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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [g]

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The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.


Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |





Carbuncles and ordination

Gaṇḍa is a serious disease that can block a bhikkhu candidate’s ordination (na bhikkhave pañcahi ābādhehi phuṭṭho pabbājetabbo, Vin.1.73). Accordingly, it seems appropriate to call gaṇḍa ‘carbuncle,’ not ‘boil,’ because a carbuncle is ‘somewhat like a boil, but more serious in its effects’ (http// One would not expect a boil to block one’s ordination.

The body as a carbuncle

The body is compared to a gaṇḍa with nine orifices (nava vaṇamukhāni AN iv 386). Whatever flows out of a gaṇḍa is foul, foul-smelling, and disgusting (asuciññeva pagghareyya duggandhañceva pagghareyya jegucchiyaññeva pagghareyya). This again suggests carbuncle, not boil, because a carbuncle ‘is an abscess larger than a boil, usually with one or more openings, draining pus onto the skin’ (

The aggregates: carbuncles

The five aggregates are like five carbuncles, presumably because of the chronic misery associated with them:

• Whatever phenomena are connected with the five aggregates, he sees those states… as an illness, as a carbuncle…

so yadeva tattha hoti rūpagataṁ vedanāgataṁ saññāgataṁ saṅkhāragataṁ viññāṇagataṁ te dhamme… rogato gaṇḍato… samanupassati. (MN i 435-7; AN iv 422-6)

For full quote, see Illustrations.

The notion “I am”: carbuncle

The Buddha applied the term metaphorically to the notion “I am”:

The notion “I am” is a matter of thinking in personal terms

asmī ti maññitametaṁ

‘I am this’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

ayamahamasmī ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will be’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

‘I will not be’ is a matter of thinking in personal terms

na bhavissan ti maññitametaṁ

… Thinking in personal terms is an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow. Therefore train yourselves with the thought, ‘We will live with minds free of thinking in personal terms’

maññitaṁ bhikkhave rogo maññitaṁ gaṇḍo maññitaṁ sallaṁ tasmātiha bhikkhave amaññamānena cetasā viharissāmāti evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbaṁ. (SN iv 203)

Sensuous pleasures: carbuncle

Sensuous pleasures are called a carbuncle because they are associated with carbuncles, presumably meaning the aggregates, or even the notion “I am”:

• Bhikkhus, ‘carbuncle’ is an epithet for sensuous pleasures. Why so? Because one who is passionately attached to sensuous pleasure, fastened by fondness and attachment, is neither free of carbuncles in this lifetime, nor in the hereafter, therefore ‘carbuncle’ is an epithet for sensuous pleasures.

gaṇḍo ti bhikkhave kāmānametaṁ adhivacanaṁ. Kasmā ca bhikkhave gaṇḍo ti kāmānametaṁ adhivacanaṁ. Yasmā ca kāmarāgarattāyaṁ bhikkhave chandarāgavinibaddho diṭṭhadhammikāpi gaṇḍā na parimuccati samparāyikāpi gaṇḍā na parimuccati. Tasmā gaṇḍanti kāmānametaṁ adhivacanaṁ. (AN iii 310)



gaṇḍo: (main article see: gaṇḍa)

Illustration: gaṇḍo, carbuncle

Bhikkhus, suppose there was a carbuncle many years old, and which had nine openings, nine orifices. Whatever oozes out of them would be foul, foul-smelling, and disgusting.

gaṇḍo anekavassagaṇiko tassassu nava vaṇamukhāni nava abhedanamukhāni tato yaṁ kiñci pagghareyya asuciññeva pagghareyya duggandhañceva pagghareyya jegucchiyaññeva pagghareyya.

A ‘carbuncle’ is a metaphor for this [wretched human] body made of the four great material phenomena.

'Gaṇḍo ti kho bhikkhave imasseva cātummahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṁ

It has nine openings, nine orifices.

tassa nava vanamukhāni nava abhedanamukhāni

Whatever oozes out of them is foul, foul-smelling, and disgusting.

yaṁ kiñci paggharati asuciññeva paggharati duggandhaññeva paggharati jegucchiyaññeva paggharati. (AN iv 386)


gaṇḍaṁ: (main article see: gaṇḍa)

Illustration: gaṇḍaṁ, carbuncle

Whatever bhikkhunī, without having obtained permission from a community or group of bhikkhunīs, should together with a man, the one with the other, make a carbuncle or a scab that has formed on the lower part of her body burst or break, or allow it to be washed, smeared, bound up, or unbound, there is an offence of pācittiya.

