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The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.
Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.
Fluctuation of meaning
• One is not expert in the teaching (dhamma) through being loquacious. He who, after hearing just a little, realises the nature of reality (dhammaṁ) with his very being, and is not negligent of the practice (dhammaṁ), is truly expert in the teaching (dhamma).
Na tāvatā dhammadharo yāvatā bahu bhāsati; Yo ca appampi sutvāna dhammaṁ kāyena passati sa ve dhammadharo hoti yo dhammaṁ nappamajjati. (Dhp 259)
‘The practice’ means ‘the practice of the teaching’:
• The practice is a lake with fords of virtue, unmuddied, praised by good people to good people, where those who are blessed with profound knowledge go to bathe, and, dry-limbed, cross to the Far Shore.
Dhammo rahadobrāhmaṇa sīlatittho anāvilo sabbhi sataṁ pasattho
Yattha have vedaguno sinātā anallagattā va taranti pāraṁ. (SN i 169)
Dhammaṭṭho: ‘established in righteousness’
• He is possessed of the supreme goal, he is established in righteousness.
So atthavā so dhammaṭṭho. (Thi 740)
In the following quote it is analysed as asekkhadhammesu nibbānadhamme eva vā ṭhito:
• The one who is blessed with profound knowledge, being established in righteousness, though he makes use of conception he is beyond the limits of conception.
Saṅkhāya sevī dhammaṭṭho saṅkhaṁ nopeti vedagū ti. (Iti 53)
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: singular not plural
The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta says:
• A bhikkhu abides contemplating origination in relation to the body… disappearance in relation to the body… origination and disappearance in relation to the body.
bhikkhu samudayadhammānupassī kāyasmiṁ viharati… vayadhammānupassī kāyasmiṁ viharati… samudayavayadhammānupassī kāyasmiṁ viharati. (SN v 183)
If dhamma in samudayadhammānupassī kāyasmiṁ is regarded as a plural then ‘origination factors of the body’ would be meant, and one would have expected a genitive case here, not a locative. The genitive occurs in such phrases as:
Therefore we treat the word as a singular. That we also treat it as redundant, we will explain below.
Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta: the problem of pluralising
If ‘origination’ is converted into ‘origination factors’ it has the following effect: instead of contemplating the phenomena of origination and disappearance in relation to phenomena, one instead focuses on the various factors that give rise to phenomena. This has two drawbacks:
• When you have thus developed and cultivated this meditation, then bhikkhu you should develop this meditation accompanied by thinking and pondering; without thinking, just pondering; without thinking or pondering.
Yato kho te bhikkhu ayaṁ samādhi evaṁ bhāvito hoti bahulīkato tato tvaṁ bhikkhū imaṁ samādhiṁ savitakkampi savicāraṁ bhāveyyāsi. Avitakkampi vicāramattaṁ bhāveyyāsi. Avitakkampi avicāraṁ bhāveyyāsi. (AN iv 301)
Kālāma Sutta: teachings
• There are some ascetics and Brahmanists, bhante, who visit Kesaputta. They expound and explain only their own teachings (vādaṁ); the teachings (vādaṁ) of others they despise, revile, and pull to pieces. Some other ascetics and Brahmanists too, bhante, come to Kesaputta. They also expound and explain only their own teachings; the teachings of others they despise, revile, and pull to pieces.”
Te sakaṁyeva vādaṁ dīpenti jotenti parappavādaṁ pana khuṁsenti vambhenti paribhavanti omakkhiṁ karonti
… Bhante, there is unsureness, there is doubt in us concerning them. Which of these reverend ascetics and Brahmanists spoke the truth and which falsehood?”
Tesaṁ no bhante amhākaṁ hoteva kaṅkhā hoti vicikicchā. Ko su nāma imesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ saccaṁ āha ko musā ti?
• Kālāmas, if you yourselves should consider:
Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha
… These teachings (dhammā) are unwholesome;
ime dhammā akusalā
… these teachings (dhammā) are unvirtuous;
ime dhammā sāvajjā
… these teachings (dhammā) are denounced by the wise;
ime dhammā viññugarahitā
… when followed and taken up
ime dhammā samattā samādinnā
… these teachings (dhammā) lead to harm and suffering
ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattantīti
… you should abandon them.
atha tumhe kālāmā pajaheyyātha. (AN i 189)
Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati: certain objects of the systematic teachings
Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta is defined in relation to five groups of systematic teachings:
• In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings in respect of the (1) five hindrances… (2) the five aggregates… (3) the six senses and their objects… (4) the seven enlightenment factors… (5) the four noble truths.
Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu… pañcasupādānakkhandhesu… chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu… sattasu bojjhaṅgesu… catusu ariyasaccesu. (MN i 59-62)
But only the aggregates and sense bases really fit here, because the purpose of Satipaṭṭhāna is:
(1) to profoundly understand objects:
• As he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, those objects are profoundly understood.
Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Tassa dhammesu dhammānupassino viharato dhammā pariññātā honti. . (SN v 182)
The five aggregates are the objects to be profoundly understood:
• What things should be profoundly understood? The five aggregates.
Katame ca bhikkhave pariññeyyā dhammā. Rūpaṁ bhikkhave pariññeyyo dhammo… viññāṇaṁ pariññeyyo dhammo. (SN iii 26)
(2) to abandon fondness for and attachment to objects:
• As he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, whatever fondness he has for those objects of the systematic teachings is abandoned.
Tassa dhammesu dhammānupassino viharato yo dhammesu chando so pahīyati. (SN v 182)
Objects where fondness and attachment are to be abandoned are the five aggregates, the six senses, and the elements of sensation:
• You should abandon fondness for what is unlasting. What is unlasting? The five aggregates.
Yaṁ hi bhikkhave aniccaṁ tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo. Kiñca bhikkhave aniccaṁ. Rūpaṁ bhikkhave aniccaṁ tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo… Viññāṇaṁ aniccaṁ tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo. (SN iii 178)
• You should abandon attachment for what is unlasting. What is unlasting? The six senses.
Yaṁ bhikkhave aniccaṁ tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo. Kiñca bhikkhave aniccaṁ. Cakkhuṁ bhikkhave aniccaṁ tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo… mano anicco tatra vo rāgo pahātabbo. (SN iv 149)
• You should abandon fondness for what is unlasting. What is unlasting? The elements of sensation.
Yaṁ kho koṭṭhita aniccaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo. Kiñca koṭṭhita aniccaṁ. Cakkhuṁ kho koṭṭhita aniccaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo. Rūpā aniccā tatra te chando pahātabbo. Cakkhuviññāṇaṁ aniccaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo. Cakkhusamphasso anicco tatra te chando pahātabbo. Yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aniccaṁ tatra te chando pahātabbo. (SN iv 145)
(3) to observe the cessation of objects. For example, in mindfulness with breathing, the object of contemplation is said to be the fourth of the bases of mindfulness:
• at that time he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings.
dhammesu dhammānupassī ānanda bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye viharati. (SN v 325)
Therefore, with mindfulness with breathing, one can parenthesise the instructions as follows:
• He trains himself: I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating
… unlastingness [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
Aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati
… passing away [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati
… ending [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati
… relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti… passasissāmī ti sikkhati. (SN v 324)
The practice of observing the cessation of objects is associated in the suttas with the aggregates and the elements of sensation. It is not associated with the hindrances, the enlightenment factors, or the noble truths. This is clearly seen in the suttas beginning with the Cakkhu Aniccānupassī Sutta (AN iv 146), and with the Aniccānupassanā Sutta (AN v 359).
