User Tools

Site Tools

Translations of this page?:

pārāyana {pi}

Pāḷi; √ pārāyana
alt. sp.: IPA: pɑːɾɑːjən̪ə, Velthuis: paaraayana, readable: paaraayana, simple: parayana
translation ~:
khmer: បារាយន
thai: ปารายน
sinhal.: පාරායන
burm.: ပါရာယန


[dic] pārāyana (parayana)

pārāyana: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

— —


Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

— —


PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:


Glossary Thanissaro

— —


Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:


Parāyaṇa and Parāyana

These words are synonyms, though PED is silent on the matter. VRI has not normalised them, and thus both spellings are found there. For example, sambodhiparāyaṇaṁ and -naṁ. For computer studies this is unsatisfactory, and we have normalised this Glossary to parāyaṇaṁ in accordance with both Vedic and Sanskrit spellings.

Parāyaṇa from parā

Parāyaṇa is derived from parā + i, where parā is ‘para + ā. Ā is the directional prefix emphasizing para.’ This meaning is seen, for example, when Nibbāna is called ‘the final destination’ (parāyaṇa, SN iv 373), and with the stream-enterer, who has enlightenment as his destiny (sambodhiparāyaṇo, AN iv 11-13).

Parāyaṇa: support

The meaning ‘support’ is shown here:

• In this regard one sees that very same lady after some time, eighty or ninety or a hundred years old, aged, as bent as a rafter, crooked, supported by a walking stick (daṇḍaparāyaṇaṁ), wobbling as she goes. (MN i 88)

Parāyaṇa: means of survival

The meaning ‘means of survival’ can be seen here:

• What is it that produces a person? What does he have that runs around? What enters upon the round of birth and death? What is his means of survival?

Kiṁ su janeti purisaṁ kiṁ su tassa vidhāvati
Kiṁ su saṁsāramāpādi kiṁ su tassa parāyaṇan ti

• It is craving that produces a person; his thoughts are what runs around; a being enters upon the round of birth and death; his merit is his means of survival.

Taṇhā janeti purisaṁ cittamassa vidhāvati
Satto saṁsāramāpādi kammaṁ tassa parāyaṇan ti. (SN i 38)

That merit is a means of survival is seen in this quote:

• Therefore one should do what is meritorious as a collection for a future life. Meritorious deeds are the support for living beings [when they arise] in the world hereafter.”

Tasmā kareyya kalyāṇaṁ nicayaṁ samparāyikaṁ puññāni paralokasmiṁ patiṭṭhā honti pāṇinanti. (SN i 93)

Parāyaṇa and Pārāyana: not synonyms

PED says pārāyana is the metric form of parāyaṇa. But Norman points out that Monier Williams (Sanskrit-English Dictionary) ‘does not, however, quote such a metrical form’ (GD, note on p.218.18, GD p.423).

Pārāyana from pāraṁ: ‘the way to the Far Shore’

Pārāyana occurs in relation to the fifth chapter of the Suttanipāta. Its spelling and meaning are derived from pāraṁ, i.e. ‘Far Shore’:

• This path is for going to the Far Shore, therefore it is called the way to the Far Shore.

Maggo so pāraṁ gamanāya tasmā pārāyanaṁ iti. (Snp 1130)



parāyaṇaṁ: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, means of survival

When one has parted this life, the bodily, verbal, and mental self-control one has had in this world will provide a haven, a shelter, an island, a refuge, and a means of survival.

yo idha kāyena saṁyamo vācāya saṁyamo manasā saṁyamo taṁ tassa petassa tāṇañca lenañca dīpañca saraṇañca parāyaṇañcā ti. (AN i 155)


parāyaṇe: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇe, means of survival

I pay respects to those who are perfect in virtue, who are long trained in inward collectedness, who have rightly gone forth [into the ascetic life], and have the religious life as their [sole] means of survival.

Ahañca sīlasampanne cirarattasamāhite
Sammā pabbajite vande brahmacariyaparāyaṇe. (SN i 234)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, Final Destination

The destruction of attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. This is called the Final Destination.

yo bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṁ vuccati bhikkhave parāyaṇaṁ.

What is the path leading to the Final Destination. Mindfulness of the body.

Katamo ca bhikkhave parāyaṇagāmī maggo? Kāyagatāsati. (SN iv 373)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, final destination

The religious life is lived which has the Untroubled as its culmination, final destination, and conclusion.

Nibbānogadhaṁ hi brāhmaṇa brahmacariyaṁ vussati nibbānaparāyaṇaṁ nibbānapariyosānan ti. (SN v 218)


parāyaṇo: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

One who lives a hundred years, even he has death as his destiny.

Yo ca vassasataṁ jīve sopi maccuparāyaṇo. (SN v 217)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

In destroying the first three ties to individual existence, he becomes a stream-enterer, no more liable to rebirth in the plane of damnation, assured of deliverance, with enlightenment as his destiny.

So tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā sotāpanno hoti avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo. (AN iv 11-13)

Illustration: parāyaṇo, destiny

I am a stream-enterer, no more liable to rebirth in the plane of damnation, assured of deliverance, with enlightenment as my destiny.

sotāpanno’hamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo ti. (DN ii 93)


parāyaṇa: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇa, destiny

You discern the possible places of rebirth and the afterlife destinations for the world [of beings] including the devas.

Tuvaṁ hi lokassa sadevakassa gatiṁ pajānāsi parāyaṇañca. (Snp 377)


parāyaṇaṁ: (main article see: pārāyana)

Illustration: parāyaṇaṁ, destined

Knowing all stations for the stream of consciousness, the Perfect One knows [the stream of consciousness], whether it is established in this world, or liberated [from perceptually obscuring states], or destined to be so liberated.

Viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo sabbā abhijānaṁ tathāgato
Tiṭṭhantamenaṁ jānāti vimuttaṁ tapparāyaṇaṁ. (Snp 1114)


Glossary various Teacher

— —


See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

— —

Add a reference here or in the list.


Info & meta data



  • You can add an record of the Pali, and upload it. (The file should be without diacritics, lowcase and mp3. Change diacritics in link to 'readable' characters without diacritics.)
  • You are given to add additional sources/Dictionaries. Consider the use of page_templates if wishing to include a certain dictionary to many pages. Edits of Dictionary content can be made in the paticulary source file.

meta data

—- dataentry metadata —- page ID: en:dictionary:pārāyana pagename: pārāyana file: pārāyana.txt permanent link:ārāyana page initially given by: Johann page creation date: 2019-09-17 (recreation) origin author and source: see source_of_dictionaries. source: various, see source_of_dictionaries edits: see source_of_dictionaries edition: scope of gift: This is a gift of Dhamma and given to use for any skilful/wholesome purpose and undertaking but not for any commercial use or other use of exchange for worldly aims. For additional information see Dhamma-Dana and possible details at the source pages for included parts. Much joy in using and share of the merits! owner of this copy: Sublime Sangha of the eight directions. current maintainer: The aramika and monastic disciples on dedications of editors: Johann: for the Sublime Saṅgha of the Buddha and those following and interested, and so then benefiting my persons teachers, parents and ancestors, all beings welfare.

en/dictionary/pārāyana.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:30 by