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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms [y]

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Info

The upper info is for display reasons for pages refering to words not included in this dictionary.

Detail on “Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms” see Index and Introduction.

Content

Index IGPT
a | ā | i | ī | u | ū | e | o | k | kh | g | gh | | c | ch | j | jh | ñ | | ṭh | | ḍh | | t | th | d | dh | n | p | ph | b | bh | m | y | r | l | v | s | h |

y

yathābhūta

Renderings

Introduction

Yathābhūta: according to reality

Where yathābhūta has a specified object, we render it ‘according to reality’:

• Camouflaged by skin, the body is not seen according to reality.

Chaviyā kāyo paṭicchanno yathābhūtaṁ na dissati. (Snp 199)

Yathābhūta: things according to reality

Sometimes yathābhūta has an unspecified object, which we call ‘things’:

• A bhikkhu who is inwardly collected discerns things according to reality

Samāhito bhikkhave bhikkhu yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (SN iii 13-14)

Other translators likewise favour ‘things’. Only Horner uses brackets:

Yathābhūta: emphasis means redundancy

When yathābhūta is used for emphasis we again say ‘according to reality,’ though it is redundant. For example, apart from the emphasis, there is no significant difference when the term is removed in these examples:

• He does not know according to reality that he has a blemish.
• He does not know that he has a blemish.

atthi me ajjhattaṁ aṅgaṇan ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (MN i 25)

• That sensuous pleasures are like a [red-hot] charcoal pit is clearly seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment by the bhikkhu
• That sensuous pleasures are like a [red-hot] charcoal pit is clearly seen with perfect penetrative discernment by the bhikkhu

bhikkhuno aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhā honti. (DN iii 283)

• They are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] according to reality
• They are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states]

Illustrations

yathābhūte

yathābhūte: (main article see: yathābhūta)

Illustration: yathābhūte, according to reality

Those who see what is brought about as what is brought about, transcending what is brought about, are liberated [from perceptually obscuring states] according to reality, having destroyed craving for states of individual existence.

Ye bhūtaṁ bhūtato disvā bhūtassa ca atikkamā
Yathābhūte vimuccanti bhavataṇhāparikkhayā. (Iti 44)

yathābhūtaṁ

yathābhūtaṁ: (main article see: yathābhūta)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

The ignorant Everyman does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the five aggregates.

assutavā puthujjano rūpassa… viññāṇassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (SN iii 173-4)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

He does not know according to reality that he has a blemish.

atthi me ajjhattaṁ aṅgaṇan ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (MN i 25)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

He does not discern according to reality, with the liberation [from attachment through inward calm] and the liberation [from uninsightfulness] through penetrative discernment, where those unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors cease without remainder.

tañca cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. (SN iv 189)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

That sensuous pleasures are like a [red-hot] charcoal pit is clearly seen according to reality with perfect penetrative discernment by the bhikkhu whose āsavas are destroyed.

puna ca paraṁ āvuso khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya sudiṭṭhā honti. (DN iii 283)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Some ascetic or Brahmanist may not discern according to reality what is spiritually wholesome, nor what is spiritually unwholesome.

idaṁ kusalan ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti idaṁ akusalan ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (DN i 40)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Again, friend, one who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment,… does not discern according to reality his own well-being, nor that of others, nor that of both himself and others.

Ratto kho āvuso rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attatthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti paratthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Ubhayatthampi yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. (AN i 216-7)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

One who does not know and see old age and death according to reality should vigorously endeavour [to attain] knowledge of old age and death according to reality.

jarāmaraṇaṁ bhikkhave ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtaṁ jarāmaraṇe yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇāya ātappaṁ karaṇīyaṁ. (SN ii 132)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

The learned noble disciple discerns bodily form that is of an originated nature according to reality, thus: ‘Bodily form is of an originated nature.’

sutavā ariyasāvako samudayadhammaṁ rūpaṁ samudayadhammaṁ rūpan ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. (SN iii 171)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―becomes manifest to him according to reality, as unlasting.

yampidaṁ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṁ sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā adukkhamasukhaṁ vā tampi aniccan ti yathābhūtaṁ okkhāyati. (SN iv 144)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

He is straightforward and aboveboard, presenting himself according to reality to his teachers and to his knowledgeable companions in the religious life.

Asaṭho hoti amāyāvī yathābhūtaṁ attānaṁ āvīkattā satthari vā viññūsu vā sabrahmacārīsu. (MN ii 128)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Camouflaged by skin, the body is not seen according to reality.

Chaviyā kāyo paṭicchanno yathābhūtaṁ na dissati. (Snp 194)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Suppose, brahman, there is a bowl of water stirred by wind. If a clear-sighted man were to examine his facial reflection in it, he would neither discern nor see it according to reality.

Seyyathā pi brāhmaṇa udapatto vāterito calito bhanto ūmijāto tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṁ mukhanimittaṁ paccavekkhamāno yathābhūtaṁ nappajāneyya na passeyya. (SN v 123-4)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, according to reality

Come, friends, abide contemplating the nature of the body, vigorously applied [to the practice], fully conscious, mentally concentrated, serene, inwardly collected, inwardly undistracted

ātāpino sampajānā ekodibhūtā vippasannacittā samāhitā ekaggacittā

in order to know the body according to reality.

kāyassa yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇāya. (SN v 145)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, things according to reality

Elated by anything with a pleasant nature, and cast down by anything with an unpleasant nature, fools are struck down [by craving] on both accounts, not seeing things according to reality.

Unnatā sukhadhammena dukkhadhammena c’onatā
Dvayena bālāhaññanti yathābhūtaṁ adassino. (Tha 662-3)

Illustration: yathābhūta, things according to reality

Without right inward collectedness, for one lacking in right inward collectedness, the condition for knowledge and vision of things according to reality is cut off;

sammāsamādhimhi asati sammāsamādhivipannassa hatūpanisaṁ hoti yathābhūtañāṇadassanaṁ. (AN iii 20)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, things according to reality

For one who knows and sees things according to reality, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May I be disillusioned with and unattached [to originated phenomena].’

Yathābhūtaṁ bhikkhave jānato passato na cetanāya karaṇīyaṁ nibbindāmi virajjāmī ti.

It is natural that one who knows and sees things according to reality, is disillusioned with and unattached [to originated phenomena].’

Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṁ yathābhūtaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ nibbindati virajjati. (AN v 3)

Illustration: yathābhūtaṁ, things according to reality; according to reality

Bhikkhus, develop inward collectedness. A bhikkhu who is inwardly collected discerns things according to reality.

samādhiṁ bhikkhave bhāvetha. Samāhito bhikkhave bhikkhu yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

And what does he discern according to reality?

kiñca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti

The origination and vanishing of bodily form… fields of sensation.

rūpassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca… viññāṇassa samudayañca atthaṅgamañca. (SN iii 13-14)

yamāmase

Renderings

Introduction

‘We face [the ever-present possibility of] death’

Yamāmase occurs just five times in the scriptures, always in this one verse:

• Others do not understand that we here face [the ever-present possibility of] death; but those who understand it, their quarrels cease.

Pare ca na vijānanti mayamettha yamāmase
Ye ca tattha vijānanti tato sammanti medhagā. (Tha 275 etc)

The verse also occurs at MN iii 154; Dhp 6; Tha 498; and Vin.1.349.

Our interpretation of yamāmase is primarily supported by Tha 276 which develops the theme of Tha 275 in the following way:

• And whilst those who do not understand it behave as though they were immortal, those who understand the nature of reality are spiritually unailing amidst the spiritually ailing.

Yadā ca avijānantā iriyantyamarā viya;
Vijānanti ca ye dhammaṁ āturesu anāturā. (Tha 276)

So if Tha 276 concerns people who behave as though they were immortal, then Tha 275 concerns people who understand that we here face [the ever-present possibility of] death.

Etymology of yamāmase

The etymology of yamāmase is unknown, but it can be interpreted in two ways, either following PED’s Yama1 or Yama2:

Yama1) This Yama comes from yam- to restrain. Yamāmase here is in the reflective voice i.e. the object of the verb is the same as the subject. This would give the meaning ‘We must restrain ourselves.’

Yama2) This Yama is linked to Vedic Yama, the ruler of the kingdom of the dead. This would give the meaning ‘We face [the ever-present possibility of] death.’

Meaning of yamāmase: Norman

Norman has accepted both interpretations, translating them as follows:

• Others do not know that we should restrain ourselves here

Pare ca na vijānanti mayamettha yamāmase. (Dhp 6)

• Others too do not know that we come to an end here

Pare ca na vijānanti mayamettha yamāmase. (Tha 275)

He explains his divergent translations like this:

• ‘The Commentary gives alternative explanations. In Tha 275 I followed the first of these interpretations… and translated “we come to an end here” because there seemed to be a contrast with Tha 276, where the ignorant act as though they are immortal. In Dhp 6 I translate yam- as “restrain” because it seems to suit the context better… (Word of the Doctrine p.62).

When he says ‘it seems to suit the context better,’ he likely means that there is no verse in the Dhammapada corresponding to Tha 276. But context has many aspects. Let us consider the broader context.

Context of Dhammapada Verse 6 in Vinaya

Dhammapada verse 6 concerns the bhikkhus of Kosambī, who, when asked by the Buddha to stop quarrelling, told him:

• Bhante, let the Blessed One, the Lord of Truth, abide at ease devoted to pleasant states of meditation in this lifetime. We are the ones who will take responsibility for this quarrelling, arguing, disputing, and contentiousness.

Āgametu bhante bhagavā dhammassāmi appossukko bhante bhagavā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṁ anuyutto viharatu. Mayametena bhaṇḍanena kalahena viggahena vivādena paññāyissāmāti. (Vin.1.341)

So the Buddha told them the story of Dīghāvu, the moral of which is:

• Unfriendly deeds are not stopped by unfriendliness. Unfriendly deeds, dear Dīghāvu, are stopped by friendliness.

na hi tāta dīghāvu verena verā sammanti. Averena hi tāta dīghāvu verā sammantī ti. (Vin.1.347)

When the Kosambī bhikkhus rejected these good words, the Buddha recited the reflection we are now considering:

• Others do not understand that we here face [the ever-present possibility of] death; but those who understand it, their quarrels cease.

Pare ca na vijānanti mayamettha yamāmase
Ye ca tattha vijānanti tato sammanti medhagā. (Vin.1.349)

The story of Dīghāvu story does not decisively indicate the meaning of yamāmase. It effectively says that quarrelsomeness can be overcome through friendliness. But whether this friendliness is the result of self-restraint, or of reflecting on death, is left unclear. So let us further consider the broader context.

Further context of Dhammapada Verse 6: Majjhima Nikāya

The Majjhima Nikāya explains the story of the Kosambī bhikkhus differently. It says the Buddha told the Kosambī bhikkhus that there are six principles of cordiality, but:

• ‘the chief, the most cohesive, the most unifying of these principles is [having a shared] view that is noble, and which leads to deliverance [from suffering], and which leads the one who practises it to the complete destruction of suffering.’

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave channaṁ sārāṇīyānaṁ dhammānaṁ etaṁ aggaṁ etaṁ saṅgāhikaṁ etaṁ saṅghātanikaṁ yadidaṁ yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyātikā niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya. (MN i 322)

We parenthesise ‘[having a shared]’ because the sutta affirms this previously, by saying that:

• Whatever view is noble, and which leads to deliverance [from suffering], and which leads the one who practises it to the complete destruction of suffering, a bhikkhu abides united in a view such as this with his companions in the religious life, both in public and in private

bhikkhu yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyānikā niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya tathārūpāya diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhisāmaññagato viharati sabrahmacārīhi āvī ceva raho ca. (MN i 322)

Therefore, having a shared noble view is the foremost key to cordiality amongst bhikkhus. So we will now consider whether the view that we face [the ever-present possibility of] death can be regarded as a noble view. And we meanwhile note that having a shared perception ‘that we should restrain ourselves’ will play no further part in this argument because it is simply unheard of in the suttas. The argument that quarrels might cease through restraint would be stronger if it meant restraint of the sense faculties, but that interpretation is denied here because the verb is in the reflective voice.

The perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death: a noble view?

That the perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death is a noble view, and therefore the chief way to overcome quarrelsomeness, is clear from these quotes:

1) Bhikkhus, there is one thing if developed and cultivated leads to complete disillusionment [with originated phenomena], non-attachment [to originated phenomena], the ending [of originated phenomena], inward peace, transcendent insight, enlightenment, the Untroubled. What one thing? Mindfulness of [the ever-present possibility of] death.

