citta: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
➥ citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāṇa (see khandha and Table I). Dhammasaṅgaṇi divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (see cetasika) and corporeality (rūpa).
The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (see Iddhipāda ).
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
➥ — —
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
Citta can usually be called ‘mind’:
• He sees women there lightly attired and lust invades his mind
rāgo cittaṁ anuddhaṁseti. (SN ii 231)
• Through being without grasping his mind was liberated from perceptually obscuring states
anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimuttan ti. (MN iii 30)
• He purifies his mind of lethargy and torpor.
thīnamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti. (DN i 71)
• When one’s mind is free of these five defilements
Yato ca kho bhikkhave cittaṁ imehi pañcahi upakkilesehi vippamuttaṁ hoti. (AN iii 16-17)
• His mind becomes settled, calm, concentrated, and collected.
ajjhattameva cittaṁ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. (MN iii 89)
The four paths to psychic power
The four paths to psychic power are:
Developing the four paths to psychic power
Cittasamādhi = dhammasamādhi
• ‘This is dhammasamādhi. If you were to obtain cittasamādhi in this way, you would abandon that state of unsureness.’
Ayaṁ kho so gāmaṇi dhammasamādhī tatra ce tvaṁ cittasamādhiṁ paṭilabheyyāsi evaṁ tvaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyāsi. (SN iv 352)
Cittasamādhi: inward collectedness based on reflection
Citta = ceto
And how does a bhikkhu abide contemplating the nature of the mind
Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu citte cittānupassī viharati?
In this regard a bhikkhu discerns
• a mental state with attachment as just that
sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ sarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a mental state without attachment as just that
vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ vītarāgaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a mental state with hatred as just that
sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ sadosaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a mental state without hatred as just that
vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ vītadosaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a mental state with undiscernment of reality as just that
samohaṁ vā cittaṁ samohaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a mental state without undiscernment of reality as just that
vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ vītamohaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a contracted mental state as just that
saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ saṅkhittaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a distracted mental state as just that
vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ vikkhittaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• an exalted mental state as just that
mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ mahaggataṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• an unexalted mental state as just that
amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ amahaggataṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a surpassed mental state as just that
sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ sauttaraṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• an unsurpassed mental state as just that
anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ anuttaraṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a collected mental state as just that
samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ samāhitaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• an uncollected mental state as just that
asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ asamāhitaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• a liberated mental state as just that
vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ cittan ti pajānāti
• an unliberated mental state as just that
avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ avimuttaṁ cittan ti pajānāti. (MN i 59)
Illustration: citta, mental
Perception and sense impression are mental activity
saññā ca vedanā ca cittasaṅkhāro ti. (MN i 301)
Illustration: citta, attitude
One should develop an unhostile, beneficent attitude which leads to the world of the devas
Avyāpajjhaṁ hitaṁ cittaṁ devalokāya bhāvaye. (AN iii 213)
Illustration: citta, disposition
If Ānanda were to die not free of attachment, by virtue of his faithful disposition, he would rule as Lord of the Devas seven times
Sace udāyi ānando avītarāgo kālaṁ kareyya tena cittappasādena sattakkhattuṁ devesu devarajjaṁ kareyya. (AN i 228)
Fostering what mental states do spiritually unwholesome factors fade and spiritually wholesome factors flourish?
Kathaṁrūpaṁ bhante cittuppādaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti
In this regard, some person is
• not greedy and abides with an ungreedy mind.
anabhijjhālu hoti anabhijjhāsahagatena cetasā viharati
• benevolent and abides with a benevolent mind
Avyāpādavā hoti avyādapādasahagatena cetasā viharati
• compassionate and abides with a compassionate mind.
Avihesavā hoti avihesāsahagatena cetasā viharati. (MN iii 51)
PED sv cittuppāda: ‘state of consciousness.’
Illustration: citto, mind
In seeing a visible object with mindfulness muddled, focusing on the agreeable aspect, one experiences it with a mind of attachment and persists in cleaving to it.
The noble disciple, Kālāmas, who is so friendly-minded, so unhostile-minded, so spiritually undefiled, and so spiritually purified, is one by whom four sources of comfort are found in this very lifetime.
Sa kho so kālāmā ariyasāvako evaṁ averacitto evaṁ avyāpajjhacitto evaṁ asaṅkiliṭṭhacitto evaṁ visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti. (AN i 192)
Illustration: citto, thought
Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu might approach families with the thought:
Yo hi koci bhikkhave bhikkhu evaṁcitto kulāni upasaṅkamati
‘May they give to me, not hold back. May they give much, not little.’ (SN ii 200)
Illustration: citto, attitude
If a bhikkhu takes from village or wilderness by what is reckoned as theft, something not given… he is pārājika, no longer in communion.
Yo pana bhikkhu gāmā vā araññā vā adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādiyeyya… ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṁvāso.
