User Tools

Site Tools

Translations of this page?:

mūla {pi}

Pāḷi; √ mūla
alt. sp.: IPA: muːlə, Velthuis: muula, readable: muula, simple: mula
translation ~:
khmer: មូល
thai: มูล
sinhal.: මූල
burm.: မူလ


[dic] mūla (mula)

mūla: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

mūla: Literally, “root.” The fundamental conditions in the mind that determine the moral quality — skillful (kusala) or unskillful (akusala) — of one's intentional actions (see kamma). The three unskillful roots are lobha (greed), dosa (aversion), and moha (delusion); the skillful roots are their opposites. See kilesa (defilements).


Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

mūla: 'roots', also called hetu (q.v.; see paccaya, 1), are those conditions which through their presence determine the actual moral quality of a volitional state (cetanā), and the consciousness and mental factors associated therewith, in other words, the quality of kamma. There are 6 such roots, 3 kammically wholesome and 3 unwholesome roots, viz.,: greed, hate, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), and greedlessness, hatelessness, undeludedness (alobha, adosa, amoha).

In AN 3.68 it is said that greed arises through unwise reflection on an attractive object, hate through unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Thus, greed (lobha or rāga) comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' towards an object from the faintest trace of a longing thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred (dosa) comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the faintest trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate and wrath.

The 3 wholesome (kusala) roots, greedlessness, etc., though expressed in negative terms, nevertheless possess a distinctly positive character, just as is also often the case with negative terms in other languages, for example, the negative term 'immorality', which has a decidedly positive character.

Thus, greedlessness (alobha) is a name for unselfishness, liberality, etc., hatelessness (adosa) for kindness or goodwill (mettā), undeludedness (amoha) for wisdom (paññā).

“The perception of impurity is to be developed in order to overcome greed (lust); loving-kindness in order to overcome hate; wisdom in order to overcome delusion” AN 6.107

“Killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, frivolous talk, covetousness, ill-will and wrong views (see kammapatha), these things are due either to greed, or hate, or delusion” AN 10.174

“Enraptured with lust (greed), enraged with hate, blinded by delusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. And he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought… And he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the welfare of others, nor the welfare of both. These things make him blind and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, are painful, and do not lead him to peace.”

The presence or absence of the 3 unwholesome roots forms part of the mind contemplation in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (MN 10). They are also used for the classification of unwholesome consciousness (see Table I).

See The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera (Wheel 251/253).


PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:


Glossary Thanissaro

— —


Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:



mūlaṁ: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

“‘A carbuncle,’ bhikkhus, is a metaphor for this [wretched human] body made of the four great material phenomena, arisen from parents, and fed on rice and gruel. It is unlasting, and is liable to be injured, abraded, broken, and demolished.

Gaṇḍo ti kho bhikkhave imassetaṁ cātummahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṁ mātāpettikasambhavassa odanakummāsūpacayassa aniccucchādana-parimaddana-bhedana-viddhaṁsanadhammassa.

The origin of the carbuncle, is a metaphor for craving

Gaṇḍamūlan ti kho bhikkhave taṇhāyetaṁ adhivacanaṁ.

When a bhikkhu has abandoned craving, so it is chopped down at the root, completely and irreversibly destroyed, never to arise again in future, in such a case the bhikkhu has extirpated the origin of the carbuncle not extirpated before

Yato kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno taṇhā pahīnā hoti ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvakatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Evaṁ kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno apalikhataṁ gaṇḍamūlaṁ palikhataṁ hoti. (SN iv 83)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

And what, friends, is spiritually unwholesome

katamaṁ panāvuso akusalaṁ

killing is spiritually unwholesome

And what is the origin of what is spiritually unwholesome (akusalamūlaṁ)?

Greed is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

Hatred is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

Undiscernment of reality is an origin of what is spiritually unwholesome.

And what is spiritually wholesome (kusalaṁ)?

Refraining from killing is spiritually wholesome pāṇātipātā veramaṇī kusalaṁ

And what is the origin of what is spiritually wholesome (kusalamūlaṁ)?

Non-greed is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Non-hatred is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Discernment of reality is an origin of what is spiritually wholesome.

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Attachment is the origin of suffering

upadhi dukkhassa mūlan ti. (MN i 453-4)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Having removed [the arrow of] craving together with its origin,

samūlaṁ taṇhaṁ abbuyha

One is free of craving. One has realised the Untroubled.


Craving arises from seeing things the wrong way, which is therefore its origin, as follows:

• Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists at present regard that in the world which is agreeable and pleasing as lasting, as essentially substantial, as endowed with personal qualities, as unailing, as free of danger: they nurture craving.