Yā pana bhikkhunī pasākhe jātaṁ gaṇḍaṁ vā ruhitaṁ vā anapaloketvā saṅghaṁ vā gaṇaṁ vā purisena saddhiṁ ekenekā bhedāpeyya vā phālāpeyya vā dhovāpeyya vā ālimpāpeyya vā bandhāpeyya vā mocāpeyya vā pācittiyan ti. (Vin.4.316)

He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with the five aggregates, as unlasting, as intrinsically unsatisfactory, as an illness, as a carbuncle, as a [piercing] arrow, as suffering, as an affliction, as alien, as destined to decay, as void [of personal qualities], as void of personal qualities.

so yadeva tattha hoti rūpagataṁ vedanāgataṁ saññāgataṁ saṅkhāragataṁ viññāṇagataṁ te dhamme aniccato dukkhato rogato gaṇḍato sallato aghato ābādhato parato palokato suññato anattato samanupassati. (MN i 435)




Full and abbreviated terms

Gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ means ‘necessities, remedies, and essentials [that are needed] when ill.’ This is unwieldy. We usually abbreviate it to ‘therapeutic requisites.’

• Properly reflecting, he uses therapeutic requisites simply to ward off troublesome feelings that have arisen and for maximum freedom from affliction.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ paṭisevati yāvadeva uppannānaṁ veyyābādhikānaṁ vedanānaṁ paṭighātāya avyābajjhaparamatāya. (AN iii 338)

Gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāra: not ‘medicinal requisites’

We call it ‘therapeutic requisites’ not ‘medicinal requisites,’ because its most prominent aspect is the five nutritive substances which bhikkhus can consume in the evening:

• These five remedies, that is to say ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses, are remedies and are also agreed upon as remedies, and although they serve as nutriment for people yet they cannot be reckoned as substantial food.

imāni kho pañca bhesajjāni seyyathīdaṁ sappi navanītaṁ telaṁ madhu phāṇitaṁ bhesajjāni ceva bhesajjasammatāni ca lokassa āhāratthañca pharanti na ca oḷāriko āhāro paññāyati. (V.1.200)

Parsing of gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ

The correct parsing of gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ can be judged from these quotes:

1) Now at that time monks became ill and needed remedies.

Tena kho pana samayena bhikkhu gilānā honti attho ca hoti bhesajjehi. (Vin.4.100)

2) ‘Give food for the sick, give food for those who nurse the sick, give remedies for the sick’

Gilānabhattaṁ detha. Gilānupaṭṭhākabhattaṁ detha. Gilānabhesajjaṁ dethā ti. (Vin.1.72)

3a) A four-month invitation [to ask] for necessities can be accepted by a bhikkhu who is not ill.

Agilānena bhikkhunā cātumāsapaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā. (Vin.4.102)

3b) A four-month invitation [to ask] for necessities can be accepted by a bhikkhu who is not ill means: an invitation [to ask] for necessities [that are needed] when ill may be accepted.

Agilānena bhikkhunā cātumāsappaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā ti: gilānapaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā. (Vin.4.102)

3c) If one should accept for longer than that means: there is an invitation limited to remedies, not limited to nights etc.

Tato ce uttariṁ sādiyeyyāti: atthi pavāraṇā bhesajjapariyantā na rattipariyantā. (Vin.4.103)

From these we conclude:

  • 1) When people are ill, there is a ‘need’ for remedies (attho ca hoti).
  • 2) Gilānabhesajjaṁ means ‘remedies for the sick.’
  • 3a) Paccaya means ‘necessities’.
  • 3b) Gilānapaccaya means ‘necessities [that are needed] when ill.’
  • 3c) Gilānapaccaya is a near synonym of bhesajja.

In verse: paccaya

In verse gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhāra is sometimes abbreviated to paccaya:

• ‘Good for those of Aṅga and Magadha whose robe material, almsfood, therapeutic requisites, abodes, veneration, and homage this one enjoys. Good for them,’ he said.

