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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [ch]

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The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.


Index IGPT
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Fondness vs. desire

One of the major divisions in meaning here is between fondness and desire. We present fifteen or more examples of each to illustrate this division.


Chandasamādhi means inward collectedness based on desire. The idea that inward collectedness can arise according to one’s wishes is widely acknowledged in the scriptures:

• Attain at will, without difficulty or trouble, the four jhānas, the higher mental states which are pleasant states of meditation in this lifetime

catunnaṁ jhānānaṁ ābhicetasikānaṁ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṁ nikāmalābhī assaṁ akicchalābhī akasiralābhī ti. (MN i 33)

• Whenever we want… we enter and abide in first jhāna

yāvadeva ākaṅkhāma… paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharāma. (MN i 207)

• A bhikkhu wields power over his mind; his mind does not wield power over him; whatever abiding he wants to abide in in the morning, he does so.

bhikkhu cittaṁ vasaṁ vatteti no ca bhikkhu cittassa vasena vattati. So yāya vihārasamāpattiyā ākaṅkhati pubbanhasamayaṁ viharituṁ tāya vihārasamāpattiyā pubbanhasamayaṁ viharati. (MN i 214)

Chando: eagerness [to understand the teaching]

We parenthesise ‘to understand the teaching’ on the basis of the following quote:

• ’But what quality is most helpful for enthusiastically applying oneself [to the teaching]?’

Ussāhassa pana bho gotama katamo dhammo bahukāro?

• ’Eagerness [to understand the teaching]. If eagerness [to understand the teaching] did not arise, one wouldn’t enthusiastically apply oneself [to the teaching].’

Ussāhassa kho bhāradvāja chando bahukāro. No cetaṁ chando jāyetha nayidaṁ ussaheyya.

• ’But what quality is most helpful for eagerness [to understand the teaching]?’

Chandassa pana bho gotama katamo dhammo bahukāro?

• ’The teaching receiving one’s considered approval. If this did not happen, eagerness [to understand the teaching] wouldn’t arise.’

Chandassa kho bhāradvāja dhammanijjhānakkhanti bahukārā. No cetaṁ dhammanijjhānaṁ khameyyuṁ nayidaṁ chando jāyetha. (MN ii 173)

Illustrations: fondness

Illustration: chanda, fondness

• All things stem from fondness.

chandamūlakā āvuso sabbe dhammā. (AN iv 339)

• These five grasped aggregates stem from fondness

Ime kho bhikkhu pañcupādānakkhandhā chandamūlakā ti. (SN iii 100-1)

In this regard, Hemaka, in regards to pleasant things which are seen, heard, sensed, or cognised, the dispelling of fondness and attachment is the Untroubled, the Unshakeable State.

Idha diṭṭhasutamutaviññātesu piyarūpesu hemaka
Chandarāga vinodanaṁ nibbānapadamaccutaṁ. (Snp 1091)

Those people in Uruvelakappa for whom grief etc. would arise in me (uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā) if they were executed, imprisoned, fined, or criticised are those for whom I have fondness and attachment.

atthi me tesu chandarāgo. (SN iv 329)

Neither is grasping the same as the five grasped aggregates, nor is it separate.

Na kho bhikkhu taññeva upādānaṁ te pañcupādānakkhandhā na pi aññatra pañcupādānakkhandhehi upādānaṁ

Whatever there is the fondness and attachment, that is the grasping.

api ca yo tattha chandarāgo taṁ tattha upādānan ti. (SN iii 100-1)

How does one pursue the past?

kathañcāvuso atītaṁ anvāgameti

One remembers how one’s visual sense and visible objects were in the past and one’s mind is bound there by fondness and attachment.

iti me cakkhuṁ ahosi atītamaddhānaṁ iti rūpāti tattha chandarāgapaṭibaddhaṁ hoti viññāṇaṁ. (MN iii 195-6)

Because of search, acquisition

pariyesanaṁ paṭicca lābho

Because of acquisition, examination

lābhaṁ paṭicca vinicchayo

Because of examination, fondness and attachment

vinicchayaṁ paṭicca chandarāgo

Because of fondness and attachment, cleaving

chandarāgaṁ paṭicca ajjhosānaṁ. (AN iv 401; DN ii 58-9)

How does fondness arise based on past bases of fondness and attachment?