Therefore the dhammesu dhammānupassī reflection concerns certain objects of the systematic teachings, namely the five aggregates and the eighteen or more elements of sensation.
Redundancy: dhammin, the phenomenon of
Where dhammin means the phenomenon of, we treat it as redundant:
• He abides contemplating disappearance in relation to the body, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena]
Vayadhammānupassī kāyasmiṁ viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (SN v 183)
While this discourse was being propounded, the uncorrupted, stainless vision of the nature of reality arose within Venerable Koṇḍañña that whatever is of an originated nature is destined to cease.
Imasmiñca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṁ bhaññamāne āyasmato koṇḍaññassa virajaṁ vītamalaṁ dhammacakkhuṁ udapādi yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ sabbaṁ taṁ nirodhadhamman ti. (Vin.1.11)
Whether or not there is an arising of Perfect Ones, there persists that phenomenon, a stability in the nature of reality, an orderliness in the nature of reality, namely specific conditionality.
uppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idappaccayatā. (SN ii 25)
Whether or not there is an arising of Perfect Ones, there persists that phenomenon, that stability in the nature of reality, that orderliness in the nature of reality, [namely] the unlastingness of all originated phenomena.
Uppādā vā bhikkhave tathāgatānaṁ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṁ ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā ti. (AN i 286)
Illustration: dhamma, moral nature
And the Venerable MahāMoggallāna saw that person sitting in the midst of the assembly of bhikkhus―unvirtuous, of an unvirtuous moral nature, of foul and odious behaviour, secretive in conduct, no ascetic though pretending to be one, not celibate though pretending to be so, spiritually rotten, full of defilement, and morally decayed.
Addasā kho āyasmā mahāmoggallāno taṁ puggalaṁ dussīlaṁ pāpadhammaṁ asucisaṅkassarasamācāraṁ paṭicchannakammantaṁ assamaṇaṁ samaṇapaṭiññaṁ abrahmacāriṁ brahmacārīpaṭiññaṁ antopūtiṁ avassutaṁ kasambujātaṁ majjhe bhikkhusaṅghassa nisinnaṁ. (Uda 52)
Just as a thief of an unvirtuous moral nature who is captured at the entrance of a break [in a house-wall] is punished on account of his own conduct, likewise people of an unvirtuous moral nature who have passed on are punished in the world beyond on account of their own conduct.
Coro yathā sandhimukhe gahīto sakammunā haññati pāpadhammo
Evaṁ pajā pecca paramhi loke sakammunā haññati pāpadhammā. (Tha 786)
Illustration: dhamma, righteousness
Because this is a term for the Perfect One:
tathāgatassa hetaṁ vāseṭṭhā adhivacanaṁ
The embodiment of the teaching, the embodiment of Brahmā, one who has become righteousness itself, one who has become Brahmā
dhammakāyo iti pi brahmakāyo iti pi dhammabhūto iti pi brahmabhūto iti pi. (DN iii 84)
For many hundreds of times I was a righteous Wheel-turning monarch, a King of Righteousness, a conqueror of the four corners of the earth.
Anekasatakkhattuṁ rājā ahosiṁ cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī. (Iti 15)
Illustration: dhamma, righteous
Bhikkhus, I will explain to you what is righteous and what is unrighteous.
Dhammañca vo bhikkhave desissāmi adhammañca
What is unrighteous? The tenfold path of wrong factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave adhammo: micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave adhammo.
And what is righteous? The tenfold path of right factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave dhammo: sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave dhammoti. (AN v 242)
Illustration: dhamma, the teaching
I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition on the essence of the whole teaching.
Sabbadhammamūlapariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave desessāmi. (MN i 1)
But for me Venerable Sāriputta was an advisor and counsellor, one who instructed, exhorted, inspired, and gladdened me.
He was unwearying in explaining the teaching; he was helpful to his companions in the religious life.
akilāsu dhammadesanāya anuggāhako sabrahmacārīnaṁ.
We recollect the nourishment of the teaching, the wealth of the teaching, the help of the teaching given by Venerable Sāriputta.
Taṁ mayaṁ āyasmato sāriputtassa dhammojaṁ dhammabhogaṁ dhammānuggahaṁ anussarāmā ti. (SN v 162)
Illustration: dhamma, teaching
At Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana the Perfect One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, set rolling the unsurpassed Wheel of the Teaching, which cannot be reversed by any ascetic, Brahmanist, deva, māra, or brahmā, or by anyone in the world, that is, the explaining, teaching, proclaiming, establishing, disclosing, analysing, and elucidating of the four noble truths.
Tathāgatena bhikkhave arahatā sammāsambuddhena bārāṇasiyaṁ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṁ dhammacakkaṁ pavattitaṁ appavattiyaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṁ yadidaṁ catunnaṁ ariyasaccānaṁ ācikkhanā desanā paññapanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṁ. (MN iii 248)
A bhikkhu investigates the meaning of the teachings he has retained in mind.
dhatānañca dhammānaṁ atthūpaparikkhitā hoti
Realising their meaning and significance, he practises in accordance with the teaching.
atthamaññāya dhammamaññāya dhammānudhammapaṭipanno ca hoti. (AN iv 298)
Illustration: dhamma, religious
He was instructing the bhikkhus with a religious discourse concerning the Untroubled,
nibbānapaṭisaṁyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya sandasseti. (Uda 80)
A great concourse takes place in the woods. The deva hosts have assembled. We have come to this religious gathering, to see the community of bhikkhus, undefeated [by Māra’s army].
Mahāsamayo pavanasmiṁ devakāyā samāgatā
Āgatamha imaṁ dhammasamayaṁ dakkhitāye aparājitasaṅghan ti. (SN i 26)
Illustration: dhamma, certain objects of the systematic teachings
Bhikkhus, there are these four bases of mindfulness. What four?
Cattārome bhikkhave satipaṭṭhānā katame cattāro
In this regard a bhikkhu abides contemplating the nature of the body… the nature of sense impressions… the nature of the mind… the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].
idha bhikkhave bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati… Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati… citte cittānupassī viharati… Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.
As he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, whatever fondness he has for those objects of the systematic teachings is abandoned. Because fondness is abandoned, the Deathless is realised
Tassa dhammesu dhammānupassino viharato yo dhammesu chando so pahīyati. Chandassa pahānā amataṁ sacchikataṁ hotīti. (SN v 181-2)
When a bhikkhu is training himself:
Yasmiṁ samaye ānanda bhikkhu
’I will breathe in… I will breathe out contemplating
• unlastingness [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati
• passing away [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati
• ending [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati
• relinquishment [in relation to certain objects of the systematic teachings]
paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati
… at that time he abides contemplating the nature of certain objects of the systematic teachings, vigorously, fully consciously, and mindfully, having eliminated greed and dejection in regard to the world [of phenomena].
dhammesu dhammānupassī ānanda bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (SN v 325)
Illustration: dhamma, practice
This is the era of unvirtuous practices and spiritual defilements. But those who possess what remains of the true teaching are dedicated to physical seclusion.
Pāpakānañca dhammānaṁ kilesānañca yo utu
Upaṭṭhitā vivekāya ye ca saddhammasesakā. (Tha 930)
Illustration: dhamma, redundancy
• He explained the noble practice which is of benefit to devas and men
Hitaṁ devamanussānaṁ ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ pakāsayī. (AN ii 37)
• He fulfils the noble practice that is spiritually wholesome.
ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan ti. (SN v 19)
Bodhi incorporates the redundancy by using a comma:
Illustration: dhammaṁ, productive of
All is productive of grief. What is the all that is productive of grief? The eye is productive of grief.