Lābhā aṅgānaṁ magadhānaṁ yesāyaṁ paribhuñjati
Cīvaraṁ piṇḍapātañca paccayaṁ sayanāsanaṁ
Paccuṭṭhānañca sāmīciṁ tesaṁ lābhā ti cābravi. (Tha 484)

• ‘Do not foster craving for robe material, almsfood, therapeutic requisites, and abodes.

Cīvare piṇḍapāte ca paccaye sayanāsane etesu taṇhaṁ mākāsi. (Snp 339)


Illustration: gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi, therapeutic requisites

Brahmanists and householders are helpful, bhikkhus, in providing you with robe material, almsfood, abodes, and therapeutic requisites.

Bahūkārā bhikkhave brāhmaṇagahapatikā tumhākaṁ ye te paccupaṭṭhitā cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi. (Iti 111)




Guṇā: constituent parts

The only problem with guṇa is its use in pañcakāmaguṇā, which is often called ‘the five strands of sense pleasure.’ The word ‘strand’ is used because rope is made of strands, where strands are its constituent parts, says PED. If this is the case, then guṇā would be less confusingly called constituent parts, not strands.

Guṇā: kinds of

Norman says ‘It is sometimes said that guṇā has no meaning in kāmaguṇā. It actually means “kinds of… ”’ (Group of Discourses, p.160, note 50-51).

Guṇā: varieties of

We say ‘kinds of’ in the phrase ‘he undertakes and practises some kind of austerity’ (aññataraṁ vā pana tapoguṇaṁ samādāya vattati: MN ii 36). Bodhi likewise says ‘some kind of asceticism’; but we say ‘varieties’ in the phrase pañcime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā: ‘five varieties of sensuous pleasure.’

The other guṇa

There are two words guṇa, the other one meaning ‘ball, cluster, chain,’ and which commonly substitutes with guḷa:

• the elephant that bursts all its fastenings and chains

nāgoca sandānaguṇāni chetvā. (DN ii 274)

• one adorned with a chain of garlands

Also antaguṇaṁ (mesentary), is part of this group.


Illustration: guṇa, way/manner

Those who talk aggressively, dogmatically, arrogantly, offending in an ignoble way, seeking to expose each other's faults,

Ye viruddhā sallapanti viniviṭṭhā samussitā
Anariyaguṇamāsajja aññamañña vivaresino. (AN i 199)

Illustration: guṇa, spiritual quality

Administrating the community of bhikkhus though being full of despicable spiritual qualities.

Guṇahīnā pi saṅghamhi voharantā. (Tha 955)


guṇaṁ: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: guṇaṁ, times

However many superhuman displays of psychic power the ascetic Gotama performs, I will perform twice (two times) as many.

iti yāvatakaṁ samaṇo gotamo uttarimanussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karissati taddiguṇaṁ taddiguṇāhaṁ karissāmī ti. (DN iii 13)

When some business is to be done he lets you have twice (two times) the money you ask for.

uppanne kiccakaraṇīye taddiguṇaṁ bhogaṁ anuppadeti. (DN iii 187)

However much Anopamā weighs, that daughter of yours, I will give you eight times that in gold and gems [as a dowry].

Yattakaṁ tulitā esā tuyhaṁ dhītā anūpamā.
Tato aṭṭhaguṇaṁ dassaṁ hiraññaṁ ratanāni ca. (Thi 153)

Illustration: guṇaṁ, two times/one time

They do not go to the Far Shore twice (two times); this [Far Shore] is not experienced [even] once (one time).

Na pāraṁ diguṇaṁ yanti na idaṁ ekaguṇaṁ mutaṁ. (Snp 714)

Illustration: guṇaṁ, fold

Come, Ānanda, double up my outer robe for me; I am tired and will lie down.

catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭi paññapehi. (DN ii 128)


The outer robe is double thickness. Folding it once makes it four thicknesses (catugguṇaṁ).