Ekadhammo bhikkhave bhāvito bahulīkato ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati. Katamo ekadhammo? Maraṇasati. (AN i 30)

2) Bhikkhus, mindfulness of [the ever-present possibility of] death, when developed and cultivated is of great fruit and benefit, having the Deathless as its culmination and conclusion.

maraṇasati bhikkhave bhāvitā bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā amatogadhā amatapariyosānāti. (AN iii 307)

So the broader context does not indicate that yamāmase should be interpreted differently in Dhp 6 than in Tha 275. If the bhikkhus of Kosambī had cultivated the perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death, their quarrels would have ceased.

• Others do not understand that we here face [the ever-present possibility of] death; but those who understand it, their quarrels cease.

Pare ca na vijānanti mayamettha yamāmase
Ye ca tattha vijānanti tato sammanti medhagā. (Tha 275 etc)

Cultivating the perception of [the ever-present possibility of] death

Mindfulness of [the ever-present possibility of] death is developed like this:

• Bhikkhus who develop mindfulness of [the ever-present possibility of] death thus: ‘If I could live just so long as it takes to swallow only one mouthful or just so long as it takes to breathe in and out in order to contemplate the Blessed One’s word, much could be done by me’ those bhikkhus are said to live diligently. Keenly they develop mindfulness of [the ever-present possibility of] death.

Ime vuccanti bhikkhave bhikkhū appamattā viharanti tikkhaṁ maraṇasatiṁ bhāventi. (AN iii 306)

• In this regard, bhante, such is my thought: If I could live just a night and day in order to contemplate the Blessed One’s word, much could be done by me (aho vatāhaṁ rattindivaṁ jīveyyaṁ bhagavato sāsanaṁ manasikareyyaṁ bahuṁ vata me kataṁ assā ti).

yasa

Renderings

Introduction

Prestige: definition

Prestige means:

1) standing or estimation in the eyes of people: weight or credit in general opinion

2) commanding position in people’s minds (Webster’s)

Prestige: from previous acts of generosity

Prestige is a worldly condition that stems partly from previous acts of generosity:

• Bhante, there might be two disciples equal in faith, in virtue, and in discernment, but one is generous while the other is not. With the demise of the body at death, they would both be reborn in the heavenly worlds. When they have become devas, would there be any difference between them?

• There would be, Sumanā. The generous one would surpass the other in five ways: in celestial life span, beauty, happiness, prestige, and authority.

dibbena āyunā dibbena vaṇṇena dibbena sukhena dibbena yasena dibbena ādhipateyyena. (AN iii 33)

Loss of prestige: anger

• When a person is overcome and oppressed by anger, he loses whatever prestige he had acquired through diligence.

Kodhanoyaṁ bhikkhave purisapuggalo kodhābhibhūto kodhapareto yo pi’ssa so hoti yaso appamādādhigato tamhāpi dhaṁsati kodhābhibhūto. (AN iv 95)

Loss of prestige: sexual intercourse

• Whoever formerly fared alone who then pursues sexual intercourse, in the world is called a ‘lurching vehicle,’ ‘contemptible,’ a ‘common man.’

… His earlier prestige and reputation is lost.

Yaso kitti ca yā pubbe hāyate vāpi tassa sā. (Snp 816-7)

Not clinging to prestige

Bhikkhus should not to cling to prestige:

• It is well for a bhikkhu to abide continuously mastering acquisition, loss, prestige, imprestige, honour, depreciation, unvirtuous desires and unvirtuous friendships that have arisen.

Sādhu bhikkhave bhikkhu uppannaṁ lābhaṁ abhibhuyya abhibhuyya vihareyya. Uppannaṁ alābhaṁ… yasaṁ… ayasaṁ… sakkāraṁ… asakkāraṁ… pāpicchataṁ… pāpamittataṁ abhibhuyya abhibhuyya vihareyya. (AN iv 160-1)

Yasa: glory, atirocati

Sometimes yasa is better called ‘glory’ because it is associated with atirocati, to shine. For example, when, due to his virtuous qualities, a pauper was reborn in the company of the Tāvatiṁsā devas:

• He outshone the other devas in beauty and glory.

so aññe deve atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca. (SN i 232)

Yasa: glory, the waxing fortnight

Sometimes yasa is associated with the moon in the waxing fortnight, and again must be called glory:

• If one transgresses what is righteous through desire, hatred, fear, or undiscernment of reality, one’s glory fades like the moon in the waning fortnight.

Chandā dosā bhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ ativattati
Nihīyati tassa yaso kālapakkheva candimā ti

• If one does not transgress what is righteous through desire, hatred, fear, or undiscernment of reality, one’s glory swells like the moon in the waxing fortnight.

Chandā dosā bhayā mohā yo dhammaṁ nātivattati
Āpūrati tassa yaso sukkapakkheva candimā ti. (AN ii 18)

Illustrations

yasasā

yasasā: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yasasā, glory

Those devas who had lived the religious life under the Blessed One, and had recently appeared in the Tāvatiṁsā Heaven, outshone the other devas in beauty and glory.

aññe deve atirocanti vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca. (DN ii 208)

yaso

yaso: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yaso, glory

Bhikkhus, a noble disciple possessed of four factors is said to be well off, with great wealth and riches, of great glory. What four?”

Catūhi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato ariyasāvako aḍḍho mahaddhano mahābhogo mahāyaso ti vuccati. Katamehi catūhi

1) He has unshakeable faith in the [perfection of the] Buddha’s [enlightenment],

buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

2) He has unshakeable faith in the [excellence of the] teaching,

Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

3) He has unshakeable faith in the [excellent qualities of the] community of disciples,

Saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti

4) He possesses the virtues dear to the Noble Ones.

Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti. (SN v 402)

Illustration: yasasā, glory

When five hundred Licchavis visited the Blessed One,

  • some were clothed in blue, with blue ornaments;
  • some were clothed in yellow, with yellow ornaments;
  • some were clothed in red, with red ornaments;
  • some were clothed in white, with white ornaments.

Yet the Blessed One outshone them all in beauty and glory.

Tyāssudaṁ bhagavā atirocati vaṇṇena ce va yasasā ca. (AN iii 239)

Illustration: yasasā, glory

The Blessed One was dwelling at Campā together with many bhikkhus, lay followers, and devas:

• He outshone them in beauty and glory.

atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca. (SN i 195)

Illustration: yaso, glory

People who are

  • energetic,
  • attentive,
  • pure in conduct,
  • careful in conduct,
  • restrained,
  • of right livelihood,
  • diligent,

their glory grows.

yaso'bhivaḍḍhati. (Dhp 24)

yasavā

yasavā: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yasavā, glorious

The person who gives the best, the giver of the foremost, the giver of the excellent, is long-lived and glorious wherever he is reborn.