Sabbaṁ bhikkhave sokadhammaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ sokadhammaṁ: cakkhuṁ bhikkhave sokadhammaṁ. (SN iv 27)
All is productive of defilement. What is the all that is productive of defilement? The eye is productive of defilement.
Sabbaṁ bhikkhave saṅkilesadhammaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ: cakkhuṁ bhikkhave saṅkilesadhammaṁ. (SN iv 27)
Gold and silver are productive of defilement
What is the ignoble search? In this regard, a certain person… being himself productive of grief seeks what is likewise productive of grief; being himself productive of defilement seeks what is likewise productive of defilement.
Katamā ca bhikkhave anariyā pariyesanā? Idha bhikkhave ekacco… attanā sokadhammo samāno sekādhammaññeva pariyesati attanā saṅkilesadhammo samāno saṅkilesadhammaññeva pariyesati. (MN i 162)
And what may be said to be productive of grief? Wife, children, men and women slaves, goats, sheep, fowl, pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, mares, gold, and silver are productive of grief. These worldly objects of attachment are productive of grief. And one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, clinging to them, being himself productive of grief seeks what is also productive of grief.
Kiñca bhikkhave sokadhammaṁ vadetha? Puttabhariyaṁ bhikkhave sokadhammaṁ dāsidāsaṁ sokadhammaṁ ajeḷakaṁ sokadhammaṁ kukkuṭasūkaraṁ sokadhammaṁ hatthigavāssavaḷavaṁ sokadhammaṁ. Sokadhammā hete bhikkhave upadhayo etthāyaṁ gathito mucchito ajjhāpanno attanā sokadhammo samāno sokadhammaññeva pariyesati. (MN i 162)
And what may be said to be productive of defilement? Wife, children, men and women slaves, goats, sheep, fowl, pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, mares, gold, and silver are productive of defilement. These worldly objects of attachment are productive of defilement. And one who is tied to these things, infatuated with them, clinging to them, being himself productive of defilement seeks what is also productive of defilement.
Kiñca bhikkhave saṅkilesadhammaṁ vadetha? Puttabhariyaṁ bhikkhave saṅkilesadhammaṁ dāsidāsaṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ ajeḷakaṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ kukkuṭasūkaraṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ hatthigavāssavaḷavaṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ jātarūparajataṁ saṅkilesadhammaṁ. Saṅkilesadhammā hete bhikkhave upadhayo. Etthāyaṁ gatito mucchito ajjhāpanno attanā saṅkilesadhammo samāno saṅkilesadhammaññeva pariyesati. (MN i 162)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, subject to
All is subject to birth. What is the all that is subject to birth? The eye is subject to birth.
Sabbaṁ bhikkhave jātidhammaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ jātidhammaṁ cakkhuṁ bhikkhave jātidhammaṁ. (SN iv 26-8)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, destined to
This [wretched human] body is perishable, bhikkhus; consciousness is destined to pass away;
Bhidurāyaṁ bhikkhave kāye viññāṇaṁ virāgadhammaṁ
All objects of attachment are unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change.
sabbe upadhī aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā ti. (Iti 69)
All is destined to disappear. What is the all that is destined to disappear? The eye is destined to disappear.
Sabbaṁ bhikkhave vayadhammaṁ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṁ vayadhammaṁ: cakkhuṁ bhikkhave vayadhammaṁ. (SN iv 26-8)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, phenomenon
One discerns a knowable phenomenon with the eye of penetrative discernment.
Neyyaṁ kho āvuso dhammaṁ paññācakkhunā pajānātī ti. (MN i 293)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, state
On grounds [of what attainment], friend Kālāma, having realised this state for yourself through transcendent insight and abiding in it, do you make it known to others?
kittāvatā no āvuso kālāma imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī ti.
In reply he declared [that he had realised] the state of awareness of nonexistence.
Evaṁ vutte bhikkhave āḷāro kālāmo ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ pavedesi.
In no short time, I quickly realised that state for myself through transcendent insight and abided in it.
So kho ahaṁ bhikkhave nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsiṁ
But it occurred to me that this state does not conduce to disillusionment [with originated phenomena], nor to non-attachment [to originated phenomena], nor to the ending [of originated phenomena], nor to the Untroubled, but only to rebirth in the state of awareness of nonexistence.
Tassa mayhaṁ bhikkhave etadahosi nāyaṁ dhammo nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati yāvadeva ākiñcaññāyatanūpapattiyā ti. (MN i 164-6)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, attainment
If a bhikkhu, though not recalling it, should claim with reference to himself a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision that is worthy of the Noble Ones, saying “Thus I know; thus I see;” then, whether or not he is later interrogated about it, fallen and seeking purification, he says “Friends, though not knowing, I said ‘I know’; though not seeing, I said ‘I see.’ I boasted vainly and falsely”; unless it was from over-estimation, he is pārājika, no longer in communion.
Yo pana bhikkhu anabhijānaṁ uttarimanussadhammaṁ attūpanāyikaṁ alamariyañāṇadassanaṁ samudācareyya Iti jānāmi iti passāmī ti
- not known (anabhijānan ti): he claims to have an excellent attainment (atthi me kusalo dhammo ti) that does not exist; it is it not found, known or seen
- superhuman attainment (uttarimanussadhammo):
- jhāna (jhānaṁ)
- deliverance [from perceptually obscuring states] (vimokkho)
- inward collectedness (samādhi)
- attainment (samāpatti)
- knowledge and vision [of things according to reality] (ñāṇadassanaṁ)
- development of the path (maggabhāvanā)
- realisation of the fruits (phalasacchikiriyā)
- abandonment of the imperfections (kilesappahānaṁ)
- freedom from the five hindrances (vinīvaraṇatā cittassa)
- taking delight in solitude (suññāgāre abhirati). (Vin.3.91)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, religious doctrine
In what way, headman, does the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta explain religious doctrine to disciples?”
kathaṁ nu kho gāmaṇi nigaṇṭho nātaputto sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ desetī ti
“Bhante, the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta explains religious doctrine to disciples thus:
Evaṁ kho bhante nigaṇṭho nātaputto sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ deseti:
‘Anyone at all who kills… who takes what is not given… who engages in sexual misconduct… who speaks falsehood, is bound for [rebirth in] the plane of sub-human existence, bound for hell.
Yo koci pāṇamatipāteti… adinnamādiyati… kāmesu micchā carati… musā haṇati sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko.
‘One is led on (to rebirth) by the manner in which one usually dwells.’
Yaṁ bahulaṁ yaṁ bahulaṁ viharati tena tena niyyatī ti
It is in such a way, bhante, that the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta explains religious doctrine to disciples.
Evaṁ kho bhante nigaṇṭho nātaputto sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ desetīti. (SN iv 317)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, the teaching
I shall explain the teaching to you, which is fathomable in this lifetime, which is not just hearsay, understanding which, one living the religious life, one who is mindful, would overcome attachment to the world [of phenomena].
kittayissāmi te dhammaṁ diṭṭhe dhamme anitihaṁ yaṁ viditvā sato caraṁ tare loke visattikaṁ. (Snp 1053)
If a bhikkhu has an unordained person recite the teaching sentence by sentence, it is an offence of pācittiya.
Yo pana bhikkhu anupassampannaṁ padaso dhammaṁ vāceyya pācittiyaṁ.