Yepi hi keci bhikkhave etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā yaṁ loke piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ taṁ niccato passanti sukhato passanti attato passanti ārogyato passanti khemato passanti te taṇhaṁ vaḍḍhenti

• Whatever ascetics and Brahmanists at present regard that in the world which is agreeable and pleasing as unlasting, as intrinsically unsatisfactory, as void of personal qualities, as an illness, as full of danger: they abandon craving.

Yepi hi ke ci bhikkhave etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā yaṁ loko piyarūpaṁ sātarūpaṁ taṁ aniccato passanti dukkhato passanti anattato passanti rogato passanti bhayato passanti. Te taṇhaṁ pajahanti. (SN ii 110-112)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

Having eliminated the stain of stinginess together with its origin, they are beyond criticism.

Vineyya maccheramalaṁ samūlaṁ aninditā. (AN ii 63)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, origin

A wise person should completely destroy the origin of entrenched conception, the notion “I am.”

mūlaṁ papañcasaṅkhāya mantā asmī ti sabbamuparundhe. (Snp 916)


mūlā: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlā, origin

The perceptually obscuring states develop, the origin of individual existence, leading to renewed states of individual existence.

Tassa vaḍḍhanti āsavā bhavamūlā bhavagāmino ti. (Tha 98; SN iv 76)

Illustration: mūla, essence

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition on the essence of the whole teaching.

Sabbadhammamūlapariyāyaṁ vo bhikkhave desessāmi. (MN i 1)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, essence

One should devote oneself to one of great learning. One should not allow the teaching to be lost. It is the essence of the religious life. Therefore one should be an expert in the teaching.

Bahussutaṁ upāseyya sutañca na vināsaye
Taṁ mūlaṁ brahmacariyassa tasmā dhammadharo siyā. (Tha 1027)


mūlāni: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlāni, root

These are the roots of trees. These are the solitary abodes. Meditate, bhikkhus. Do not be negligently applied [to the practice].

Etāni bhikkhave rukkhamūlāni etāni suññāgārāni jhāyatha bhikkhave mā pamādattha. (SN iv 368-373)

Illustration: mūlaṁ, root

If the community of bhikkhus, not having investigated that case, not having got to the root of it, achieves concord, that concord is unrighteous.

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ avinicchinitvā amūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti adhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti

If the community of bhikkhus, having investigated the case, having got to the root of it, achieves concord in the community of bhikkhus, that concord is righteous

saṅgho taṁ vatthuṁ vinicchinitvā mūlā mūlaṁ gantvā saṅghasāmaggiṁ karoti, dhammikā sā upāli saṅghasāmaggī ti. (Vin.1.358)


mūlajātā: (main article see: mūla)

Illustration: mūlajātā, rooted

When one’s faith in the [perfection of the] Perfect One’s [enlightenment] is settled, rooted, and established, and described in these terms, words, and phrases, then one’s faith is said to be supported by reasons, rooted in vision [of things according to reality], and firm. It is not shakeable by any ascetic, Brahmanist, deva, māra, or brahmā, or by anyone in the world.

Yassa kassa ci bhikkhave imehi ākārehi imehi padehi imehi vyañjanehi tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā hoti mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā ayaṁ vuccatī bhikkhave ākāravatī saddhā dassanamūlikā daḷhā asaṁhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṁ. (MN i 320)


Glossary various Teacher

— —


See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

— —

Add a reference here or in the list.


Info & meta data



  • You can add an record of the Pali, and upload it. (The file should be without diacritics, lowcase and mp3. Change diacritics in link to 'readable' characters without diacritics.)
  • You are given to add additional sources/Dictionaries. Consider the use of page_templates if wishing to include a certain dictionary to many pages. Edits of Dictionary content can be made in the paticulary source file.

meta data

—- dataentry metadata —- page ID: en:dictionary:mūla pagename: mūla file: mūla.txt permanent link:ūla page initially given by: Johann page creation date: 2019-09-17 (recreation) origin author and source: see source_of_dictionaries. source: various, see source_of_dictionaries edits: see source_of_dictionaries edition: scope of gift: This is a gift of Dhamma and given to use for any skilful/wholesome purpose and undertaking but not for any commercial use or other use of exchange for worldly aims. For additional information see Dhamma-Dana and possible details at the source pages for included parts. Much joy in using and share of the merits! owner of this copy: Sublime Sangha of the eight directions. current maintainer: The aramika and monastic disciples on dedications of editors: Johann: for the Sublime Saṅgha of the Buddha and those following and interested, and so then benefiting my persons teachers, parents and ancestors, all beings welfare.

en/dictionary/mūla.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:31 by