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bhava {pi}


Pāḷi; √ bhava
gender:
type:
alt. sp.: IPA: bʰəʋə, Velthuis: bhava, readable: bhava, simple: bhava
translation ~:
skr.:
khmer: ភវ
thai: ภว
sinhal.: භව
burm.: ဘဝ
appears:



bhava.jpg

[dic] bhava

bhava: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

bhava: Becoming. States of being that develop first in the mind and can then be experienced as internal worlds and/or as worlds on an external level. There are three kinds/levels of becoming: on the sensual level, the level of form, and the level of formlessness.

 

Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

bhava:1) 'becoming', 'process of existence', consists of 3 planes: sensuous existence (kāma-bhava), fine-material existence (rūpa-bhava), immaterial existence (arūpa-bhava). Cf. loka.

The whole process of existence may be divided into two aspects:

(1) Kamma-process (kamma-bhava), i.e. the kammically active side of existence, being the cause of rebirth and consisting in wholesome and unwholesome volitional actions. See Kamma, paṭiccasamuppāda (IX).

(2) Kamma-produced rebirth, or regenerating process (uppattibhava), i.e. the kammically passive side of existence consisting in the arising and developing of the kamma-produced and therefore morally neutral mental and bodily phenomena of existence. Cf. Table I, Table II

 

PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:

 

Glossary Thanissaro

Bhava: Becoming. A sense of identity within a particular world of experience. The three levels of becoming are on the level of sensuality, form, and formlessness.

 

Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:

Renderings: bhava
Renderings: vibhava
Introduction

Bhava: individual existence

Rendering bhava as ‘individual existence’ is justified for several reasons:

1) Bhava is linked to ‘the way one exists’ (bhūta):

• In whatever way one exists such that there is the immediate destruction of perceptually obscuring states is the foremost state of individual existence.

Yathābhūtassa anantarā āsavānaṁ khayo hoti idaṁ bhavānaṁ aggan ti. (AN iii 202)

2) Bhava is linked to an [absolute] Selfhood (atta):

• Some people are revolted, appalled, and disgusted by individual existence. They long for the cessation of individual existence, saying, ‘When that [absolute] Selfhood is annihilated, destroyed, and does not exist with the demise of the body at death, this is peaceful, this is sublime, this is reality.

bhaveneva kho paneke aṭṭiyamānā harāyamāsā jigucchamānā vibhavaṁ abhinandanti yato kira bho ayaṁ attaṁ kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā ucchijjati vinassati na hoti parammaraṇā etaṁ santaṁ etaṁ paṇītaṁ etaṁ yathāvantī. (Iti 44)

3) Bhava is linked to the stream of consciousness (viññāṇaṁ):

• The stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence. In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future…. This, Ānanda, is what is implied by the term ‘individual existence.’

Hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ. Evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti… evaṁ kho ānanda bhavo hotī ti. (AN i 223-4)

That the stream of consciousness is equivalent to the individual (purisa) is seen here:

• He comes to know man’s stream of consciousness as an unbroken stream that is established in both this world and the world beyond.

purisassa ca viññāṇasotaṁ pajānāti ubhayato abbocchinnaṁ idha loke patiṭṭhitañca paraloke patiṭṭhitaṁ ca. (DN iii 105)

4) Bhava is linked to puggala:

• And what is the carrier of the burden. The person, one should reply, this Venerable of such a name and clan. This is called the carrier of the burden. And what is the taking up of the burden? It is this craving that leads to renewed states of individual existence.

Katamo ca bhikkhave bhārahāro puggalotissa vacanīyaṁ yo’yaṁ āyasmā evannāmo evaṁgotto ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bhārahāro. Katamañca bhikkhave bhārādānaṁ yāyaṁ taṇhā ponobhavikā. (SN iii 25-6)

Bhavadiṭṭhi and vibhavadiṭṭhi: outline

The two views concerning bhava are:

• The view of the continuance of beings [at death] and the view of the cessation of beings [at death]

dvemā bhikkhave diṭṭhiyo bhavadiṭṭhi ca vibhavadiṭṭhi ca. (MN i 65)

Commentary: Tattha bhavadiṭṭhī ti sassatadiṭṭhi. Vibhavadiṭṭhī ti ucchedadiṭṭhi.