“The teaching” is the words of the Buddha, his disciples, sages, and devas that relate to spiritual well-being and righteousness.
dhammo nāma buddhabhāsito sāvakabhāsito isibhāsito devabhāsato atthūpasaṁhito dhammūpasaṁhito. (Vin.4.15)
Thus the teaching explained by me is comparable to a raft, being for the sake of crossing [the flood of suffering], not for the sake of clinging to it. When you know that the teaching explained by me is comparable to a raft, you should abandon even what is righteous, how much more so what is unrighteous.
evameva kho bhikkhave kullūpamo mayā dhammo desito nittharaṇatthāya no gahaṇatthāya. Kullūpamaṁ vo bhikkhave dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānantehi dhammā pi vo pahātabbā pageva adhammā. (MN i 135)
When a teacher explains the Buddha’s teaching
The bhikkhu accordingly realises the meaning and significance of the teaching.
dhamme atthappaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca
This gives rise to gladness.
tassa atthapaṭisaṁvedino dhammapaṭisaṁvedino pāmujjaṁ jāyati. (DN iii 242)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, the Buddha’s teaching
The religious philosophers outside this [training system] are attached to dogmatic views. They do not know the Buddha’s teaching. They are ignorant of the Buddha’s teaching.
Ito bahiddhā pāsaṇḍā diṭṭhiyo upanissitā
Na te dhammaṁ vijānanti na te dhammassa kovidā. (Thi 184)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, what is righteous
If one transgresses what is righteous through desire, hatred, fear, or undiscernment of reality, one’s glory fades like the moon in the waning fortnight.
Chandā dosā bhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ ativattati
Nihīyati tassa yaso kālapakkheva candimā ti. (AN ii 18)
A person who is undiscerning of reality does not know what is beneficial, nor see what is righteous.
Mūḷho atthaṁ na jānāti mūḷho dhammaṁ na passati. (Iti 84)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, suitable
‘Whatever I had that was suitable for offering has all been disposed of by me’
yaṁ kho mamaṁ deyyadhammaṁ sabbaṁ vissajjitaṁ mayā. (Snp 982)
Deyyadhamma: ‘a gift, lit. that which has the quality of being given’ (PED).
Illustration: dhammaṁ, mentally known object
• in seeing a visible object
• in hearing an audible object
• in smelling a smellable object
• in tasting a tasteable object
• in feeling a tangible object
• in knowing a mentally known object
Illustration: dhammaṁ, practice
Bhikkhus, I will explain to you the practice associated with perceptually obscuring states and the practice free of perceptually obscuring states.
sāsavañca vo bhikkhave dhammaṁ desissāmi anāsavañca.
What is the practice associated with perceptually obscuring states?
katamo ca bhikkhave sāsavo dhammo
Killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, malicious speech, harsh speech, frivolous speech, greed, ill will, wrong view [of reality].
pāṇātipāto adinnādānaṁ kāmesu micchācāro musāvādo pisuṇāvācā pharusāvācā samphappalāpo abhijjhā vyāpādo micchādiṭṭhi.
What is the practice free of perceptually obscuring states?
Katamo ca bhikkhave anāsavo dhammo
Refraining from killing, from stealing, from sexual misconduct, from lying, from malicious speech, from harsh speech and from frivolous speech; non-greed, goodwill, and right perception [of reality].
pāṇātipātā veramaṇī adinnādānā veramaṇī kāmesu micchācārā veramaṇī musāvādā veramaṇī pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī samphappalāpā veramaṇī anabhijjhā avyāpādo sammādiṭṭhī. (AN v 275)
Bhikkhus, I will explain to you the practice associated with perceptually obscuring states and the practice free of perceptually obscuring states
Sāsavañca vo bhikkhave dhammaṁ desissāmi anāsavañca.
What is the practice associated with perceptually obscuring states?
Katamo ca bhikkhave sāsavo dhammo
The tenfold path of wrong factors.
micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave sāsavo dhammo.
What is the practice free of perceptually obscuring states?
Katamo ca bhikkhave anāsavo dhammo
The tenfold path of right factors.
sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave anāsavo dhammo ti. (AN v 242)
I, Bhāradvāja, am one of those ascetics and Brahmanists who claim to have realised the fundamental principles of the religious life, having fully understood the nature of reality for themselves, having reached in this lifetime the consummation and perfection of transcendent insight into profound truths not heard before.
Tatra bhāradvāja ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaññeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti tesāhamasmi. (MN ii 211)
He who sees dependent origination [according to reality] sees the nature of reality; he who sees the nature of reality sees dependent origination [according to reality].
yo paṭiccasamuppādaṁ passati so dhammaṁ passati. Yo dhammaṁ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṁ passatī ti. (MN i 190)
Even if a bhikkhu holding onto my robe were to follow close behind me step-by-step, yet if he were greedy for sensuous pleasure, full of attachment, with an unbenevolent mind and hateful thoughts, unmindful, not fully conscious, inwardly uncollected, mentally scattered, of unrestrained sense faculties, nonetheless he is far from me, and I am far from him. For what reason? Because he does not see the nature of reality. Not perceiving the nature of reality he does not see me.
Taṁ kissa hetu: dhammaṁ hi so bhikkhave bhikkhu na passati dhammaṁ apassanto na maṁ passati.
Even if a bhikkhu lived a thousand miles from me, but was not greedy for sensuous pleasure, not full of attachment, with a benevolent mind and unhateful thoughts, with mindfulness established, fully conscious, inwardly collected, mentally undistracted, with sense faculties restrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], nonetheless he is close to me, and I am close to him. For what reason? Because he sees the nature of reality. Perceiving the nature of reality he sees me [according to reality].
Taṁ kissa hetu: dhammaṁ hi so bhikkhave bhikkhū passati dhammaṁ passanto maṁ passatī ti. (Iti 91)
‘Why do you want to see this foul body? One who sees the nature of reality sees me [according to reality]. One who sees me [according to reality] sees the nature of reality.’
Kiṁ te iminā pūtikāyena diṭṭhena yo kho vakkali dhammaṁ passati so maṁ passati yo maṁ passati so dhammaṁ passati. (SN iii 120)
Illustration: dhammaṁ, reality
• I have seen lay followers who are experts in the teaching saying that sensuous pleasures are unlasting, but they are full of passionate attachment to jewellery and earrings, and of affection for children and wives.
• Certainly they do not really know [this] according to reality, even though they say that sensuous pleasures are unlasting.
Addhā na jānanti yathāva dhammaṁ kāmā aniccā iti cā pi āhu. (Tha 187-8)
Illustration: dhammā, phenomena
Conditionality will be clearly seen by me, as well as conditionally arisen phenomena
hetuca me sudiṭṭho bhavissati hetusamuppannā ca dhammā. (AN iii 444)
Illustration: dhammā, things
All originated phenomena are unlasting; all things are void of personal qualities
sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā sabbe dhammā anattā ti. (MN i 228)
When a bhikkhu has heard that all things are unsuited to stubborn attachment
bhikkhuno sutaṁ hoti sabbe dhammā nālaṁ abhinivesāyāti
he fully understands the whole teaching,
so sabbaṁ dhammaṁ abhijānāti. (MN i 252)
Regarding the shift from plural dhammā to singular dhammaṁ translators negotiate it differently.
We regard the change in case to indicate a change in meaning.
Which two things are very useful? Mindfulness and full consciousness.
Katame dve dhammā bahukārā? Sati ca sampajaññaṁ ca.
Which two things should be developed? Inward calm and insightfulness
Katame dve dhammā bhāvatabbā? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. …
Which two things should be realised? Insightfulness into reality and liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].
Katame dve dhammā sacchikātabbā? Vijjā ca vimutti ca.
That makes twenty teachings which are true, factual, correct, not incorrect, not mistaken, fully awakened to by the Perfect One.