Yo aggadāyī varadāyī seṭṭhadāyī ca yo naro
Dīghāyu yasavā hoti yattha yatthūpapajjatī ti. (AN iii 51)

yasaṁ

yasaṁ: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yasaṁ, prestige

Regarding a head-anointed khattiya king:

  • he is of pure descent on both his maternal and paternal sides
  • he is rich, with great wealth and property
  • he is powerful, possessing an army of four divisions
  • his counselor is wise, competent, and intelligent.

These four qualities enhance his prestige.

Tassime cattāro dhammā yasaṁ paripācenti. (AN iii 151)

Illustration: yaso, prestige

When a man dwells in a suitable location, making friends with Noble People, and is endowed with a rightly directed disposition, having made merit in the past, then grain, wealth, prestige, and a good reputation, along with happiness accrue to him.

Patirūpe vase dese ariyamittakaro siyā
Sammāpaṇidhisampanno pubbe puññakato naro
Dhaññaṁ dhanaṁ yaso kitti sukhañcetaṁdhivattatī ti. (AN ii 32)

Illustration: yaso, prestige

A noble disciple possessing four qualities is practising a way that brings prestige and leads to heaven. What four?

yasopaṭilābhiniṁ saggasaṁvattanikaṁ.

In this regard, a noble disciple serves the community of bhikkhus with robe material, almsfood, abodes, and therapeutic requisites.

Idha gahapati ariyasāvako bhikkhusaṅghaṁ paccupaṭṭhito hoti cīvarena… piṇḍapātena… senāsanena… gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārena. (AN ii 65)

Illustration: yaso, prestige

By giving, he becomes dear and many consort with him. He attains a good reputation and his prestige increases.

Dadaṁ piyo hoti bhajanti naṁ bahū kittiñca pappoti yasobhivaḍḍati. (AN iii 40)

ayaso

ayaso: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: ayaso, imprestige; yaso, prestige

Eight worldly conditions whirl around the world [of beings], and the world [of beings] whirls around eight worldly conditions, namely: acquisition and loss, imprestige and prestige, criticism and praise, pleasure and pain.

aṭṭha lokadhammā lokaṁ anuparivattanti loko ca aṭṭha lokadhamme anuparivattati: lābho ca alābho ca ayaso ca yaso ca nindā ca pasaṁsā ca sukhañca dukkhañcā ti. (AN ii 188)

yase

yase: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yase, prestige

Not to acquisition nor loss, not to imprestige nor reputation, not to criticism nor praise, not to pain nor pleasure, to nothing do they cleave, as a waterdrop does not cleave to a lotus-leaf.

Na heva lābhe nālābhe n’ayase na ca kittiyā
Na nindāyaṁ pasaṁsāya na te dukkhe sukhamhi ca.
Sabbattha te na limpanti udabindu va pokkhare. (Tha 664-5)

Illustration: yaso, prestige

Now, acquisition arises for a learned noble disciple. He reflects, ‘Acquisition has arisen for me. He discerns it according to reality as unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, and destined to change…

Sutavato ca kho bhikkhave ariyasāvakassa uppajjati lābho. So iti paṭisañcikkhati; uppanto kho me ayaṁ lābho so ca kho anicco dukkho vipariṇāmadhammoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti

… Loss arises… Prestige arises… Imprestige arises… Criticism arises… Praise arises… Pleasure arises… Pain arises… (SN v 158)

Illustration: yaso, prestige

Insignificant is the loss of prestige. The worst thing to lose is wisdom.

Appamattikā esā bhikkhave parihāni yadidaṁ yasoparihāni. Etaṁ patikiṭṭhaṁ bhikkhave parihānīnaṁ yadidaṁ paññāparihānīti.

Insignificant is the increase in prestige. The best thing to increase is wisdom.

Appamattikā esā bhikkhave vuddhi yadidaṁ yasovuddhi. Etadaggaṁ bhikkhave vuddhīnaṁ yadidaṁ paññāvuddhi. (AN i 15)

Illustration: yasaṁ, prestige

Kind and friendly, approachable, free of stinginess, a guide, teacher, and diplomat, such a person attains prestige.

Saṅgāhako mittakaro vadaññū vītamaccharo
Netā vinetā anunetā tādiso labhate yasaṁ. (DN iii 192)

yasassi

yasassi: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: yasassi, prestigious

A noble disciple who grows in wealth and grain, in children, wives, and livestock, is wealthy and prestigious, and is venerated by relatives, friends, and royalty.

Sa bhogavā hoti yasassi pūjito ñātīhi mittehi athopi rājuhi. (AN v 137)

Illustration: yasa, prestige

Among all the teachers now existing in the world, Cunda, I see none who has attained to such gains and prestige as I have.

Yāvatā kho cunda etarahi satthāro loke uppannā nāhaṁ cunda aññaṁ ekasatthārampi samanussami evaṁ lābhaggayasaggappattaṁ yatharivāhaṁ

Of all the orders and groups in the world, I see none attained to such gains and prestige as the community of bhikkhus.

Yāvatā kho pana cunda etarahi saṅgho vā gaṇo vā loke uppanno nāhaṁ cunda aññaṁ ekasaṅghampī samanupassāmi evaṁ lābhaggayasaggappattaṁ yatharivāyaṁ cunda bhikkhusaṅgho. (DN iii 126)

Illustration: yasa, celebrated

He is well-known and celebrated and has a following of many people, including householders and ascetics.

Ñāto hoti yasassī gahaṭṭhapabbajitānaṁ bahujanaparivāro. (AN iii 114)

Illustration: yaso, fame

• Who are making such an uproar, Nāgita, like fishermen with a haul of fish?

• Bhante, brahman householders have brought food to offer to the Blessed One and the community of bhikkhus.

• Let me never attain fame, Nāgita! May fame never reach me!

māhaṁ nāgita yasena samāgamo mā ca mayā yaso. (AN iii 31)

ayasaṁ

ayasaṁ: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: ayasaṁ, inglorious

When her sister, the bhikkhunī Sundarīnandā, became pregnant, the bhikkhunī Thullanandā explained why she had kept it secret:

• Whatever is criticism for her is criticism for me; whatever is disgrace for her is disgrace for me; whatever is inglorious for her is inglorious for me; whatever is a loss for her is a loss for me.

