheyya) (Snp 151).


adhiṭṭhenti: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhenti, organise

Those bhikkhus who organised the building work

yepi bhikkhū navakammaṁ adhiṭṭhenti. (Vin.2.159)


adhiṭṭhāyā: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāyā, organise

It is an offence for a bhikkhu to commit an act of murder either by doing it himself or by organising someone else to do it, which is defined as:

• ‘by organising’ means: while organising he orders “Hit thus. Strike thus. Kill thus”’

Adhiṭṭhāyā ti adhiṭṭhahitvā āṇāpeti evaṁ vijjha evaṁ pahara evaṁ ghātehī ti. (Vin.3.74)


adhiṭṭhātuṁ: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātuṁ, formally determine [as personal possessions]

I allow you bhikkhus to formally determine the three robes [as personal possessions]

Anujānāmi bhikkhave ticīvaraṁ adhiṭṭhātuṁ. (Vin.1.297)


adhiṭṭhātabbo: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbo, formally determine [as a water-strainer]

Bhikkhus travelling a highroad should carry a water-strainer.

• If there is no strainer or regulation water-pot, then a corner of the outer robe should be formally determined [as a water-strainer] with the words “I will drink [water] having strained it with this.’

Sace na hoti parissāvanaṁ vā dhammakarako vā saṅghāṭikaṇṇo pi adhiṭṭhātabbo iminā parissāvetvā pivissāmī ti. (Vin.2.119)


adhiṭṭhahaṁ: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahaṁ, resolve

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence. Therefore Soṇa, resolve [to apply yourself] moderately energetically.

accāraddhaṁ viriyaṁ uddhaccāya saṁvattati. Atilīnaṁ viriyaṁ kosajjāya saṁvattati. Tasmātiha tvaṁ soṇa viriyasamataṁ adhiṭṭhaha. (AN iii 376)


anadhiṭṭhāya: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhāya, firmly rejecting

Firmly rejecting the ego, I saw the supreme landing-place.

Anadhiṭṭhāya attānaṁ titthamaddakkhimuttamaṁ. (Tha 766)


adhiṭṭhāya: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāya, firmly established

The Blessed One suppressed his illness with energy and lived on having firmly established the aspiration for further life.

Atha kho bhagavā taṁ ābādhaṁ viriyena paṭippanāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṁ adhiṭṭhāya vihāsi. (DN ii 99; SN v 153)


adhiṭṭhito: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhito, committed

They considered him wise when he was committed to faring alone, but now that he is devoted to sexual intercourse he is harassed as a fool.

Paṇḍito ti samaññāto ekacariyaṁ adhiṭṭhito
Athāpi methune yutto mandova parikissati. (Snp 824)


adhiṭṭhitaṁ: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, firmly established

The Buddha, cleanser of virulent spiritual flaws, removed the spiritual shackle [of grasping] which had long been lurking in me, long been firmly established in me.

Dīgharattānusayitaṁ cirarattamadhiṭṭhitaṁ
Buddho me pānudi ganthaṁ visadosappavāhano ti. (Tha 768)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṁ, controlled

Being [yourself] controlled by the power of the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view], mind, you lead me round and round like an ox around the threshing-floor.

Catubbipallāsavasaṁ adhiṭṭhitaṁ gomaṇḍalaṁ va parinesi citta maṁ. (Tha 1143)


Catubbipallāsa: ‘the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view].’ Cattāro'me bhikkhave saññāvipallāsā cittavipallāsā diṭṭhivipallāsā. Katame cattāro? Anicce bhikkhave niccanti… Dukkhe bhikkhave sukhanti… Anattani bhikkhave attāti… Asubhe bhikkhave subhan ti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso. (AN ii 52)


adhiṭṭhahī: (main article see: adhiṭṭhāna)

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahī, firmly established

The Buddha is ‘firmly established in non-anger’


Glossary various Teacher

— —


See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

Adhiṭṭhāna: determination, resolution). See also Pāramīs.


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en/dictionary/adhiṭṭhāna.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:32 by