Iti ime vīsati dhammā bhūtā tacchā tathā avitathā anaññathā sammā tathāgatena abhisambuddhā. (DN iii 273-4)
Illustration: dhammā, principles
There are these six principles of cordiality…
chayime bhikkhave dhammā sārāṇīyā…
In this regard, a bhikkhu maintains loving conduct of body, speech, and mind towards his companions in the religious life…
Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ… mettaṁ vacīkammaṁ… mettaṁ manokammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sabrahmacārīsu. (MN i 322)
Illustration: dhammā, conditions
Eight worldly conditions whirl around the world [of beings], and the world [of beings] whirls around eight worldly conditions, namely: acquisition and loss, imprestige and prestige, criticism and praise, pleasure and pain.
aṭṭha lokadhammā lokaṁ anuparivattanti loko ca aṭṭha lokadhamme anuparivattati: lābho ca alābho ca ayaso ca yaso ca nindā ca pasaṁsā ca sukhañca dukkhañcā ti. (AN ii 188)
Illustration: dhammā, factors
• ’Kālāmas, being full of greed and hatred, and lacking in penetrative discernment, being overpowered and overcome by greed, hatred, and undiscernment of reality a person
Luddho… lobhena abhibhūto… duṭṭho… dosena abhibhūto… mūḷho… mohena abhibhūto
- commits adultery
and encourages others to act likewise.
Will that not be for his long-lasting harm and suffering?
• ’Yes, bhante.’
• ’What do you think, Kālāmas? Are these factors spiritually wholesome, or spiritually unwholesome?’
Taṁ kiṁ maññatha kālāmā ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā ti?
• ’Spiritually unwholesome, bhante’
Akusalā bhante. (AN i 189-191)
Bhante, when pursuing certain visible objects known via the visual sense, spiritually unwholesome factors flourish and spiritually wholesome factors fade, such visible objects should not be pursued.
yathārūpaṁ bhante cakkhuviññeyyaṁ rūpaṁ sevato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti kusalā dhammā parihāyanti. Evarūpaṁ cakkhuviññeyyaṁ rūpaṁ na sevitabbaṁ. (MN iii 56)
What are spiritually unwholesome factors? Namely, the eightfold path [of wrong factors].
Katame ca bhikkhave akusalā dhammā seyyathīdaṁ micchādiṭṭhi… micchāsamādhi.
What are spiritually wholesome factors? Namely, the eightfold path [of right factors].
Katame ca bhikkhave kusalā dhammā seyyathīdaṁ sammādiṭṭhi… sammāsamādhi. (SN v 18)
And how is there unrestraint [of the sense faculties]?
Katañcava bhikkhave asaṁvaro hoti.
In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu is intent upon an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object.
Idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati
He abides without having established mindfulness of the body, with an undeveloped mind, and he does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.
anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. (SN iv 189)
Illustration: dhammā, teachings
Those teachings which are excellent in the beginning, the middle, and the end, whose spirit and letter proclaim the utterly complete and pure religious life: teachings like this are much heard by him.
ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthaṁ savyañjanaṁ kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti. (Vin.2.96)
Illustration: dhammā, objects of the systematic teachings
Bhikkhus, I will teach you the origination and vanishing of the four bases of mindfulness. Please listen.
catunnaṁ bhikkhave satipaṭṭhānānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca desissāmi. Taṁ suṇātha.
And what is the origination of objects of the systematic teachings?
(Ko ca bhikkhave dhammānaṁ samudayo)
With the origination of attention comes the origination of objects of the systematic teachings. With the ending of attention comes the vanishing of objects of the systematic teachings.
Manasikārasamudayā dhammānaṁ samudayo. Manasikāranirodhā dhammānaṁ atthaṅgamo ti. (SN v 184)
There are spiritually wholesome and spiritually unwholesome factors; blameworthy and blameless factors; inferior and superior factors; and inwardly dark and bright factors with their correlative combinations.
Atthi bhikkhave kusalākusalā dhammā sāvajjānavajjā dhammā hīnapaṇītā dhammā kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgā dhammā.
Much proper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of examination of the teaching, and the perfection through spiritual cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of examination of the teaching.
Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā. (SN v 66)
When profound truths become manifest to the vigorous, meditative Brahman, then all his unsureness [about the excellence of the teaching] disappears, for he discerns the conditioned nature of reality.
Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa
Athassa kaṅkhā vapayanti sabbā yato pajānāti sahetudhamman ti. (Uda 1)
When one’s mind is collected, profound truths become manifest.
Samāhite citte dhammā pātubhavanti. (SN v 398)
Which profound truths become manifest? Consider a similar quote:
• A bhikkhu who is inwardly collected discerns things according to reality’
‘Profound truths becoming manifest’ corresponds to discerning things yathābhūtaṁ. What does one discern yathābhūtaṁ?
• One discerns according to reality that the visual sense is unlasting
Cakkhuṁ aniccan ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (SN iv 80)
• One discerns according to reality,’This is suffering’
Kiñca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti idaṁ dukkhan ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (SN v 414)
Homage to the Buddhas, the teachings, and the accomplishment of our teacher, in that a disciple can realise such a profound truth for himself.
Aho buddhā aho dhammā aho no satthu sampadā
Yattha etādisaṁ dhammaṁ sāvako sacchikāhi ti. (Tha 201)
Illustration: dhammānaṁ, matters
Poṭṭhapāda was perplexed by a discussion he had heard regarding the higher extinction of consciousness, and thought:
• Ah, surely the Blessed One, the Sublime One is supremely proficient in these matters.
aho nūna bhagavā aho nūna sugato yo imesaṁ dhammānaṁ sukusalo ti. (DN i 180)
Illustration: dhammānaṁ, issues
For the ignorant Everyman, through contemplating issues that should not be contemplated and through not contemplating issues that should be contemplated, both unarisen perceptually obscuring states arise, and arisen perceptually obscuring states increase.
Tassa amanasikaraṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ manasikārā manasikaraṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ amanasikārā anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti uppannā ca āsavā pavaḍḍhanti.
This is how he improperly contemplates:
So evaṁ ayoniso manasikaroti
'Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what was I in the past? Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I be in the future?' Or else he is uncertain about the present in regard to himself: 'Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where is it bound?'. (MN i 8)
The learned noble disciple, through contemplating issues that should be contemplated and through not contemplating issues that should not be contemplated, unarisen āsavas do not arise, and arisen āsavas are abandoned.
Tassa amanasikaraṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ amanasikārā manasikaraṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ manasikārā anuppannā ceva āsavā na uppajjanti uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti.
He properly contemplates:
• This is suffering
So idaṁ dukkhan ti yoniso manasikaroti
• This is the origin of suffering
ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo ti yoniso manasikaroti
• This is the ending of suffering
ayaṁ dukkhanirodho ti yoniso manasikaroti
• This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering.
ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminīpaṭipadā ti yoniso manasikaroti. (MN i 9)
Illustration: dhammānaṁ, good spiritual qualities
Not applying oneself and lack of reflection are obstacles to [the development of] good spiritual qualities.
ananuyogo apaccavekkhaṇā dhammānaṁ paripantho. (AN v 136)
Illustration: dhamme, principles
If a bhikkhu is reproving, wanting to reprove another, he should do so having established five principles within himself.