Yo etissā avaṇṇo mayheso avaṇṇo yā etissā akitti mayhesā akitti yo etissā ayaso mayheso ayaso yo etissā alābho mayheso alābho

… How can I, noble ladies, speak to others of my own blameworthiness, my own disgrace, my own ingloriousness, my own loss?

kyāhaṁ ayye attano avaṇṇaṁ attano akittiṁ attano ayasaṁ attano alābhaṁ paresaṁ ārocessāmī ti. (Vin.4.216)

Illustration: ayasaṁ, discredit

If a bhikkhu arouses disdain in others for a bhikkhu, or if he criticises that bhikkhu

ujjhāpeti vā khīyati vā

• desiring to bring him blame

• desiring to bring him discredit,

• desiring to bring him shame

it is an offence of pācittiya (Vin.4.38).

āyasakayyaṁ

āyasakayyaṁ: (main article see: yasa)

Illustration: āyasakayyaṁ, bad reputation

Maddened by anger he acquires a bad reputation.

Kodhasammadasammatto āyasakayyaṁ nigacchati. (AN iv 95)

Illustration: yasasā, reputation

Through an army with its four divisions that is loyal and dependable, it seems he overcomes his enemies through his reputation.

caturaṅginiyā senāya samannāgato assavāya ovādapaṭikarāya sahati maññe paccatthike yasasā. (DN i 137)

Illustration: yaso, reputation

If anyone were despised by this company, his reputation would suffer, and then his income would suffer, for our income depends on the gaining of a reputation.

Yaṁ kho panāyaṁ parisā paribhaveyya yaso pi tassa hāyetha. Yassa kho pana yaso hāyetha bhogā pi tassa hāyeyyuṁ. Yasoladdhā kho panamhākaṁ bhogā. (DN i 117)

yoga

Renderings

Introduction

Yoga: state of bondage [to individual existence]

The fourth state of bondage [to individual existence] is uninsightfulness into reality (avijjāyogo). The first three states of bondage [to individual existence] (yogā) arise from attachment to:

1) Sensuous pleasure

2) Individual existence

3) Views

Therefore the four states of bondage [to individual existence] can be rendered as:

1) The bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] sensuous pleasure (kāmayogo).

2) The bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence (bhavayogo).

3) The bondage [to individual existence] that arises from dogmatism (diṭṭhiyogo).

4) The bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality (avijjāyogo, DN iii 230).

Where yoga stands for saṁyojana: tie

For metrical purposes, yoga sometimes stands for saṁyojana, ‘tie’. Consider these examples:

1) They who are tethered [to individual existence] by the tie of craving (taṇhāyogena),

Here in verse, yoga stands for saṁyojana, which can be proved because in the following prose quote taṇhāsaṁyojana replaces taṇhāyogena:

• Tethered [to individual existence] by the tie of craving (taṇhāsaṁyojanena), beings roam and wander the round of birth and death for a long time.

Taṇhāsaṁyojanena hi bhikkhave saṁyuttā sattā dīgharattaṁ sandhāvanti saṁsarantī ti. (Iti 8)

2) In this next quote, again verse, saṁyojana is shown to equal yogāni, and therefore pāpimayogāni means pāpimasaṁyojanāni:

• Like the elephant that bursts all its fastenings and chains, they severed the ties and bonds (saṁyojana) [to individual existence] in the sensuous plane of existence, those ties of the Maleficent One (pāpimayogāni) so hard to overcome.

Te kāmasaṁyojanabandhanāni pāpimayogāni duraccayāni
Nāgoca sandānaguṇāni chetvā. (DN ii 274)

The presence of plural yogāni supports our assertion here, because according to our schedule of renderings yoga is usually uncountable ‘bondage’, whereas saṁyojana is countable ‘tie.’

Rarely: yoke

Yoga occasionally means yoke:

• Beings who perceive [only] what can be expressed… come under the yoke of death;

Akkheyyasaññino sattā… yogamāyanti maccuno. (Iti 53)

Illustrations

yogena

yogena: (main article see: yoga)

Illustration: yogena, tie=saṁyojana metri causa

Beings who are tethered [to individual existence] by the tie of craving, whose minds are attached to various states of individual existence, are tethered [to individual existence] by Māra’s tie. They have not reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

Taṇhāyogena saṁyuttā rattacittā bhavābhave
Te yogayuttā mārassa ayogakkhemino janā. (Iti 50)

Illustration: yogena, bondage [to individual existence]

Those who have overcome sensuous yearnings but have not accomplished the destruction of perceptually obscuring states, tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence, are called non-returners.

Ye ca kāme pahantvāna appattā āsavakkhayaṁ bhavayogena saṁyuttā anāgāmī ti vuccare. (Iti 96)

Illustration: yogena, bondage [to individual existence]

Tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] both sensuous pleasure and individual existence, tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from dogmatism, led on by uninsightfulness into reality, [such] beings follow the round of birth and death, and go to rebirth and death.

Kāmayogena saṁyuttā bhavayogena cūbhayaṁ
Diṭṭhiyogena saṁyuttā avijjāya purakkhatā
Sattā gacchanti saṁsāraṁ jātimaraṇagāmino. (AN ii 12)

Illustration: yoga, bondage [to individual existence]

Tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] both sensuous pleasure and individual existence, he is a returner, returning to this [low] plane of existence.

Kāmayogayutto bhikkhave bhavayogayutto āgāmī hoti āgantā itthattaṁ

Not tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] sensuous pleasure, but by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence, he is a non-returner, not returning to this [low] plane of existence.

Kāmayogavisaṁyutto bhikkhave bhavayogayutto anāgāmī hoti anāgantā itthattaṁ

Not tethered [to individual existence] by the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] either sensuous pleasure or individual existence, he is an arahant with perceptually obscuring states destroyed.

Kāmayogavisaṁyutto bhikkhave bhavayogavisaṁyutto arahaṁ hoti khīṇāsavo ti. (Iti 95)

yogo

yogo: (main article see: yoga)

Illustration: yogo, bondage [to individual existence]

What is the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] sensuous pleasure?

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmayogo?