Kathañca bhikkhave atīte chandarāgaṭṭhānīye dhamme ārabbha chando jāyati:

Based on past bases of fondness and attachment, he thinks and ponders.

atīte bhikkhave chandarāgaṭṭhānīye dhamme ārabbha cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti.

For him, thinking and pondering on past bases of fondness and attachment, fondness arises.

Tassa atīte chandarāgaṭṭhānīye dhamme ārabbha cetasā anuvitakkayato anuvicārayato chando jāyati.

With the arising of fondness, he is tethered to those things.

Chandajāto tehi dhammehi saṁyutto hoti. (AN i 264)

Illustration: chanda, fondness for

People are ensnared by objects of attachment, by what is seen, heard, sensed, and cognised. Dispel fondness for these. Be imperturbable.

Upadhīsu janā gathitāse diṭṭhasute paṭighe ca mute ca
Ettha vinodaya chandamanejo. (SN i 186)

Illustration: chanda, desire

Because of diversity in thought there is diversity in desire.

saṅkappanānattaṁ paṭicca uppajjati chandanānattaṁ

Because of diversity in desire there is diversity in passion.

chandanānānattaṁ paṭicca uppajjati pariḷāhanānattaṁ

Because of diversity in passion there is diversity in quests

paṭiḷāhanānattaṁ paṭicca uppajjati pariyesanānānattaṁ. (DN iii 289)

Possessed of five factors a bhikkhu should not be selected as a food steward: he goes astray from desire, hatred, undiscernment of reality, fear, and knows not a ration from what is not.

chandāgatiṁ gacchati dosāgatiṁ gacchati mohāgatiṁ gacchati bhayāgatiṁ gacchati uddiṭṭhānuddiṭṭhaṁ na jānāti. (AN iii 274)

When a bhikkhu is focusing on some meditation object that arouses unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome thoughts connected with desire, hatred, undiscernment of reality, then he should focus on some other meditation object connected with what is spiritually wholesome.

yaṁ nimittaṁ āgamma yaṁ nimittaṁ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṁhitāpi dosūpasaṁhitāpi mohūpasaṁhitāpi tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṁ nimittaṁ manasikātabbaṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ. (MN i 119)

A bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed is incapable of acting wrongly through desire, hatred, undiscernment of reality, fear.

Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu chandāgatiṁ gantuṁ abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu dosāgatiṁ gantuṁ abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu mohāgatiṁ gantuṁ abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu bhayāgatiṁ gantuṁ. (DN iii 133)

Illustration: chanda, favoritism

How can the lady Thullanandā ordain a sikkhamānā by showing favoritism to bhikkhus placed on probation.

kathaṁ hi nāma ayyā thullanandā pārivāsikachandadānena sikkhamānaṁ vuṭṭhāpessatī ti. (Vin.4.335)


Thullanandā arranged an ordination ceremony with the help of bhikkhus on probation.

Illustration: chanda, aspiration

For a bhikkhu this is the foretoken and preindication of the arising of the noble eightfold path, namely, perfection in the aspiration [to abandon spiritually unwholesome factors and acquire spiritually wholesome factors].

ariyassa aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa uppādāya etaṁ pubbaṅgamaṁ etaṁ pubbanimittaṁ yadidaṁ chandasampadā

When a bhikkhu is perfect in the aspiration [to abandon spiritually unwholesome factors and acquire spiritually wholesome factors], it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate this noble eightfold path.

Chandasampannassetaṁ bhikkhave bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bhāvessati ariyaṁ aṭṭhaṅgikaṁ maggaṁ bahulīkarissatī ti. (SN v 30)

Commentary: Chandasampadā ti kusalakattukamyatāchando.

If one such as he ends up going forth [into the ascetic life], the practice of unsensuousness being his aspiration and delight, being prudent, best of men he’ll be, peerless, never more to be reborn.

Illustration: chanda, eager [to understand the teaching]

One should be eager and determined [to understand the teaching]. One should suffuse [one’s body] with the [pure and clean] mind [of fourth jhāna].

Chandajātā avasāyī manasā ca phuṭhā siyā. (Thi 12)

Illustration: chanda, eager

One should be eager [to realise] the Indescribable.’