Codakena āvuso bhikkhunā paraṁ codetukāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhepetvā paro codetabbo:
I will speak at the right time, not the wrong time
kālena vakkhāmi no akālena
I will speak truth not falsehood
bhūtena vakkhāmi no abhūtena
I will speak gently not harshly
saṇhena vakkhāmi no pharusena
I will speak what is conducive to spiritual well-being not unconducive to spiritual well-being
atthasaṁhitena vakkhāmi no anatthasaṁhitena
I will speak with a mind of [unlimited] goodwill not with inner hatred
Illustration: dhamme, teaching
A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to study and master] advanced aspects of the teaching and discipline
Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā abhidhamme abhivinaye yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)
Illustration: dhamme, factors
Now, of those ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine and dogmatic view is this: There is no merit in giving, donating and offering; no fruit or result of good and bad deeds; no this world, no hereafter; no duties to parents; no spontaneously arisen beings; no ascetics and Brahmanists conducting and applying themselves rightly in the world who, having realised this world and the hereafter for themselves through transcendent insight make them known to others.
It is to be expected that they will avoid these three spiritually wholesome factors, namely: good conduct by way of body, speech, and mind.
yamidaṁ kāyasucaritaṁ vacīsucaritaṁ manosucaritaṁ ime tayo kusale dhamme abhinivajjetvā
And will practise three spiritually unwholesome factors, namely: bad conduct by way of body, speech, and mind.
yamidaṁ kāyaduccaritaṁ vacīduccaritaṁ manoduccaritaṁ ime tayo akusale dhamme samādāya vattissanti
For what reason? Because they do not see
• the danger, degradation, and defilement in spiritually unwholesome factors
na hi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā passanti akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ ādīnavaṁ okāraṁ saṅkilesaṁ
• and in spiritually wholesome factors and in the practice of unsensuousness, the advantage and associated purity.
kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ nekkhamme ānisaṁsaṁ vodānapakkhaṁ. (MN i 402)
Illustration: dhammo, quality
What qualities make him difficult to admonish?
Katame cāvuso dovacassakaraṇā dhammā?
In this regard a bhikkhu has unvirtuous desires and is dominated by unvirtuous desires.
Idhāvuso bhikkhu pāpiccho hoti pāpikānaṁ icchānaṁ vasaṁ gato
This is a quality that makes him difficult to admonish
ayampi dhammo dovacassakaraṇo. (MN i 95)
Illustration: dhammo, moral nature
Because his mind was overpowered and overcome by gains, honour, and renown, Devadatta’s bright moral nature was eradicated.
Lābhasakkārasilokana abhibhūtassa pariyādinnacittassa bhikkhave devadattassa sukko dhammo samucchedamagamā. (SN ii 240)
Because his mind was overpowered and overcome by gains, honour, and renown, Devadatta's good moral nature was eradicated…
Lābhasakkārasilokana abhibhūtassa pariyādinnacittassa bhikkhave devadattassa kusalo dhammo samacchedamagamā. (SN ii 240)
Illustration: dhammo, teaching
The Blessed One addressed Venerable Ānanda: “It may be, Ānanda, that you may now think, ‘The words of the Teacher are ended; we have no teacher more!’ But it should not be seen like that. The teaching and discipline that I have explained and established will, after my passing, be your teacher.”
Yo kho ānanda mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto so vo mamaccayena satthā ti. (DN ii 154)
Non-Buddhist ascetics may say
aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṁ vadeyyuṁ
‘Friends, we too have confidence in the Teacher, that is our teacher.
amhākampi kho āvuso atthi satthari pasādo yo amhākaṁ satthā
We too have confidence in the teaching, that is our teaching.
Amhākampi atthi dhamme pasādo yo amhākaṁ dhammo. (MN i 64)
Illustration: dhammo, the teaching
The teaching indeed protects the one who practises the teaching;
Dhammo have rakkhati dhammacāriṁ
The teaching when well practised brings happiness.
Dhammo suciṇṇo sukhamāvahati
This is the advantage of the teaching when it is well practised:
Esānisaṁso dhamme suciṇṇe
The one who practises the teaching does not [on rebirth] go to the plane of misery.
Na duggatiṁ gacchati dhammacārī. (Tha 303-4)
There has appeared in Magadha before you an impure teaching thought out by defiled minds.
Pāturahosi magadhesu pubbe dhammo asuddho samalehi cintito
Open the door to the Deathless; let them hear the teaching awakened to by one free of [the three] spiritual stains.
Apāpuretaṁ amatassa dvāraṁ suṇantu dhammaṁ vimalenānubuddhaṁ. (Vin.1.5)
Illustration: dhammo, righteous
Wrong view [of reality] is unrighteous; right perception [of reality] is righteous
micchādiṭṭhi bhikkhave adhammo sammādiṭṭhi dhammo. (AN v 231)
Illustration: dhammo, practice
The entire bhikkhu practice cannot be pursued by one with [householders’] possessions.
Nahesa labbhā sapariggahena phassetuṁ yo kevalo bhikkhu dhammo. (Snp 393)
Then Venerable AññaKoṇḍañña having seen the nature of reality, attained insight into the nature of reality, known the nature of reality, penetrated into the nature of reality… asked the Blessed One for ordination.
Atha kho āyasmā aññātakoṇḍañño diṭṭhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo pariyogāḷhadhammo
‘Come, bhikkhu. Well explained is the teaching. Live the religious life for making a complete end of suffering.’
Svākkhāto dhammo. Cara brahmacariyaṁ sammā dukkhassa antakiriyāyā ti. (Vin.1.12)
Illustration: dhammo, the Untroubled
I have attained and realised the Untroubled for myself, not as a matter of hearsay.
Anuppatto sacchikato sayaṁ dhammo anītiho. (Tha 331)
Illustration: dhammadesanā, religious discourse
When the Blessed One knew that Pokkharasāti’s mind was ready, teachable, free of the five hindrances, uplifted, and serene, then he expounded the religious discourse unique to the Buddhas
atha yā buddhānaṁ sāmukkaṁsikā dhammadesanā taṁ pakāsesi: dukkhaṁ samudayaṁ nirodhaṁ maggaṁ. (DN i 110)
Illustration: saddhammena, good quality
With learning as his weaponry, the noble disciple abandons what is spiritually unwholesome and develops what is spiritually wholesome, abandons what is unvirtuous and develops what is virtuous, and keeps himself in perfect purity. He possesses this fourth good quality.
Sutāvudho bhikkhave ariyasāvako akusalaṁ pajahati kusalaṁ bhāveti sāvajjaṁ pajahati anavajjaṁ bhāveti suddhaṁ attānaṁ pariharati. Iminā catutthena saddhammena samannāgate hoti. (AN iv 110)
Illustration: saddhammā, good quality
Seven good qualities. In this regard a bhikkhu has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], shame of wrongdoing, a fear of wrongdoing, is learned, energetic, has mindfulness established, and is blessed with penetrative discernment.
Satta saddhammā: idhāvuso bhikkhu saddho hoti hirīmā hoti ottappī hoti bahussuto hoti āraddhaviriyo hoti upaṭṭhitasati hoti paññavā hoti. (DN iii 252)
Bhikkhus, I will explain to you the true teaching and the untrue teaching
Saddhammañca vo bhikkhave desissāmi asaddhammañca.
What is the untrue teaching? The tenfold path of wrong factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave asaddhammo: micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave asaddhammo.
And what is the true teaching? The tenfold path of right factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave saddhammo: sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave saddhammo ti. (AN v 245)
The Buddhas of the past, the future Buddhas, and he who is the Buddha now, removing the grief of the many, all have dwelt, dwell, and will dwell, deeply revering the true teaching. For Buddhas this is a natural law.
Sabbe saddhammagaruno vihaṁsu viharanti ca
Athopi viharissanti esā buddhāna dhammatā. (SN i 140)
Dhammatā means ‘conformity to the Dhammaniyāma, fitness, propriety; a general rule, higher law, cosmic law, general practice, regular phenomenon, usual habit’ (PED).