In this regard, some person does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from sensuous pleasure,

Tassa kāmānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ appajānato

And so in relation to sensuous pleasures, whatever the

• attachment to sensuous pleasure

• spiritually fettering delight in sensuous pleasure

• love of sensuous pleasure

• infatuation with sensuous pleasure

• sensuous thirst

• sensuous passion

• clinging to sensuous pleasure

• craving for sensuous pleasure that lurk within him:

this is called the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] sensuous pleasure

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave kāmayogo. (AN ii 10)

Illustration: yogo, bondage [to individual existence]

What is the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence?

Bhavayogo ca kathaṁ hoti?

In this regard, some person does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from states of individual existence

bhavānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti.

And so in relation to states of individual existence, whatever the

• attachment to individual existence

• spiritually fettering delight in individual existence

• love of individual existence

• infatuation with individual existence

• thirst for individual existence

• passion for individual existence

• clinging to individual existence

• craving for individual existence that lurk within him:

this is called the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence.

Ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave bhavayogo. (AN ii 10)

Illustration: yogo, bondage [to individual existence]

What is the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from dogmatism?

Diṭṭhiyogo ca kathaṁ hoti?

In this regard, some person does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from views.

Tassa diṭṭhīnaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ appajānato

And so in relation to views, whatever the

• attachment to views

• spiritually fettering delight in views

• love of views

• infatuation with views

• thirst for views

• passion for views

• clinging to views

• craving for views that lurk within him:

this is called the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from dogmatism

Illustration: yogo, bondage [to individual existence]

What is the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality?

Avijjāyogo ca kathaṁ hoti?

In this regard, some person does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses.

Idha bhikkhave ekacco channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti.

For him who does not discern according to reality the origination of, vanishing of, sweetness of, wretchedness of, and deliverance from the six senses

Tassa channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ appajānato

the uninsightfulness and ignorance regarding the six senses that lurk within him: this is called the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality.

yā chasu phassāyatanesu avijjā aññāṇaṁ sānuseti ayaṁ vuccati bhikkhave avijjāyogo. (Iti kāmayogo bhavayogo diṭṭhiyogo avijjāyogo. (AN ii 10)

yogaṁ

yogaṁ: (main article see: yoga)

Illustration: yogaṁ, bondage [to individual existence]

He who, having abandoned the bondage to renewed states of human existence, has transcended the bondage to renewed states of divine existence, he is emancipated from all bondage [to individual existence]. He is what I call a Brahman.

Hitvā mānusakaṁ yogaṁ dibbaṁ yogaṁ upaccagā
Sabbayogavisaṁyuttaṁ tamahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ. (Snp 644)

yogakkhema

Renderings

Introduction

Yoga: states of bondage [to individual existence]

In relation to yogakkhema, yoga means the four states of bondage [to individual existence]. These are listed in the Yoga Sutta (AN ii 10), as follows:

1) the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] sensuous pleasure

2) the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from [attachment to] states of individual existence

3) the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from dogmatism

4) the bondage [to individual existence] that arises from uninsightfulness into reality

This issue is discussed sv Yoga.

Khema: safety

Khema means safe or safety (see sv Khema).

• Those are not safe refuges. Those are not the supreme refuge.

Netaṁ kho saraṇaṁ khemaṁ netaṁ saraṇamuttamaṁ. (Dhp 189)

• In a time of peril, people migrate to places of safety

Bhaye kho pana sati manussā yena khemaṁ tena saṅkamanti. (AN iii 104)

Safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]

Bondage [to individual existence] (yoga) is a danger because it involves being tethered to unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors. The unpleasant consequences of this are described in the Yoga Sutta, as follows:

• He is tethered to unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death. Thus he is called one who has not reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

Saṁyutto pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi saṅkilesikehi ponobhavikehi sadarehi dukkhavipākehi āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇikehi tasmā ayogakkhemī ti vuccati. (AN ii 11)

Therefore yogakkhema does not mean safety from bondage [to individual existence], but safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

Yogakkhemī = ‘one who has reached safety’

One who realises yogakkhema is called yogakkhemī which could mean either:

  • one who is safe from the danger of bondage [to individual existence], or,
  • one who has reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]

But yogakkhema occurs in the phrases with the verbs ārādhayanti and nānupāpuṇāti, which indicates that yogakkhema is something one attains, but does not become:

• They fathom the true teaching; both attain unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

ārādhayanti saddhammaṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaraṁ. (Iti 111)

• He does not reach unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]

anuttaraṁ yogakkhemaṁ nānupāpuṇāti. (MN i 105)

Therefore yogakkhemī means one who has reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]. One does not oneself become absolutely safe. Being yogakkhemī is not a personal attainment.

Khemī and khematta: abbreviations for yogakkhemī

Khemī and khematta occur in verses and by implying yogakkhemī, they can be taken as such because the Buddha offers no other safety.

• Not apart from enlightenment and austerity, not apart from restraint of the sense faculties [from grasping, through mindfulness], not apart from relinquishing all, do I see any safety for living beings.

nāññatra bojjhā tapasā nāññatra indriyasaṁvarā
Nāññatra sabbanissaggā sotthiṁ passāmi pāṇinanti. (SN i 53-4)

Khematta occurs just once in the scriptures; khemī occurs twice. The words occur as follows:

• May all creatures be happy and safe [from the danger of bondage to individual existence]. May they be happy.

Sukhino va khemino hontu sabbe sattā bhavantu sukhitattā. (Snp 145)

• One who has reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence], and who is unhating and fearless is called wise.

Khemī averī abhayo paṇḍito ti pavuccati. (Dhp 258)

• Though they seek him everywhere, Māra and his army do not find him, one thus unattached, who has reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence], who has transcended all ties to individual existence.

Evaṁ virattaṁ khemattaṁ sabbasaṁyojanātigaṁ
Anvesaṁ sabbaṭhānesu mārasenāpi nājjhagāti. (SN i 112)

Illustrations

yogakkhemino

yogakkhemino: (main article see: yogakkhema)

Illustration: yogakkhemino, reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]

Beings who are tethered [to individual existence] by the tie of craving, whose minds are attached to various states of individual existence, are tethered [to individual existence] by Māra’s tie. They have not reached safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]. [Such] beings follow the round of birth and death, and go to rebirth and death.

Taṇhāyogena saṁyuttā rattacittā bhavābhave
Te yogayuttā mārassa ayogakkhemino janā
Sattā gacchanti saṁsāraṁ jātimaraṇagāmino. (Iti 50)

yogakkhemaṁ

yogakkhemaṁ: (main article see: yogakkhema)

Illustration: yogakkhemaṁ, safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence]

Householders and ascetics alike, each supported by the other, both fathom the true teaching; both attain unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence].

sāgārā anagārā ca ubho aññoññanissitā; ārādhayanti saddhammaṁ yogakkhemaṁ anuttaraṁ. (Iti 111)

yogo karaṇīyo

Renderings

Introduction

Yogo karaṇīyo: which infinitive?