The two views can be illustrated as follows:

Vibhavadiṭṭhi: cessation of beings [at death]

The view of the cessation of beings [at death] is illustrated in this quote:

• There are some ascetics and Brahmanists who are annihilationists. They assert the annihilation, destruction, and cessation of beings [at death]

santi bhikkhave eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññāpenti. (DN i 34)

Bhavadiṭṭhi: continuance of beings [at death]

The view of the continuance of beings [at death] is illustrated in this quote:

• Bhikkhus, there are some ascetics and Brahmanists who speculate about the future and who hold dogmatic views concerning the future, who make various assertions about the future. They assert that the [absolute] Selfhood is perceptive… unperceptive… neither perceptive nor unperceptive and unimpaired after death

santi bhikkhave eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhivuttipadāni abhivadanti.
Saññī… asaññī… nevasaññīnāsaññī attā hoti arogo parammaraṇā ti ittheke abhivadanti. (MN ii 228)

Tibhavā: three planes of existence

The universe is comprised of three planes of existence (dhātu), which are named according to two systems:

1) the low plane of existence, the middle plane of existence, and the high plane of existence, or,

hīnadhātu majjhimadhātu paṇītadhātu (DN iii 215), or,

2) the sensuous plane of existence, the refined material plane of existence, and the immaterial plane of existence

kāmadhātu… rūpadhātu… arūpadhātu. (AN i 224)

Illustrations: planes of existence

tibhavā

tibhavā: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: tibhavā, three planes of existence

He is entirely detached from the three planes of existence.

tibhavābhinissaṭo. (Tha 1089)

Illustration: tibhavā, three planes of existence

The three planes of existence are ravaged [by old age and death].

Illustrations: existence and cessation of existence

bhavā

bhavā: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavā, individual existence

On account of individual existence there is birth, and for one who has come to be there is old age and death.

bhavā jāti bhūtassa jarāmaraṇan ti. (MN i 6)

Illustration: bhava, individual existence

Sirs, though living in a generation that finds enjoyment, pleasure, and satisfaction in individual existence, he has eradicated individual existence together with its origin.

Bhavarāmāya vata bho pajāya bhavaratāya bhavasammuditāya samūlaṁ bhavaṁ udabbahī ti. (MN i 330)

Illustration: bhavā, [renewed] states of individual existence

I have abandoned my wrong view [of reality]. All [renewed] states of individual existence are obliterated. I [now] sacrifice to the fire which merits a gift: I revere the Perfect One.

Micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā me bhavā sabbe vidālitā
Juhāmi dakkhiṇeyyaggiṁ namassāmi tathāgataṁ.

I have abandoned all states of undiscernment of reality. Craving for states of individual existence is obliterated. The round of birth and death is destroyed. There are now [for me] no renewed states of individual existence.

Mohā sabbe pahīnā me bhavataṇhā padālitā
Vikkhīṇo jātisaṁsāro natthi dāni punabbhavo ti. (Tha 343-344)

bhavāya

bhavāya: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavāya, individual existence; vibhavāya, cessation of individual existence

A person for whom there is no attachment, who, knowing the nature of reality, is not attached; and who has no craving for either individual existence or the cessation of individual existence.

Yassa nissayatā natthi ñatvā dhammaṁ anissito
Bhavāya vibhavāya vā taṇhā yassa na vijjati. (Snp 856)

bhavo

bhavo: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavo, individual existence

• Bhante, it is said: ‘Individual existence, individual existence’

bhavo bhavo ti.

… On what grounds is there individual existence?

kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhavo hotī ti?

• If there were no deed that produced karmic consequences in

• the sensuous plane of existence

• the refined material plane of existence

• the immaterial plane of existence

arūpadhātuvepakkañca kammaṁ

would there be discerned (paññāyethā) any

• individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence

• individual existence in the refined material plane of existence

• individual existence in the immaterial plane of existence

• No, bhante.

• Thus Ānanda,

• the [field of] operation of the karmic mechanism is the field

• the stream of consciousness, the seed

• craving, the moisture

taṇhā sneho.

For beings (sattānaṁ) obstructed by uninsightfulness into reality (avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ) and tethered [to individual existence] by craving (taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ) the stream of consciousness (viññāṇaṁ) is established (patiṭṭhitaṁ) in

• the low plane of existence

• the middle plane of existence

• the high plane of existence

In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future

evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti.

This, Ānanda, is what is implied by the term ‘individual existence’

evaṁ kho ānanda bhavo hotī ti. (AN i 223-4)

Illustration: bhava, individual existence

Man is bound to individual existence,

Is afflicted by individual existence,

Yet takes delight in individual existence.

But what he takes delight in is fearsome.

Yadabhinandati taṁ bhayaṁ

And that which he fears is intrinsically unsatisfactory.

yassa bhāyati taṁ dukkhaṁ.