On a doubled-up robe I will lie down

catugguṇaṁ patthara me nipacchaṁ. (DN ii 135)

Then the Blessed One having doubled up his outer robe lay down on his right side in the lion’s posture

Atha kho bhagavā catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññapetvā dakkiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappesi. (AN v 126)

Illustration: guṇaṁ, layered

I allow you bhikkhus three robes: a double-layered outer robe, a single-layered upper robe, a single-layered inner robe.

anujānāmi bhikkhave ticīvaraṁ: diguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ ekacciyaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ ekacciyaṁ antaravāsakan ti. (Vin.1.288)

When garments are thin from use, I allow a four-layered outer robe, a double-layered upper robe, a double-layered inner robe.

anujānāmi bhikkhave… utuddhaṭānaṁ dussānaṁ catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ dviguṇaṁ uttarāsaṅghaṁ dviguṇaṁ antaravāsakaṁ Vin.1.290).

Illustration: guṇaṁ, kind of

He undertakes and practises some kind of austerity

aññataraṁ vā pana tapoguṇaṁ samādāya vattati. (MN ii 36)


guṇā: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: guṇā, times

By giving a gift to an animal, the gift may be expected to repay a hundredfold (hundred times).

tatrānanda tiracchānagate dānaṁ datvā sataguṇā dakkhiṇā pāṭikaṅkhitabbā. (MN iii 255)

Illustration: guṇā, layered

I allow sandals with one layer. Bhikkhus, double-layered sandals should not be worn; triple-layered sandals should not be worn, multi-layered sandals should not be worn.

anujānāmi bhikkhave ekapalāsikaṁ upāhanaṁ. Na bhikkhave diguṇā upāhanā dharetabbā. Na tiguṇā upāhanā dharetabbā na guṇaṅguṇūpāhanā dhāretabbā. (Vin.1.185)

Illustration: guṇā, varieties

These are the five varieties of sensuous pleasure.

Pañcime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā

Visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming.

cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajaniyā.

and likewise for audible objects, smellable objects, tasteable objects, and tangible objects.

Illustration: guṇā, stages

Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass; the stages of life successively desert us.

Accenti kālā tarayanti rattiyo vayoguṇā anupubbaṁ jahanti. (SN i 3)

Illustration: guṇā, practice

Thus perhaps I may drive him away from this religious life: I may drive him away from bhikkhuhood, asceticism, the aggregate of virtuous practices, the practice of austerity.

Appevanāma naṁ imamhā brahmacariyā cāveyyanti bhikkhubhāvā cāveyyaṁ samaṇadhammā cāveyyaṁ sīlakkhandhā cāveyyaṁ tapoguṇā cāveyyaṁ. (Vin.3.163-4)

Venerable Sudinna practised these kinds of ascetic practises: dwelling in the forest, only accepting food given on almsround, wearing rag-robes, walking on uninterrupted house-to-house almsround.

āyasmā sudinno evarūpe dhutaguṇe samādāya vattati: āraññako hoti piṇḍapātiko paṁsukuliko sapadānacāriko. (Vin.3.15)

saguṇaṁ katvā

saguṇaṁ katvā: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: saguṇaṁ katvā, to fold

Having folded them, his [outer and upper] robes are to be given to him.

Saguṇaṁ katvā saṅghāṭiyo dātabbā. (Vin.1.46)


guṇe: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: guṇe, level

• ’Soṇa, when its strings were neither too tight nor too loose but adjusted to an even level, was your lute tuneful and good for playing?’

na accāyatā honti na atisithilā same guṇe patiṭṭhitā

• ’Yes, bhante’. (AN iii 375; Vin.1.182)

Illustration: guṇe, quality

He who is given to the quality of greed reviles others with his speech.

Yo lobhaguṇe anuyutto so vacasā paribhāsati aññe. (Snp 663)


guṇavant: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: guṇavant, virtuous

Two virtuous bhikkhunīs

dve bhikkhunīyo hi guṇavatiyo. (Thi 399)

He had another wife, a moral, virtuous, and glorious woman.

Tassapi aññā bhariyā sīlavatī guṇavatī yasavatī ca. (Thi 445)


guṇesu: (main article see: guṇa)

Illustration: guṇesu, spiritual quality

In the midst of those who are pure, well behaved, with good spiritual qualities, one should constantly guard speech and mind.

Tasmā suci pesala sādhu guṇesu
Vācaṁ manaṁ satataṁ parirakkheti. (Snp 678)




Indriyesu guttadvāro: linked to mindfulness

Because indriyesu guttadvāro is linked to mindfulness, it implies that the sense faculties are not just ‘guarded,’ but guarded by mindfulness, which should therefore be parenthesized.