Illustration: saddhammaṁ, true teaching
Householders and ascetics alike, each supported by the other, both fathom the true teaching; both attain unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]:
sāgārā anagārā ca ubho aññoññanissitā; ārādhayanti saddhammaṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaraṁ. (Iti 111)
Illustration: ariyadhamma, teaching that is noble
Bhikkhus, I will explain to you the teaching that is noble and the teaching that is ignoble.
Ariyadhammañca vo bhikkhave desissāmi anariyadhammañca.
What is the teaching that is ignoble? The tenfold path of wrong factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave anariyo dhammo. Micchādiṭṭhi micchāsaṅkappo micchāvācā micchākammanto micchāājīvo micchāvāyāmo micchāsati micchāsamādhi micchāñāṇaṁ micchāvimutti.
And what is the teaching that is noble? The tenfold path of right factors.
Katamo ca bhikkhave ariyo dhammo: sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi sammāñāṇaṁ sammāvimutti. (AN v 242)
Illustration: dhammasamādhī, inward collectedness based on righteous reflection
The Buddha told a headman he could overcome his unsureness about conflicting religious teachings through inward collectedness, which he said is attained by reflecting on one’s virtuousness as follows (so iti paṭisaṁcikkhati):
• ‘I harm no one at all, whether weak or strong. In both respects I have made a lucky throw: since I am restrained in conduct of body, speech, and mind, and since, with the demise of the body at death, I will be reborn in the realm of happiness, in the heavenly worlds.’
’[As he reflects thus] gladness arises. In one who is glad, rapture arises. For one whose mind is rapturous, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he experiences physical pleasure. Experiencing physical pleasure, his mind becomes collected.’
tassa pāmojjaṁ jāyati pamuditassa pīti jāyati pītimanassa kāyo passambhati passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vediyati sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati
‘This, headman, is inward collectedness based on righteous reflection.
Ayaṁ kho so gāmaṇi dhammasamādhī.
‘If you were to obtain inward collectedness based on reflection in this way, you would abandon that state of unsureness.
Tatra ce tvaṁ cittasamādhiṁ paṭilabheyyāsi evaṁ tvaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyāsi. (SN iv 351-2)
Illustration: dhammena, righteousness
If he remains a layman, having conquered the world he will rule without violence, without a sword, but by righteousness
Sace agāraṁ ajjhāvasati vijeyya paṭhaviṁ imaṁ
Adaṇḍena asatthena dhammenamanusāsati. (Snp 1002)
Illustration: dhammika, legitimate
I did not see any legitimate defence of their position
na kañci sahadhammikaṁ vādapaṭihāraṁ samanupassāmi. (MN ii 220)
Illustration: dhammatā, practices
By him are many folk established in the noble practice, namely in practices that are virtuous and spiritually wholesome.
bahu'ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā yadidaṁ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā. (AN ii 36)
The -tā suffix denotes multitude, collection (PGPL: para 581).
Illustration: dhammatā, redundancy
Even in the external Solidness Phenomenon, so vast, unlastingness is discernable, destruction is discernable, disappearance is discernable, changeableness is discernable,
Tassā hi nāma āvuso bāhirāya paṭhavīdhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati khayadhammatā paññāyissati vayadhammatā paññāyissati vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. (MN i 185-9)
Illustration: dhammesu, profound truths
Ending, ending: in regard to profound truths not heard before there arose in me vision, knowledge [of things according to reality], penetrative discernment, insightfulness, and illumination.
Nirodho nirodho ti kho bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṁ udapādi ñāṇaṁ udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādī ti. (SN ii 8-9)
Translators usually call this ‘things.’
I claim to have reached the consummation and perfection of transcendent insight into profound truths not heard before.
Pubbāhaṁ bhikkhave ananussutesu dhammesu abhiññāvosānapāramippatto paṭijānāmi. (AN iii 9)
This is sense impression’: in regard to profound truths not heard before, there arose in me vision, knowledge [of things according to reality], penetrative discernment, insightfulness, and illumination.
Imā vedanāti me bhikkhave pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṁ udapādi ñāṇaṁ udapādi paññā udapādi vijjā udapādi āloko udapādi. (SN iv 233)
‘Element’ vs. ‘phenomenon’
Dhātu can be rendered ‘element’ where it means constituent part, but otherwise it is better called ‘phenomenon.’ In many cases, the word is practically redundant.
Illustration: dhātu, phenomena
The bhikkhu… enters and abides in fourth jhāna, which is free of pleasure and pain, and [is imbued with] purified detached awareness and mindfulness.
catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati.
This mode of meditation when developed and cultivated leads to the understanding of many phenomena.
Idaṁ bhante anussatiṭṭhānaṁ evaṁ bhāvitaṁ evaṁ bahulīkataṁ anekadhātu paṭivedhāya saṁvattatī. (AN iii 325)
• Bhante, when, in regard to those who are not perfectly enlightened, the view arises that they are in fact perfectly enlightened, due to what is this view to be discerned?
yāyaṁ bhante diṭṭhi asammāsambuddhesu sammā sambuddhā ti. Ayaṁ nu kho bhante diṭṭhi kiṁ paṭicca paññāyatī ti
• Mighty, Kaccāna, is this phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of uninsightfulness into reality.
mahati kho esā kaccāna dhātu yadidaṁ avijjādhātu. (SN ii 153)
There are the phenomenon of exertion, the phenomenon of endeavour, the phenomenon of application [to the practice]:
Atthi bhikkhave ārambhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu. (SN v 103-108)
Illustration: dhātu, constituent elements
The Perfect One discerns according to reality the world [of phenomena] with its many and various constituent elements.
anekadhātunānādhātulokaṁ yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (MN i 70)
Illustration: dhātu, elements
The [religious] world is made up of many and various elements, and whatever of these elements that beings stubbornly adhere to, then dogmatically grasping and stubbornly adhering they assert ‘This alone is true, all else is false.’
Anekadhātunānādhātu kho devānaminda loko. Tasmiṁ anekadhātunānādhātusmiṁ loke yaṁ yadeva sattā dhātuṁ abhinivisanti taṁ tadeva thāmasā parāmassa abhinivissa voharanti idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan ti. (DN ii 282)
Illustration: dhātu, aspect
Bhikkhu, that aspect of the teaching has been correctly penetrated by Sāriputta, which through being correctly penetrated… if I had for seven days and nights questioned Sāriputta about the matter in various ways and manners, then for seven days and nights Sāriputta would have been able to answer me in various ways and manners.
Sā hi bhikkhu sāriputtassa dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā yassa dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā… satta rattindivāni cepahaṁ sāriputtaṁ etamattaṁ puccheyyaṁ aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehi satta rattindivānipi me sāriputto etamatthaṁ vyākareyya aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehī ti. (SN ii 56)
These two aspects of the Untroubled were made known by the Seer, free of attachment, and of excellent qualities.
Duve imā cakkhumatā pakāsitā nibbānadhātu anissitena tādinā
One aspect is realisable in this lifetime, with residue, but with the conduit to renewed states of individual existence destroyed;
Ekā hi dhātu idha diṭṭhadhammikā saupādisesā bhavanettisaṅkhayā.
The other, having no residue, is that wherein states of individual existence altogether cease.