Illustration: chanda, consent

Bhikkhus, if a disciplinary issue is settled thus, and if one who carries it out opens it up again, in opening up there is an offence of pācittiya

Evaṁ vūpasantañce bhikkhave adhikaraṇaṁ kārako ukkoṭeti ukkoṭanakaṁ pācittiyaṁ

If one who has given his consent criticises it, in criticising there is an offence of pācittiya.

Chandadāyako khīyati khīyanakaṁ pācittiyaṁ. (Vin.2.94)


chandaṁ: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandaṁ, fondness

Do not, sir, die filled with longing. To die filled with longing is unpleasant and blameworthy. Of your eighty-four thousand cities, Kusāvatī is the chief.

Abandon fondness for them. Harbour no longing for life.

ettha deva chandaṁ pajaha. Jīvite apekkhaṁ mākāsi. (DN ii 192)

“As is this one, so is that one. As is that one, so is this one.”

Yathā idaṁ tathā etaṁ yathā etaṁ tathā idaṁ

[If one understood this] one would discard fondness for the body, both internally and externally.

Ajjhattañca bahiddhā ca kāye chandaṁ virājaye. (Snp 203)

Illustration: chandaṁ, fondness for

Desiring seclusion [from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors] you entered the woods, yet your mind gushes outwardly. Eliminate, man, your fondness for people; then you’ll be truly happy, free of attachment.

Jano janasmiṁ vinayassu chandaṁ tato sukhī hohisi vītarāgo. (SN i 197)

Illustration: chandaṁ, hankering

When, like an elephant wandering free of attachment, shall I obliterate hankering for the varieties of sensuous pleasure?

Kadā nu nāgo va asaṅgacārī padālaye kāmaguṇesu chandaṁ. (Tha 1105)

The world’s attractive things are not sensuous yearning. The sensuous yearning of a man is his thoughts bound up with attachment. The world’s attractive things remain as they are. The wise eliminate their hankering for them.

Na te kāmā yāni citrāni loke saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo
Tiṭṭhanti citrāni tatheva loke athettha dhīrā vinayanti chandaṁ. (SN i 23)

Illustration: chandaṁ, desire

There is no offence to restore a bhikkhunī… if she restores her knowing that it is the desire of the group

gaṇassa chandaṁ jānitvā. (Vin.4.232)

Illustration: chandaṁ, consent

• ’Gather together bhikkhus, the community of bhikkhus will carry out a formal act.’

• ’Sir there is a bhikkhu who is ill. He has not come.’

• ’I allow you bhikkhus to convey the consent from a bhikkhu who is ill.’

anujānāmi bhikkhave gilanena bhikkhunā chandaṁ dātuṁ. (Vin.1.121)

The community of bhikkhus came to be convened on some business or other. The Group-of-Six bhikkhus making robes gave their consent to one bhikkhu.

Chabbaggiyā bhikkhu cīvarakammaṁ karontā ekassa chandaṁ adaṁsu. (Vin.4.152)


chando: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chando, fondness

Whatever fondness, clinging, attraction, and cleaving there is within these five grasped aggregates is the origin of suffering.

Yo imesu pañcasupādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṁ so dukkhasamudayo. (MN i 191)

As he abides contemplating the nature of the body, whatever fondness he has for the body is abandoned.

Tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato yo kāyasmiṁ chando so pahīyati.

Because fondness is abandoned, the Deathless is realised.

Chandassa pahānā amataṁ sacchikataṁ hoti. (SN v 182)

• ’What do you think, headman? Before you saw Ciravāsi’s mother or heard about her, did you have any fondness, attachment, or love for her?’

adiṭṭhā āsi assutā ahosi ciravāsissa mātuyā chando vā rāgo vā pemaṁ vā ti

• ’No, bhante’. (SN iv 329-330)

In the past I was fond of the teachings in verse so long as I had not realised non-attachment [to originated phenomena].

Ahu pure dhammapadesu chando yāva virāgena na samāgamimha. (SN i 203)

Illustration: chando, hankering

Bhikkhus, by much contemplating things that are a basis for attachment to sensuous pleasure, unarisen sensuous hankering arises, and arisen sensuous hankering increases and expands.

Kāmarāgaṭṭhāniyānaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ manasikārabahulīkārā anuppanno ceva kāmacchando uppajjati uppanno ca kāmacchando bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattati. (SN v 84)

When a bhikkhu has entered first jhāna, sensuous hankering is abandoned.

idhāvuso paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa bhikkhuno kāmacchando pahīno hoti. (MN i 295)

Having abandoned hankering for past sensuous pleasures, bhante,

Atītesu me bhante kāmesu kāmacchando pahīno.

Having got rid of hankering for future sensuous pleasures….

Anāgatesu me kāmesu kāmacchando vigato. (SN v 315)

In this regard, if sensuous hankering is present in him, he knows that it is present. Or if not present, he knows that it is not present.

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu santaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ atthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando ti pajānāti asantaṁ vā ajjhattaṁ kāmacchandaṁ natthi me ajjhattaṁ kāmacchando ti pajānāti. (DN ii 300)

Illustration: chando, desire

Because of mental imagery of visible objects, thought of visible objects arises

Rūpasaññaṁ paṭicca uppajjati rūpasaṅkappo

Because of thought of visible objects, desire for visible objects arises

Rūpasaṅkappaṁ paṭicca uppajjati rūpacchando

Because of desire for visible objects, passion for visible objects arises

Rūpacchandaṁ paṭicca uppajjati rūpapariḷāho. (SN ii 144)

Seeing even Taṇhā, Arati, and Rāgā aroused in me no desire for sexual intercourse.

Disvāna taṇhaṁ aratiṁ rāgañca nāhosi chando api methunasmiṁ. (Snp 835)

And what is desire that is too lax?

Katamo ca bhikkhave atilīno chando.

It is desire accompanied by indolence, conjoined with indolence

yo bhikkhave chando kosajjasahagato kosajjasampayutto ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave atilīno chando.

And what is desire that is too strained?

Katamo ca bhikkhave atipaggahito chando.

It is desire accompanied by restlessness, conjoined with restlessness. This is called desire that is too strained.

yo hi bhikkhave chando uddhaccasahagato uddhaccasampayutto ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave atipaggahito chando.

And what is desire that is constricted internally?

Katamo ca bhikkhave ajjhattaṁ saṅkhitto chando

It is desire accompanied by lethargy and torpor, conjoined with lethargy and torpor. This is called will constricted internally.

yo hi bhikkhave chando thīnamiddhasahagato thīnamiddhasampayutto ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave ajjhattaṁ saṅkhitto chando.

And what is desire that is disturbed externally?

Katamo ca bhikkhave bahiddhā vikkhitto chando

It is desire that is repeatedly distracted externally, repeatedly disturbed, because of the five varieties of sensuous pleasure. This is called desire that is distracted externally.

yo hi bhikkhave chando bahiddhā pañcakāmaguṇe ārabbha anuvikkhitto anuvisaṭo ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bahiddhā vikkhitto chando. (SN v 277)

The Buddha: Things are agreeable and wanted in the world on account of desire. Desire is also the source of the expectation and hope that a man has for the hereafter.

Chandānidānāni piyāni loke ye cā pi lobhā vicaranti loke
Āsā ca niṭṭhā ca itonidānā ye samparāyāya narassa honti.

Questioner: What is the source of desire in the world? And from where do dogmatic opinions come from, anger, lies, uncertainty [about the excellence of the teaching], and other such things spoken of by the Ascetic?

Chando nu lokasmiṁ kutonidāno vinicchayā cā pi kutopahūtā
Kodho mosavajjañca kathaṅkathā ca ye vāpi dhammā samaṇena vuttā

The Buddha: Desire arises in the world dependent on what they call ‘pleasing’ and ‘displeasing.’

Sātaṁ asātanti yamāhu loke tamupanissāya pahoti chando. (Snp 866-8)

What is agreeable and disagreeable have desire as their basis and origin, object of genesis and production. When there is desire they arise, without desire they do not arise.

Piyāppiyaṁ kho devānaminda chandanidānaṁ chandasamudayaṁ chandajātikaṁ chandappabhavaṁ chande sati piyāppiyaṁ hoti chande asati piyāppiyaṁ na hotī ti.

Desire has thought as its basis, origin, object of genesis and production. When there is thought it arises, without thought it does not arise.