• Come on, friend, abide with sense portals guarded [by mindfulness]. Take mindfulness as your supervisor. Be aware and mindful, and have a mind that is supervised [by mindfulness], a mind under the supervision of mindfulness.

Etha tumhe āvuso indriyesu guttadvārā viharatha ārakkhasatino nipakkasatino sārakkhitamānasā satārakkhena cetasā samannāgatāti. (AN iii 138)

Indriyesu guttadvāro: linked to mindfulness via saṁvara

Indriyesu guttadvāro is sometimes linked to mindfulness via saṁvara, again implying that the sense faculties are not just ‘guarded,’ but guarded by mindfulness. These quotes show saṁvara’s relationship to mindfulness:

1) When a bhikkhu has developed and cultivated mindfulness of the body, the eye does not incline towards pleasing visible objects nor are displeasing visible objects loathsome… In this way there is restraint [of the sense faculties] [from grasping, through mindfulness].

kāyagatā sati bhāvitā bahulīkatā cakkhu nāviñjati manāpikesu rūpesu amanāpikassa rūpāni nappaṭikkūlā honti… evaṁ kho bhikkhave saṁvaro hoti. (SN iv 200)

2) What is the condition that nourishes unrestraint of the sense faculties? Lack of mindfulness and full consciousness, one should reply.

Ko cāhāro indriyāsaṁvarassa? Asatāsampajaññan tissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN v 113)

3) What is the condition that nourishes restraint of the sense faculties [from grasping, through mindfulness]? Mindfulness and full consciousness, one should reply.

Ko cāhāro indriyasaṁvarassa. Satisampajaññantissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN v 115)

‘One with sense portals unguarded [by mindfulness]’: definition

• By virtue of what attributes, Master Kaccāna, is one ‘with sense portals unguarded [by mindfulness]’?”

kittāvatā nu kho bho kaccāna aguttadvāro hotī ti?

• In this regard, brahman, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, some person is intent upon an agreeable visible object and troubled by a disagreeable visible object.

Idha brāhmaṇa ekacco cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati

… He abides without having established mindfulness of the body, with an undeveloped mind, and he does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.

anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā na nirujjhanti

… It is in such a way, brahman, that one has sense portals unguarded [by mindfulness]

Evaṁ kho brāhmaṇa aguttadvāro hotī ti. (SN iv 120)

‘One with sense portals guarded [by mindfulness]’: definition

And how is a bhikkhu one with sense portals guarded [by mindfulness]?

kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti.

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense, a bhikkhu does not grasp its aspects and features. Since, by abiding with the faculty of sight unrestrained [from grasping, through mindfulness], greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors would pursue him. He applies himself to the restraint of the faculty [from grasping, through mindfulness], he supervises the faculty of sight [with mindfulness], he attains restraint of the faculty of sight [through mindfulness].

cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānuvyañjanaggāhī yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati rakkhati cakkhundriyaṁ cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati.

Suppose a chariot harnessed to thoroughbreds was standing ready on even ground at a crossroads, with a goad on hand. Then a proficient handler, a trainer of horses to be tamed, would mount it and, taking the reins in his left hand and the goad in his right, would drive away and return by any route he wants, whenever he wants.

So, too, a bhikkhu trains in

• supervising these six sense faculties [with mindfulness]

imesaṁ channaṁ indriyānaṁ ārakkhāya sikkhati

• restraining them [with mindfulness]

• taming them [with mindfulness]

• calming them [with mindfulness]

In this way a bhikkhu has sense portals guarded [by mindfulness].

evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti. (SN iv 176)


Illustration: gutta, guarded [by mindfulness]

To one with sense portals guarded [by mindfulness], watching shows is a thorn.

indriyesu guttadvārassa visūkadassanaṁ kaṇṭako. (AN v 134)

Bhikkhus, this is how Nanda has sense portals guarded [by mindfulness]

Tatiradaṁ bhikkhave nandassa indriyesu guttadvāratāya hoti.