Anupādisesā pana samparāyikā yamhi nirujjhanti bhavāni sabbaso. (Iti 38-9)
Illustration: dhātu, plane of existence
Deed that produces karmic consequences in:
• the sensuous plane of existence
• the refined material plane of existence
• the immaterial plane of existence
For beings [obstructed by] uninsightfulness into reality, and [tethered to individual existence] by craving
avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ
the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence
hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ
… the stream of consciousness is established in the middle plane of existence
majjhimāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ
… the stream of consciousness is established in the high plane of existence
paṇītāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṁ patiṭṭhitaṁ
In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future
evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti. (AN i 223-4)
Illustration: dhātu, elements of existence
Now if other people insult, malign, exasperate and harass a bhikkhu he knows that an unpleasant sense impression born of auditory sensation has arisen within him which is dependent, not self-sufficient. Dependent on what? Dependent on sensation.
uppannā kho me ayaṁ sotasamphassajā dukkhā vedanā sā ca kho paṭicca no appaṭicca. Kiṁ paṭicca? Phassaṁ paṭicca.
He sees that sensation is unlasting, sense impression is unlasting, perception is unlasting, mental factors are unlasting, fields of sensation are unlasting.
So phasso anicco ti passati. Vedanā aniccā ti passati. Saññā aniccā ti passati. Saṅkhārā aniccā ti passa ti. Viññāṇaṁ aniccan ti passati.
Having elements of existence as the basis [for spiritual development] his mind becomes energised, serene, settled, and intent upon [their contemplation].
Tassa dhātārammaṇameva cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati. (MN i 186)
• There are these six phenomena: the phenomenon of sensuous yearning, the phenomenon of unsensuousness, the phenomenon of ill will, the phenomenon of goodwill, the phenomenon of maliciousness, the phenomenon of compassion.
Chayimā ānanda dhātuyo: kāmadhātu nekkhammadhātu vyāpādadhātu avyāpādadhātu vihiṁsādhātu avihiṁsādhātu
… Through knowing and seeing these six phenomena [according to reality], Ānanda, a bhikkhu can be called knowledgeable about elements of existence
imā kho ānanda cha dhātuyo yato jānāti passati ettāvatā pi kho ānanda dhātukusalo bhikkhū ti alaṁ vacanāyā ti. (MN iii 62)
We say ‘practically redundant,’ meaning that, for example, ‘the phenomenon of sensuous yearning’ could be equally called ‘sensuous yearning.’
Six phenomena: the phenomenon of physical pleasure, the phenomenon of physical pain; the phenomenon of psychological pleasure; the phenomenon of psychological pain; the phenomenon of neutral experience; the phenomenon of uninsightfulness into reality
chayimā ānanda dhātuyo: sukhadhātu dukkhadhātu somanassadhātu domanassadhātu upekkhādhātu avijjādhātu.
… Through knowing and seeing these six phenomena [according to reality], Ānanda, a bhikkhu can be called knowledgeable about elements of existence
Imā kho ānanda cha dhātuyo yato jānāti passati. (MN iii 62)
We say ‘practically redundant,’ meaning that, for example, ‘the phenomenon of physical pleasure’ could be equally called ‘physical pleasure.’
Illustration: dhātu, element: practically redundant
Which two things should be fully understood? Two elements: the originated element and the unoriginated element
Katame dve dhammā abhiññeyyā? Dve dhātuyo: saṅkhatā ca dhātu asaṅkhatā ca dhātu. (DN iii 274)
We say ‘practically redundant,’ meaning that, for example, ‘the originated element’ could be equally called ‘what is originated.’
Illustration: dhātu, phenomenon: redundant in some cases
The phenomenon of light (ābhādhātu), the phenomenon of loveliness (subhadhātu), the state of awareness of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatanadhātu), the state of awareness of boundless consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatanadhātu), and the state of awareness of nonexistence (ākiñcaññāyatanadhātu): these phenomena are to be attained with perception (imā dhātuyo saññāsamāpatti pattabbā).
The state of awareness neither having nor lacking perception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatanadhātu) is a phenomena attained with a residue of effort (ayaṁ dhātu saṅkhārāvasesā samāpatti pattabbā, which MN ii 231-2 shows means saṅkhāra-avasesā).
The phenomenon of the ending of perception and sense impression (saññāvedayitanirodhadhātu) is a phenomenon attained with the ending [of originated phenomena] (ayaṁ dhātu nirodhasamāpatti pattabbāti). (SN ii 151)
We say ‘redundant in some cases.’ Here, for example, referring to ‘the state of awareness of boundless space’ as ‘the phenomenon of the state of awareness of boundless space’ is unwieldy.
Illustration: dhātu, phenomenon: redundant
‘Here the Perfect One passed away to the Untroubled-without-residue.
idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto ti pi. (DN ii 141)
We say ‘redundant,’ meaning that referring to ‘the Untroubled-without-residue’ as ‘the phenomenon of the Untroubled-without-residue’ is unwieldy.
Illustration: dhātuṁ, phenomenon
Because of the phenomenon of visible objects, mental imagery of visible objects arises
rūpadhātuṁ paṭicca uppajjati rūpasaññā. (SN ii 144)
Illustration: dhātuyo, phenomenon
What three things are hard to fathom?
tayo dhammā duppaṭivijjhā
The three phenomena leading to deliverance.
tisso nissaraṇiyā dhātuyo
• The deliverance from sensuous pleasure, namely the practice of unsensuousness.
kāmānametaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yadidaṁ nekkhammaṁ
• The deliverance from refined material states of awareness, namely immaterial states of awareness.
rūpānametaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yadidaṁ āruppaṁ
• From whatever is brought about, originated, dependently arisen, the ending [of originated phenomena] is the deliverance.
yaṁ kho pana kiñci bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ paṭiccasamuppannaṁ nirodho tassa nissaraṇaṁ. (DN iii 275)
There are these eighteen elements of sensation:
Aṭṭhārasa kho imā ānanda dhātuyo
• the phenomenon of sight, the phenomenon of visible objects, the phenomenon of the visual field of sensation.
cakkhudhātu rūpadhātu cakkhuviññāṇadhātu;
• the phenomenon of hearing, the phenomenon of audible objects, the phenomenon of the auditory field of sensation.
sotadhātu saddadhātu sotaviññāṇadhātu. (MN iii 62)
Illustration: dhātuyā, phenomenon
For one who abides contemplating the unloveliness of the body the proclivity to attachment to the phenomenon of loveliness is abandoned.
asubhānupassīnaṁ bhikkhave kāyasmiṁ viharataṁ yo subhāya dhātuyā rāgānusayo so pahīyati. (Iti 80)
Illustration: dhātuyā, phenomenon: redundant
This, bhikkhu, is a designation for the Untroubled: the elimination of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality.
Nibbānadhātuyā kho etaṁ bhikkhu adhivacanaṁ rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo ti
The destruction of perceptually obscuring states is spoken of in that way.
Āsavānaṁ khayo tena vuccatī ti. (SN v 8)
We say ‘redundant,’ meaning that referring to the Untroubled as ‘the phenomenon of the Untroubled’ is a redundancy.
Furthermore, the bhikkhu contemplates this very body however placed or disposed in terms of material phenomena
imameva kāyaṁ yathāṭhitaṁ yathāpaṇihitaṁ dhātuso paccavekkhati
• In this [wretched human] body there is the Solidness Phenomenon, the Liquidness Phenomenon, the Warmth Phenomenon, and the Gaseousness Phenomenon.
Atthi imasmiṁ kāye paṭhavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū ti. (MN i 57)
Illustration: lokadhātu, multi-universe system
The ten thousandfold multi-universe system trembled, quaked, and shook
dasasahassī lokadhātu saṅkampi sampakampi sampavedhi. (Vin.1.12)