It is to abandon individual existence

That this religious life is lived.

panidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vussati. (Uda 32-3)

bhavassa

bhavassa: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavassa, individual existence; bhavena, [states of] individual existence

Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists have said that deliverance from individual existence is through [states of] individual existence

bhavena bhavassa vippamokkhamāhaṁsu

None of them, I declare, are freed from individual existence

sabbe te avippamuttā bhavasmā ti vadāmi.

Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists have said that

ye vā pana keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā

Deliverance from individual existence is through the cessation of [states of] individual existence

vibhavena bhavassa nissaraṇamāhaṁsu

None of them, I declare

Have escaped individual existence

anissaṭā bhavasmā ti vadāmi. (Uda 33)

Comment:

Bhavena and vibhavena are parenthesised to help make sense. Otherwise the sutta would say that ‘Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists have said that deliverance from individual existence is through the ending of individual existence, none of them, I declare have escaped individual existence.’ This would be perplexing, given that the ending of individual existence is nibbāna. (bhavanirodho nibbānaṁ AN v 9)

The sutta means that the end of individual existence is not brought about by ending any particular state of existence. The next excerpt says that the end of individual existence is accomplished through abandoning craving (bhavataṇhā pahīyati).

Illustration: bhavā, states of individual existence; vibhavaṁ cessation of individual existence.

Whatever states of individual existence there are

ye hi keci bhavā

In any way, anywhere

All these states of individual existence are unlasting

sabbe te bhavā aniccā

Intrinsically unsatisfactory, destined to change

On perceiving this according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment

evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya passato

he abandons craving for states of individual existence

But he does not long for the cessation of individual existence.

With the destruction of all forms of craving

sabbaso taṇhānaṁ khayā

Comes the complete passing away and ending [of originated phenomena], the Untroubled

asesavirāganirodho nibbānaṁ.

For that bhikkhu who has realised the Untroubled

tassa nibbutassa bhikkhuno

Free of grasping

There are no renewed states of individual existence

punabbhavo na hoti. (Uda 33)

Illustration: bhava, individual existence

For the bhikkhu of peaceful mind who has destroyed craving for states of individual existence, the round of birth and death is destroyed. For him there are no renewed states of individual existence.

Ucchinnabhavataṇhassa santacittassa bhikkhuno
Vikkhīṇo jātisaṁsāro natthi tassa punabbhavo ti. (Uda 46)

Illustration: bhava, individual existence; bhava, [states of] individual existence; vibhava, cessation of [states of] individual existence

Seeing the danger of individual existence

bhavevāhaṁ bhayaṁ disvā

When searching for either [states of] individual existence or the cessation of [states of] individual existence,

I did not welcome individual existence,

Nor rejoice in or grasp anything.

kiñci nandiñca na upādiyin ti. (MN i 330)

Illustration: bhavā, [renewed] states of individual existence

I have abandoned my wrong view [of reality]. All [renewed] states of individual existence are obliterated.

Micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā me bhavā sabbe vidālitā. (Tha 343-344)

Illustration: bhava, states of individual existence

Bhikkhus, there are these three quests. What three?

• the quest for sensuous pleasure

• the quest for states of individual existence

• the quest for a religious life

Illustration: bhavā, states of individual existence: bhavo, individual existence

There are three states of individual existence

tayo me āvuso bhavā

• individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence

• individual existence in the refined material plane of existence

• individual existence in the immaterial plane of existence

With the origination of grasping comes the origination of individual existence

With the ending of grasping comes the ending of individual existence

The practice leading to the ending of individual existence is the noble eightfold path. (MN i 50)

Illustration: bhava, individual existence; bhavanetti, the conduit to renewed states of individual existence

The four noble truths have been awakened to and penetrated.

Tayidaṁ bhikkhave dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ… dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ

• Craving for states of individual existence has been eradicated

• The conduit to renewed states of individual existence has been destroyed

• There are now [for me] no renewed states of individual existence

natthi dāni punabbhavo ti. (DN ii 91)

bhavanetti

bhavanetti: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavanetti, the conduit to renewed states of individual existence

The fondness, attachment, spiritually fettering delight, craving, clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification in regards to bodily form: this is called the conduit to renewed states of individual existence.

rūpe kho rādha yo chando yo rāgo yā nandi yā taṇhā ye upayūpādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā ayaṁ vuccati bhavanetti. (SN iii 191)

bhavanettiko

bhavanettiko: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavanettiko, the conduit to renewed states of individual existence

The body of the Perfect One stands with the conduit to renewed states of individual existence cut.