Bhikkhus, if Nanda looks at the eastern quarter, applying his whole mind to it, he looks thereat reflecting:

sace bhikkhave nandassa puratthimā disā āloketabbā hoti sabbaṁ cetasā samannāharitvā nando puratthimaṁ disaṁ āloketi

‘Thus while I look to the eastern quarter, greed, dejection, and unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors will not pursue me’

evaṁ me puratthimaṁ disaṁ ālokayato na abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī ti.

Thus indeed in this respect is he fully conscious

itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. (AN iv 167)


guttaṁ: (main article see: gutta)

Illustration: guttaṁ, guarded [by mindfulness]

A mind that is guarded [by mindfulness] brings happiness.

cittaṁ guttaṁ sukhāvahaṁ. (Dhp 36)

Illustration: guttaṁ, safeguarded

Just as a border city is safeguarded within and without, likewise keep watch over yourself. May the [rare] opportunity [to live the religious life] not pass you by.

Nagaraṁ yathā paccantaṁ guttaṁ santarabāhiraṁ
Evaṁ gopetha attānaṁ khaṇo vo mā upaccagā. (Dhp 315)


gutto: (main article see: gutta)

Illustration: gutto, guarded

The wise person, guarded by righteousness, is called righteous.

Dhammassa gutto medhāvī dhammaṭṭho ti pavuccati. (Dhp 257)

Illustration: gutto, safeguard

When a boy has grown up and has enough wisdom, then his nurse is unconcerned about him, thinking:

• The boy can now safeguard himself. He will not be negligent [in looking after himself].

attaguttodāni kumāro nālaṁ pamādāyā ti. (AN iii 6)


guttassa: (main article see: gutta)

Illustration: guttassa, guarded

The strength of a fool, they say, is the strength without strength. But there is no such rejoinder for the strength of one guarded by righteousness.

Abalantaṁ balaṁ āhu yassa bālabalaṁ balaṁ
Balassa dhammaguttassa paṭivattā na vijjati. (SN i 222)


guttā: (main article see: gutta)

Illustration: guttā, safeguard

An acrobat told his apprentice Medakathālikā to join him on the bamboo pole and stand on his shoulders, and said:

• ‘You protect me, dear Medakathālikā, and I’ll protect you.

tvaṁ samma medakathālike mamaṁ rakkha. Ahaṁ tvaṁ rakkhikissāmi.

‘Thus safeguarding one another, protecting one another, we’ll exhibit our skills, collect our fee, and get safely off the bamboo pole.’

Evaṁ mayaṁ aññamaññaguttā aññamaññarakkhitā

Medakathālikā replied:

• ‘That’s not the way to do it, teacher. You protect yourself, teacher, and I’ll protect myself. Thus, each safeguarding ourselves, and protecting ourselves, we’ll exhibit our skills, collect our fee, and get safely off the bamboo pole.’

na kho nāmenaṁ ācariya evaṁ bhavissati tvaṁ ācariya attānaṁ rakkha ahaṁ attānaṁ rakkhissāmi. Evaṁ mayaṁ attaguttā attarakkhitā sippāni ceva dassessāma lābhañca lacchāma sotthinā ca caṇḍālavaṁsā orohessāmā ti. (SN v 168-9)



  • for gocara:
    • pasture
    • hunting ground
    • feeding ground
    • alms resort
    • suitable alms resort
    • sphere of personal application
    • sphere of activity
    • sphere of application
  • for gocarāya:
    • searching for food
  • gocarāya: pasture; to find some food; hunting ground
  • gocaro: hunting ground; alms resort; suitable alms resorts; sphere of personal application
  • gocare: feeding ground; sphere of personal application; sphere of activity
  • agocare: unsuitable alms resorts
  • gocarā: sphere of personal application


Illustration: gocara, pastures; gocara, sphere of personal application

Bhikkhus, possessing eleven factors, a cowherd is incapable of keeping and rearing a herd of cattle. What eleven? Here, a cowherd… is unknowledgeable about pastures.

Ekādasahi bhikkhave aṅgehi samannāgato gopālako abhabbo gogaṇaṁ pariharituṁ phātikattuṁ. Katamehi ekādasahi. Idha bhikkhave gopālako… na gocarakusalo hoti. (AN v 348)

And how is a bhikkhu unknowledgeable about the [proper] sphere of personal application? Here, a bhikkhu does not discern according to reality the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is unknowledgeable about the [proper] sphere of personal application.

Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu na gocarakusalo hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cattāro satipaṭṭhāne yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (AN v 349)

Come, bhikkhu! Be virtuous. Abide restrained [in conduct] within the constraints of the rules of discipline, and be perfect in conduct and sphere of personal application, seeing danger in the slightest wrongdoing.

ehi tvaṁ bhikkhu sīlavā hohi pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvutā viharāhi ācāragocarasampanno aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvi. (MN iii 2)

Illustration: gocara, sphere of application

Possessed of six qualities, a bhikkhu could destroy the Himalayas, the king of mountain ranges, not to speak of vile ignorance. What six?

Chahi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu himavantaṁ pabbatarājaṁ padāleyya, ko pana vādo chavāya avijjāya

In this regard a bhikkhu is:

Idha bhikkhave bhikkhū

• proficient in attaining inward collectedness

samādhissa samāpattikusalo hoti

• proficient in maintaining inward collectedness

Samādhissa ṭhitikusalo hoti

• proficient in emerging from inward collectedness

Samādhissa vuṭṭhānakusalo hoti

• proficient in preparing for inward collectedness

Samādhissa kallitakusalo hoti

• knowledgeable about the [proper] sphere of application of inward collectedness

Samādhissa gocarakusalo hoti

• proficient in directing inward collectedness

Samādhissa abhinīhārakusalo hoti. (AN iii 311)


gocarāya: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: gocarāya, pasture

An unconfined deer in the forest goes where it wishes for pasture

Migo araññamhi yathā abaddho yenicchakaṁ gacchati gocarāya. (Snp 39)

Illustration: gocarāya, to find some food

Then that gentle mouse came out to find some food.

Atha kho bhikkhave mudumūsī gocarāya pakkami. (SN ii 270)

Illustration: gocarāya, hunting ground

Having roared three leonine roars, he sets out for the hunting ground.

Tikkhattuṁ sīhanādaṁ naditvā gocarāya pakkamati. (AN ii 33)


gocaro: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: gocaro, hunting ground

Sensuous pleasures in this lifetime and in the hereafter, mental images of sensuous pleasures of this lifetime and of the hereafter, both alike are Māra’s realm, Māra’s domain, Māra’s bait, Māra’s hunting ground.

Ye ca diṭṭhadhammikā kāmā ye ca samparāyikā kāmā yā ca diṭṭhadhammikā kāmasaññā yā ca samparāyikā kāmasaññā ubhayametaṁ māradheyyaṁ mārassesavisayo marassesanivāpo mārassesagocaro. (MN ii 261-2)

Illustration: gocaro, alms resort

One who was formerly a non-Buddhist ascetic has his alms resort amongst prostitutes, widows, fat girls, eunuchs, or bhikkhunīs.

aññatitthiyapubbo vesiyagocaro vā hoti. Vidhavagocaro vā hoti. Thullakumārikagocaro vā hoti. Paṇḍakagocaro vā hoti. Bhikkhunīgocaro vā hoti. (Vin.1.70)

Illustration: gocaro, suitable alms resorts

An incoming bhikkhu should ask about suitable and unsuitable alms resorts.

Gocaro pucchitabbo agocaro pucchitabbo. (Vin.2.208)

Illustration: gocaro, sphere of personal application

Purified states known through the eye or ear are found in the Perfect One. They are my path [of practice], my sphere of personal application, but I do not regard them as endowed with personal qualities.

ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā saṁvijjanti te tathāgatassa etapathohamasmi etagocaro no ca tena tammayo ti. (MN i 319)

Those people whose perceptually obscuring states are destroyed, who are not attached to existential nourishment, whose sphere of personal application is the state of refined awareness that is void [of the perception of personal qualities] and that is focused upon the unabiding [phenomena], their path of practice is as hard to emulate as that of the birds in the sky.