Chando kho devānaminda vitakkanidāno vitakkasamudayo vitakkajātiko vitakkapabhavo. Vitakke sati chande hoti vitakke asati chando na hotī ti. (DN ii 277)

Illustration: chando, aspiration

The aspiration to spiritually wholesome factors is hard to come by in the world

kusaladhammacchando dullabho lokasmiṁ. (AN iii 441)

Illustration: chando, eagerness

One who was formerly a non-Buddhist ascetic has no eagerness for the recitation and interrogation, nor of developing the higher virtue, the higher mental states, and the higher penetrative discernment.

aññatitthiyapubbo na tibbacchando hoti uddeso paripucchāya adhisīle adhicitte adhipaññāya. (Vin.1.70)

Bhikkhus, one who does not know and see old age and death according to reality should stir up eagerness to know this according to reality.

Jarāmaraṇaṁ bhikkhave ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtaṁ jarāmaraṇe yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇāya chando karaṇīyo (SN ii 131)

Illustration: chando, eager

A bhikkhu is keenly eager to undergo the training and his dedication to this does not dwindle away in the course of time.

bhikkhū sikkhāsamādāne tibbacchando hoti āyatiñca sikkhāsamādāne avigatapemo. (AN iv 15)


chandassa: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandassa, hankering

There is the quality of loveliness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen sensuous hankering, and the increase and expansion of arisen sensuous hankering.

Atthi bhikkhave subhanimittaṁ. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 64)


chandā: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandā, desire

Master Gotama, we have such yearnings, desires, and aspirations (evaṁ kāmā evañchandā evaṁ adhippāyā) as these: ‘May we dwell in a home crowded with children! May we enjoy Kāsian sandalwood! May we wear garlands, fragrances, and perfumes! May we receive gold and silver! With the demise of the body at death, may we be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds!’ (SN v 353).

Bhikkhus, for the most part beings have such yearnings, desires, and aspirations

yebhuyyena bhikkhave sattā evaṁ kāmā evaṁ chandā evaṁ adhippāyā

‘If only unlikeable, unloveable, and displeasing things would diminish and likeable, loveable, and pleasing things would increase!’

aho vata aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā dhammā parihāyeyyuṁ iṭṭhā kantā manāpā dhammā abhivaḍḍheyyunti. (MN i 309)

Illustration: chandā, aspiration

‘Consent that I may go forth from the household life into the ascetic life.’ Then the parents of those boys consented, thinking:

‘All these boys have the same aspiration. They are bent on what is virtuous.’

sabbepi me dārakā samānacchandā kalyāṇadhippāyā ti. (Vin.1.77-8)

Illustrations: other


chandāya: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandāya, favoritism

Dabba the Mallian distributes abodes and meals though favoritism.

chandāya dabbo mallaputto senāsanaṁ paññāpeti chandāya ca bhattāni uddisatīti.


chandataṁ: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandataṁ, partiality

In former lives the Perfect One made himself beloved through the four bases for winning over a following (cattāri saṅgahavatthūni): generosity, agreeable speech, beneficial conduct, and impartiality (dānena peyyavajjena atthacariyāya samānattatāya: see AN iv 219). About this it is said:

Through giving and through beneficial conduct

Agreeable speech and impartiality (‘equal partiality’)

Piyavadanañca samānachandataṁ ca

Of benefit to all, he at death to heaven went. (DN iii 153).


chandasā: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandasā, preferentially

He who preferentially gives clothes, bed, food, drink and various requisites to upright men

yo ujjubhūtesu dadāti chandasā
Acchādanaṁ sayanamathannapānaṁ nānappakārāni ca paccayāni. (AN iii 50)


Giving ‘in a timely way’ includes giving the first-fruits of field and orchard to the virtuous (sīlavantesu patiṭṭhāpeti, (AN iii 41).


chandakaṁ: (main article see: chanda)

Illustration: chandakaṁ, voluntary donations

Lay followers having collected voluntary donations for robe material for a community of bhikkhunīs, laid aside the support in a certain cloth store

tena kho pana samayena upāsikā bhikkhunī saṅghassa cīvaratthāya chandakaṁ saṁharitvā aññatarassa pāvārikassa ghare parikkhāraṁ nikkhipitvā. (Vin.4.250)

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