Ucchinnabhavanettiko bhikkhave tathāgatassa kāyo tiṭṭhati. (DN i 46)

Illustrations: cessation; continuance; development

vibhavaṁ

vibhavaṁ: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: vibhavaṁ, cessation

There are some ascetics and Brahmanists who are annihilationists. They assert the annihilation, destruction, and cessation of beings [at death]

ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññāpenti. (DN i 34)

vibhavā

vibhavā: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: vibhavā, cessation

When a bhikkhu has profoundly understood what is brought about as such,

sa ve bhūtapariñño

Being free of craving for all states of individual existence,

so vītataṇho bhavābhave

With the cessation of what is brought about [at death]

He comes not to renewed states of individual existence

bhikkhu nāgacchati punabbhavan ti. (Iti 44)

Illustration: vibhavaṁ, cessation

Knowing the arising and cessation of the world [of phenomena] [according to reality], our minds will be imbued with that perception.

Lokassa sambhavañca vibhavañca ñatvā
taṁ saññā paricitañca no cittaṁ bhavissati. (AN v 107)

bhavāya

bhavāya: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhavāya, development of states; vibhavāya, cessation of states

He knows that, ‘If I were to direct this detached awareness so purified and refined to the state of awareness of boundless space etc, and to develop my mind accordingly, thus this detached awareness supported and fuelled by this would remain for a very long time.

imaṁ ce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁparisuddhaṁ evaṁpariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ evaṁ ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya.

He knows that, ‘If I were to direct this detached awareness so purified and refined to the state of awareness of boundless space etc, and to develop my mind accordingly, that would be something originated.

So evaṁ pajānāti imaṁ ce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁparisuddhaṁ evaṁpariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ saṅkhatametaṁ.

He does not do anything, nor is he intent upon the development or cessation of states. So doing, he does not grasp anything in the world [of phenomena].

So neva taṁ abhisaṅkharoti nābhisañcetayati bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā. So anabhisaṅkharonto anabhisañcetayanto bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā na kiñci loke upādiyati. (MN iii 244)

Bodhi: He does not form any condition or generate any volition tending towards either being or non-being.

Horner: He therefore neither constructs nor thinks out for becoming or for de-becoming.

Illustration: bhavāya, development; vibhavāya, cessation

Penetrative discernment arises from effort [in proper contemplation]. Without effort [in proper contemplation] penetrative discernment is destroyed. Recognising these two paths to the development and cessation [of wisdom], let a man so conduct himself that his wisdom increases.

Yogā ve jāyati bhūri ayogā bhūrisaṅkhayo
Etaṁ dvedhāpathaṁ ñatvā bhavāya vibhavāya ca
Tathattānaṁ niveseyya yathā bhūri pavaḍḍhati. (Dhp 282)

Illustration: vibhavaṁ, [view of the] cessation of beings [at death]; bhavañ: the [view of the] continuance of beings [at death]

He who has realised the Untroubled via a path made by himself, who has overcome his unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching], abandoned the [view of the] cessation of beings [at death] and the [view of the] continuance of beings [at death], who has fulfilled [the religious life], who has destroyed renewed states of individual existence: he is a bhikkhu.

Pajjena katena attanā parinibbānagato vitiṇṇakaṅkho vibhavañca bhavañca vippahāya
Vusitavā khiṇapunabbhavo sa bhikkhu. (Snp 514)

Illustrations: existence

Illustration: bhavaṁ, existence

Having arisen in human existence just once more, he then puts an end to suffering.

ekaññeva mānusakaṁ bhavaṁ nibbattetvā dukkhassantaṁ karoti. (AN i 234)

Illustration: bhavo, existence

Existence as a human being, too, was successfully obtained

mānuso ca bhavobhirādhito. (Tha 258-259)

bhave

bhave: (main article see: bhava)

Illustration: bhave, existence

Having thrust away spiritually fettering delight and attachment regarding these things, your stream of consciousness would not remain in existence.

Etesu nandiñca nivesanañca panujja viññāṇaṁ bhave na tiṭṭhe. (Snp 1055)

 

Glossary various Teacher

— —

 

See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

Bhava: (becoming). See also paṭicca-samuppāda (dependent co-arising).

 

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1)
Appendix: The 2-fold division, kamma and upapatti, is probably found for the first time in Vibhaṅga of the Abhidhamma Canon, but it expresses throughout the genuine teaching of the Suttas.
en/dictionary/bhava.txt · Last modified: 2019/10/31 10:07 by Johann