Yassāsavā parikkhīṇā āhāre ca anissito
Suññato animitto ca vimokkho yassa gocaro
Ākāse va sakuntānaṁ padaṁ tassa durannayaṁ. (Dhp 93)


gocare: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: gocare, feeding ground

Suppose a man caught six animals with different domains and different feeding grounds, and tied them together with a strong rope… Then those six animals would each pull in the direction of its own feeding ground and domain. The snake would pull, thinking, ‘Let me enter an anthill.’ The crocodile would pull, thinking, ‘Let me enter the water.’ The bird would pull, thinking, ‘Let me fly into the sky.’ The dog would pull, thinking, ‘Let me enter a village.’ The jackal would pull, thinking, ‘Let me enter a charnel ground.’ The monkey would pull, thinking, ‘Let me enter a forest.’

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave puriso chappāṇake gahetvā nānāvisaye nānāgocare daḷhāya bandheyya… atha kho te bhikkhave chappāṇakā nānāvisayā nānāgocarā sakaṁ sakaṁ gocaravisayaṁ āviñjeyyuṁ. Ahi āviñjeyya vammikaṁ pavekkhāmī ti suṁsumāro āviñjeyya udakaṁ pavekkhāmī ti pakkhi āviñjeyya ākāsaṁ ḍessāmīti kukkuro āviñjeyya gāmaṁ pavekkhāmī ti sigālo āviñjeyya sīvathikaṁ pavekkhāmī ti makkaṭo āviñjeyya vanaṁ pavekkhāmī ti. (SN iv 198)

Illustration: gocare, sphere of personal application

Keep to your own sphere of personal application, to your ancestral haunts. If you do so, Māra will not get his chance, his opportunity [to attack] you.

Gocare bhikkhave caratha sake pettike visaye. Gocare bhikkhave carataṁ sake pettike visaye na lacchati māro otāraṁ na lacchati māro ārammaṇaṁ

And where is a bhikkhu’s sphere of personal application and ancestral haunt? It is the [contemplation of the] four bases of mindfulness.

ko ca bhikkhave bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayo yadidaṁ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. (SN v 147-8)

The wise, recognising this special quality of diligence, rejoice in it, taking delight in the Noble People’s sphere of personal application.

Etaṁ visesato ñatvā appamādamhi paṇḍitā
Appamāde pamodanti ariyānaṁ gocare ratā. (Dhp 22)

Illustration: gocare, sphere of activity

Then consider fish, also, denizens of the deep, beings with water as their sphere of activity.

Tato macche pi jānātha odake vārigocare. (Snp 605)


agocare: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: agocare, unsuitable alms resorts

In this regard a bhikkhu, properly reflecting, avoids… walking on almsround in such unsuitable alms resorts (yathārūpe agocare carantaṁ), and associating with the sorts of unvirtuous friends that would make his knowledgeable companions in the religious life suspect him of unvirtuous ways of conduct. (MN i 10-11)


gocarā: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: gocarā, sphere of personal application

Those who have profoundly understood the five aggregates, whose sphere of personal application is the seven good qualities, those spiritually outstanding people are praiseworthy, the Buddha’s spiritual sons.

Pañcakkhandhe pariññāya sattasaddhammagocarā
Pāsaṁsiyā sappurisā puttā buddhassa orasā. (SN iii 83)


The seven good qualities: In this regard a bhikkhu has faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], shame of wrongdoing, a fear of wrongdoing, is learned, energetic, has mindfulness established, and is blessed with penetrative discernment.

Satta saddhammā: idhāvuso bhikkhu saddho hoti hirīmā hoti ottappī hoti bahussuto hoti āraddhaviriyo hoti upaṭṭhitasati hoti paññavā hoti. (DN iii 252)

What should be his manner of speech? What his sphere of personal application in this world? What should be that resolute bhikkhu’s observances and practices?

Kyāssa vyappathayo assu kyāssassu idha gocarā
Kāni sīlabbatānāssu pahitattassa bhikkhuno. (Snp 961)


gocarāni: (main article see: gocara)

Illustration: gocarāni, spheres of activity

Brahman, these five sense faculties have different domains, different spheres of activity. They do not experience each others’ sphere of activity and domain. What five? The faculties of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

Pañcimāni brāhmaṇa indriyāni nānāvisayāni nānāgocarāni na aññamaññassa gocaravisayaṁ paccanunabhonti. Katamāni pañca: cakkhundriyaṁ sotindriyaṁ ghānindriyaṁ jivhindriyaṁ kāyindriyaṁ. . (SN v 218)

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en/dictionary/igpt_g.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/01 09:13 by Johann