Word Commentary says:
He listens to the teaching with an appreciative attitude, not looking for weak spots
Anupārambhacitto dhammaṁ suṇāti na randhagavesi. (AN iv 27)
Fondness and attachment regarding the visual sense… the mental sense is a spiritual defilement;
Yo bhikkhave cakkhusmiṁ… manasmiṁ chandarāgo cittasse'so upakkileso
In so far as one abandons the spiritual defilement in these six cases, his mind inclines to the practice of unsensuousness.
Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno imesu chasu ṭhānesu cetaso upakkileso pahīno hoti nekkhammaninnaṁ cassa cittaṁ hoti. (SN iii 232)
Illustration: cittassa, inward
When my husband died, he rose amongst the deities and he revealed himself to me in his former bodily form, but I do not recall any inward disquiet on that account.
Na kho panāhaṁ bhante abhijānāmi tatonidānaṁ cittassa aññathattan ti. (AN iv 66)
Illustration: adhicitta, the higher mental states
What is the training in the higher mental states?
Katamā ca bhikkhave adhicittasikkhā
In this regard, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna… fourth jhāna.
Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamajjhānaṁ… catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (AN i 235)
Illustration: cittaṁ, idea
“Did you earlier have the idea, ‘I will go to the monastery,’and after you arrived at the monastery, was the corresponding idea quelled?” “Yes, sir.”
Ahosi te pubbe cittaṁ ārāmaṁ gamissāmī ti. Tassa te ārāmagatassa yaṁ tajjaṁ cittaṁ taṁ paṭippassaddhanti. Evaṁ bho.
“It is exactly the same, brahman, with a bhikkhu who is an arahant:
He earlier had the idea to attain arahantship, and when he attained arahantship, the corresponding idea was quelled.
Yaṁ pubbe cittaṁ ahosi arahattappattiyā arahatte patte yaṁ tajjaṁ cittaṁ taṁ paṭippassaddhaṁ. (SN v 273)
Illustration: cittaṁ, attitude
How about if I developed [unlimited] goodwill further?
yannūnāhaṁ uttariṁ mettaṁ bhāveyyantī.
Then for seven years the teacher Sunetta developed a mind of [unlimited] goodwill.
Atha kho bhikkhave sunetto satthā sattavassāni mettaṁ cittaṁ bhāvesi. (AN iv 104)
• Being not tenderly concerned for their welfare, would he have a mind of [unlimited] goodwill or of enmity?
ahitānukampissa mettaṁ vā tesu cittaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sapattakaṁ vā ti
• Of enmity, reverend Gotama.
Sapattakaṁ bho gotama. (DN i 228)
Illustration: cittaṁ, mentality
He develops a doglike mentality fully and uninterruptedly;
kukkuracittaṁ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ
he develops a doglike way of behaviour fully and uninterruptedly.
kukkurākappaṁ bhāveti paripuṇṇaṁ abbokiṇṇaṁ
Having done so, with the demise of the body at death, he reappears in the company of dogs. (MN i 387-8)
Illustration: cittasamādhiṁ, inward collectedness based on reflection
A headman said he was unsure which religious doctrine was true. The Buddha told him he should overcome unsureness through the inward collectedness attained by reflecting on virtuousness as follows:
• ‘I harm no one at all, whether weak or strong. In both respects I have made a lucky throw: since I am restrained in conduct of body, speech, and mind, and since, with the demise of the body at death, I will be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.’
sohaṁ na kiñci vyābādhemi tasaṁ vā thāvaraṁ vā. Ubhayamettha kaṭaggāho yañcamhi kāyena saṁvuto vācāya saṁvuto manasā saṁvuto yañca kāyassa bhedā parammaraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissāmī ti.
’[As he reflects thus] gladness arises. In one who is glad, rapture arises. For one whose mind is rapturous, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he experiences physical pleasure. Experiencing physical pleasure, his mind becomes collected.
tassa pāmojjaṁ jāyati pamuditassa pīti jāyati pītimanassa kāyo passambhati passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vediyati sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati
‘This, headman, is inward collectedness based on righteous reflection.
Ayaṁ kho so gāmaṇi dhammasamādhī.
‘If you were to obtain inward collectedness based on reflection in this way, you would abandon that state of unsureness.
Tatra ce tvaṁ cittasamādhiṁ paṭilabheyyāsi evaṁ tvaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyāsi. (SN iv 351-2)
In this regard a bhikkhu focuses on the mental image of light, concentrates on the mental image of day. As by day, so by night; as by night, so by day.
bhikkhu ālokasaññaṁ manasikaroti divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭhāti. Yathā divā tathā rattiṁ yathā rattiṁ tathā divā
Thus with an attitude open and unclouded, he makes his mind radiant.
iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena sappabhāsaṁ cittaṁ bhāveti. (AN iii 323-6)
Suttas and Dhammadesanā