Yogo karaṇīyo commonly occurs with a nominative, locative, or instrumental, but never with an infinitive. Therefore the phrase Idaṁ dukkhan ti yogo karaṇīyo strictly means, ‘This is suffering. An effort should be made.’ But what effort? To see? To understand? To realise?

In parenthesis: to profoundly understand, abandon, realise, develop

The Pariññeyya Sutta (SN v 436) explains yogo karaṇīyo in the context of the four noble truths, and therefore shows in this context how it should be parenthesised, as follows:

• Of these four noble truths, there is a noble truth to be profoundly understood, a noble truth to be abandoned, a noble truth to be realised, a noble truth to be developed.

Imesaṁ kho bhikkhave catunnaṁ ariyasaccānaṁ atthi ariyasaccaṁ pariññeyyaṁ atthi ariyasaccaṁ pahātabbaṁ atthi ariyasaccaṁ sacchikātabbaṁ atthi ariyasaccaṁ bhāvetabbaṁ

What is the noble truth to be profoundly understood?

Katamañca bhikkhave ariyasaccaṁ pariññeyyaṁ

• Suffering is a noble truth to be profoundly understood.

dukkhaṁ bhikkhave ariyasaccaṁ pariññeyyaṁ

• The origin of suffering is a noble truth to be abandoned.

dukkhasamudayo ariyasaccaṁ pahātabbaṁ

• The ending of suffering is a noble truth to be realised.

dukkhanirodho ariyasaccaṁ sacchikātabbaṁ

• The practice leading to the ending of suffering is a noble truth to be developed.

dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ bhāvetabbaṁ.

Therefore, bhikkhus:

• ‘This is suffering’: an effort should be made [to profoundly understand this].

idaṁ dukkhan ti yogo karaṇīyo

• ‘This is the origin of suffering’: an effort should be made [to abandon this].

ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo ti yogo karaṇīyo

• ‘This is the ending of suffering’: an effort should be made [to realise this].

ayaṁ dukkhanirodhoti yogo karaṇīyo

• ‘This is the practice leading to the ending of suffering’: an effort should be made [to develop this].

ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ti yogo karaṇīyoti. (SN v 436)

In parenthesis: to study and master

The Gulissāni Sutta says:

• A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to study and master] advanced aspects of the teaching and discipline

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā abhidhamme abhivinaye yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)

The parenthesis ‘to study and master’ comes from the Āṇi Sutta, which says:

• When those discourses spoken by the Perfect One that are profound, profound in meaning, transcendental, connected with the [perception of the] absence [of any abiding phenomena] are being recited, we will really listen, lend an ear, and apply our minds to understand [them], and we will think those teachings should be studied and mastered (uggahetabbaṁ pariyāpuṇitabbaṁ). Thus should you train yourselves.

ye te suttantā tathāgatabhāsitā gambhīrā gambhīratthā lokuttarā suññatapaṭisaṁyuttā tesu bhaññamānesu sussusissāma sotaṁ odahissāma aññācittaṁ upaṭṭhāpessāma te ca dhamme uggahetabbaṁ pariyāpuṇitabbaṁ maññissāmā ti. Evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbanti. (SN ii 267)

In parenthesis: to attain

The Gulissāni Sutta says:

A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to attain] those immaterial states of awareness, those peaceful states of refined awareness that transcend the refined material states of awareness.

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā ye te santā vimokkhā atikkamma rūpe āruppā tattha yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)

The parenthesis ‘to attain’ (lābhī ceva hoti) comes from the Tatiyasamādhi Sutta (AN ii 94) which says a bhikkhu should ask how to attain states of inward composure.

• Later on he attains inward calm.

So aparena samayena… lābhī ca ajjhattaṁ cetosamathassa. (AN ii 92)

In parenthesis: to attain

The Gulissāni Sutta says:

• A forest bhikkhu should endeavour [to attain] a superhuman attainment

Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā uttarimanussadhamme yogo karaṇīyo. (MN i 472)

The parenthesis ‘to attain’ (adhigato) comes from the Dasadhamma Sutta:

• One who has gone forth [into the ascetic life] should frequently reflect: ‘Have I attained (adhigato) a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision such that when questioned in my last days by my companions in the religious life, I will not be ashamed?’

Atthinu kho me uttarimanussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassana viseso adhigato sohaṁ pacchime kāle sabrahmacārīhi puṭṭho na maṅkubhavissāmī ti pabbajitena abhiṇhaṁ paccavekkhitabbaṁ. (AN v 87)

With instrumental case: to attain

In the following quote, the instrumental ñāṇāya yogo karaṇīyo indicates ‘for the sake of,’ which supports our parenthesising with the infinitive ‘to attain:’

• Bhikkhus, one who does not know and see according to reality old age and death should endeavour [to attain] knowledge of old age and death according to reality

jarāmaraṇaṁ bhikkhave ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtaṁ jarāmaraṇe yathābhūtaṁ ñāṇāya yogo karaṇīyo. (SN ii 129)

This parenthesis is further justified by the Dasadhamma Sutta mentioned above, where ñāṇa is linked to adhigato:

• Have I attained (adhigato) a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision

Atthinu kho me uttarimanussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassana viseso adhigato. (AN v 87)

With instrumental case: to attain

In the following quote, the instrumental adhipaññādhammavipassanāya yogo karaṇīyo again indicates ‘for the sake of,’ which supports our again parenthesising with the infinitive ‘to attain:’

• The person who attains inward calm, but not the factors of higher penetrative discernment and insightfulness, having firmly established inward calm, should endeavour [to attain] the factors of higher penetrative discernment and insightfulness.

Tatra bhikkhave yvāyaṁ puggalo lābhī hoti ajjhattaṁ cetosamathassa na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya tena bhikkhave puggalena ajjhattaṁ cetosamathe patiṭṭhāya adhipaññādhammavipassanāya yogo karaṇīyo. (AN ii 93)

This parenthesis is further justified by the occurrence in the sentence of lābhī hoti, ‘he attains.’

yoniso

Renderings

Illustrations

Illustration: yoniso, properly

Formely this mind roamed where it wanted, where it liked, as it pleased. Now I shall control it properly, as a mahout controls an elephant in rut.

Idaṁ pure cittamacari cārikaṁ yenicchakaṁ yatthakāmaṁ yathāsukhaṁ
Tadajjahaṁ niggahessāmi yoniso hatthippabhinnaṁ viya aṅkusaggaho ti. (Tha 77)

ayoniso

ayoniso: (main article see: yoniso)

Illustration: ayoniso, improper

The fool who hurries at the time for going slowly and dawdles at the time for haste, goes to misery due to improper management of himself.

Yo dandhakāle tarati taraṇīye ca dandhaye
Ayoniso saṁvidhānena bālo dukkhaṁ nigacchati. (Tha 291)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

I properly reflected on the truth and reality of the matter

Tathaṁ yāthāvakaṁ atthaṁ yoniso paccavekkhisaṁ. (Tha 347)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

These ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son use everything properly; they do not let things go to waste.

Atha kho rājā udeno sabbevime samaṇā sakyaputtiyā yoniso upanenti. Na kulavaṁ gamentīti. (Vin.2.291-2)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool, he has no sense: he can’t put a proper question to the ascetic Gotama.

bālo soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo abyatto nāsakkhi samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ yoniso pañhaṁ pucchitun ti. (DN i 117)

Illustration: ayoniso, improperly

If one lives the religious life improperly, one will not procure any benefit.

ayoniso brahmacariyaṁ caranti abhabbā phalassa adhigamāya. (MN iii 138)

yoni

yoni: (main article see: yoniso)

Illustration: yoni, proper

Suppose a man needing milk… pulled a recently-calved cow by her horn… he would still be unable to draw milk. Why is that? Because that is not the proper way to draw milk.

Seyyathā pi bhūmija puriso khīratthiko… gāviṁ taruṇavacchaṁ visāṇato āviñcheyya… abhabbo khīrassa adhigamāya. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ayoni hesā bhūmija khīrassa adhigamāya. (MN iii 141)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

Properly reflecting you should use almsfood not for fun, not for exuberance, not for the sake of comeliness and good looks, but just for the maintenance and nourishment of this [wretched human] body for restraining its troublesomeness, for supporting the religious life.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṁ āhāreyyāsi neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya vihiṁsūparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya. Iti purāṇañca vedanaṁ paṭihaṅkhāmi. Navañca vedanaṁ na uppādessāmi. Yātrā ca me bhavissati anavajjatā ca phāsuvihāro cāti. (MN iii 134)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

Bhikkhus, suppose that this river Ganges was carrying along a large lump of froth. A clear-sighted man would inspect it, consider it, and properly investigate it. As he does so, it would appear to be empty, hollow, insubstantial. For what substantial reality could there be in a lump of froth?

Seyyathā pi bhikkhave ayaṁ gaṅgānadī mahantaṁ pheṇapiṇḍaṁ āvaheyya tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso passeyya nijjhāyeyya yoniso upaparikkheyya tassa taṁ passato nijjhāyato yoniso upaparikkhato rittakaññeva khāyeyya tucchakaññe va khāyeyya asārakaññeva khāyeyya kiṁ hi siyā bhikkhave pheṇapiṇḍe sāro?. (SN iii 140)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

In this regard a bhikkhu, properly reflecting, abides with the faculty of sight restrained through restraint [of grasping, through mindfulness].

idha bhikkhave bhikkhū paṭisaṅkhā yoniso cakkhundriyasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati. (AN iii 387)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

Through proper contemplation, through proper and right inward striving, I attained and realised the unsurpassed liberation [from perceptually obscuring states].

mayhaṁ kho bhikkhave yoniso manasikārā yoniso sammappadhānā anuttarā vimutti anuppattā anuttarā vimutti sacchikatā. (Vin.1.22; SN i 105)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

There is the quality of loveliness.

Atthi bhikkhave subhanimittaṁ.

Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen sensuous hankering, and the increase and expansion of arisen sensuous hankering.

Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā kāmacchandassa uppādāya uppannassa vā kāmacchandassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya. (SN v 64)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

What things should a virtuous bhikkhu properly contemplate?“

sīlavatā āvuso sāriputta bhikkhunā katame dhammā yoniso manasikātabbā ti

A virtuous bhikkhu should properly contemplate the five aggregates as being unlasting, intrinsically unsatisfactory, an illness, a carbuncle, a [piercing] arrow, suffering, an affliction, alien, destined to decay, void [of personal qualities], void of personal qualities.

Sīlavatāvuso koṭṭhata bhikkhunā pañcupādānakkhandhā aniccato dukkhato rogato gaṇḍato sallato aghato ābādhato parato palokato suññato anattato yoniso manasikātabbā. (SN iii 167)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

What is the condition that nourishes lack of mindfulness and full consciousness? Improper contemplation, one should reply

ko cāhāro asatāsampajaññassa: ayoniso manasikārotissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN v 113)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

What is the cause and reason that unarisen undiscernment of reality arises, or that arisen undiscernment of reality increases and expands? Improper contemplation, one should reply.

Ko panāvuso hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho uppajjati uppanno vā moho bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattatī ti? Ayoniso manasikārotissa vacanīyaṁ. (AN i 200)

Illustration: yoniso, proper

Being quickened by situations that are dismaying, and the proper striving in one who is thus quickened.

saṁvego ca saṁvejanīyesu ṭhānesu saṁviggassa ca yoniso padhānaṁ. (DN iii 214)

Illustration: yoniso, properly

Properly regard the [five grasped] aggregates as suffering, and abandon that from which suffering arises.

Dukkhan ti khandhe paṭipassa yoniso yato ca dukkhaṁ samudeti taṁ jaha. (Tha 1116)

Illustration: ayoniso, foolishly

What fools these border folk are! How can they possibly search so foolishly for the sound of the trumpet?

yāvabālā ime paccantajānapadā manussā. Kathaṁ hi nāma ayoniso saṅkhasaddaṁ gavesissantī ti. (DN ii 338)

Illustration: ayoniso, foolishly

I knew the worthless man Udāyī would foolishly interfere right now.

Aññāsiṁ kho ahaṁ ānanda idānevāyaṁ udāyī moghapuriso ummujjamāno ayoniso ummujjissatī ti. (MN iii 208)

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en/dictionary/igpt_y.txt · Last modified: 2019/10/15 10:05 by 127.0.0.1