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purakkhata {pi}

Pāḷi; √ purakkhata
alt. sp.: IPA: puɾəkkʰət̪ə, Velthuis: purakkhata, readable: purakkhata, simple: purakkhata
translation ~:
khmer: បុរក្ខត
thai: ปุรกฺขต
sinhal.: පුරක්ඛත
burm.: ပုရက္ခတ


[dic] purakkhata

purakkhata: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.

ATI Glossary

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Buddhist Dictionary

by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:

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PTS Dictionary

by the Pali Text Society:


Glossary Thanissaro

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Illustrated Glossary of Pāli Terms

by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:


Purekkharoti and purakkharoti

That purekkharoti and purakkharoti are variant spellings is supported by PED and Bodhi (CDB p.1049 n.25).

Purekkharoti: verb

Purakkharoti (‘to esteem’) occurs just once in the scriptures as follows:

• They neither conceive [views], nor [at all] esteem them.

Na kappayanti na purekkharonti. (Snp 803)

It occurs more frequently as the absolutive (purakkhatvā) or past participle (purakkhato).

Purakkhatvā: absolutive

The absolutive purakkhatvā is used with the accusative case, and has five meanings which can be illustrated as follows:

1) ‘face’: facing the Blessed One

bhagavantaṁ yeva purakkhatvā. (DN iii 208)

2) ‘put at the front’: bhikkhus putting me at the front

mameva bhikkhū purakkhatvā. (MN i 28)

3) ‘give precedence’: giving precedence to Venerable MahāMoggallāna

āyasmantaṁ mahāmoggallānaṁ purakkhatvā. (MN i 253)

4) ‘esteem’: esteeming wisdom

5) ‘revere’: we shall abide revering you

Purakkhato: past participle

The past participle forms (1) adjectives (2) adverbs and (3) prepositions. It occurs with six cases: nominative, accusative, instrumental, genitive, dative, and locative, though in tappurisa compounds the case ending is elided. Duroiselle illustrates elision with two examples:

1) araññaṁ gato becomes araññagato;

2) buddena bhāsito becomes buddhabhāsito (PGPL, Para.545).

The past participle has nine meanings:

1) ‘[much] esteemed’: [much] esteemed doctrines

2) ‘exposed’: he is exposed to cold and heat

sītassa purakkhato uṇhassa purakkhato. (MN i 85)

3) ‘led on’: people led on by craving scurry about like hunted hares.

Tasiṇāya purakkhatā pajā parisappanti saso va bādhito. (Dhp 342)

4) ‘accompanied’: accompanied by a crowd of slave women

5) ‘followed’: followed by flies

6) ‘revered’: he is revered by the heavenly musicians

7) ‘at the head of’: at the head of a group of elephants

8) ‘in front of’: in front of the assembly of bhikkhus

9) ‘give precedence’: he is given precedence amongst the group of bhikkhus

purakkhato bhikkhugaṇassa majjhe. (DN ii 135)


Purekkharāno means one who either 1) nurses hopes or 2) esteems views:

1) And how does one nurse hopes [for the future]? In this regard, some person thinks: May my bodily form be thus in the future; sense impression; perception; mental factors; fields of sensation.

Kathañca gahapati purekkharāno hoti: idha gahapati ekaccassa evaṁ hoti: evaṁrūpo siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ evaṁvedano siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ evaṁsañño siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ evaṁsaṅkhāro siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ evaṁviññāṇo siyaṁ anāgatamaddhānanti. (SN iii 11)

2) He [much] esteems the dogmatic view he has conceived.

pakappitaṁ diṭṭhiṁ purekkharāno. (Snp 910)

Esteem qualified

Webster’s Dictionary says ‘regard’ is usually qualified: ‘he is not highly regarded in the profession.’ But the same applies to ‘esteem’: ‘he is not highly esteemed in the profession.’ We therefore render purekkharoti as ‘to esteem’, or ‘to [much] esteem’, or ‘to [at all] esteem’:

• They neither conceive [views], nor [at all] esteem them.

Na kappayanti na purekkharonti. (Snp 803)

Illustrations: absolutive


purakkhatvā: (main article see: purakkhata)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, facing (+accusative)

The community of bhikkhus… sat down along the western wall facing east, facing the Blessed One.

Bhikkhusaṅgho… pacchimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi bhagavantaṁ yeva purakkhatvā. (DN iii 208-9)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, facing (+accusative)

Bhikkhus, most of the gods from the ten thousandfold multi-universe system have assembled…

yebhuyyena bhikkhave dasasu lokadhātūsu devatā sannipatitā honti…

Devas dependent on the moon have come, facing the moon.

Candassūpanisā devā candamāguṁ purakkhatvā.

Devas dependent on the sun have come, facing the sun.

Suriyassūpanisā devā suriyamāguṁ purakkhatvā. (DN ii 259)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, put in front (+accusative)

A certain bhikkhu might wish: ‘Oh that the bhikkhus might enter the village for alms putting me always at the front, not some other bhikkhu!’ And it is possible that the bhikkhus enter the village for alms putting some other bhikkhu always at the front, not that bhikkhu.

aho vata mameva bhikkhū purakkhatvā purakkhatvā gāmaṁ bhattāya paviseyyuṁ na aññaṁ bhikkhuṁ bhikkhū purakkhatvā purakkhatvā gāmaṁ bhattāya paviseyyun ti. (MN i 28)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, giving precedence to (+accusative)

Then Sakka, Lord of the Devas, and the Great King Vessavaṇo approached the Vejayanta Palace, giving precedence to Venerable MahāMoggallāna.

Atha kho sakko ca devānamindo vessavaṇo ca mahārājā āyasmantaṁ mahāmoggallānaṁ purakkhatvā yena vejayanto pāsādo tenupasaṅkamiṁsu. (MN i 253)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, esteeming (+accusative)

Esteeming wisdom and rapture that is virtuous, he should conquer those adversities.

Paññaṁ purakkhatvā kalyāṇapīti vikkhambheyya tāni parissayāni. (Snp 969)

Illustration: purakkhatvā, revering (+accusative)

We shall abide revering you like the Tāvatiṁsā devas revering Inda, invincible in war.

Indaṁca tidasā devā saṅgāme aparājitaṁ purakkhatvā vihassāma. (Thi 121)

Illustrations: past participle, noun


purakkhataṁ: (main article see: purakkhata)

Illustration: purakkhataṁ, hoped for

The person―before the body’s destruction―who is freed of craving, who is not attached to the past, not to be reckoned in terms of the present, and for whom there is nothing hoped for [in the future];

Vītataṇho purā bhedā pubbamantamanissito
Vemajjhe nupasaṅkheyyo tassa natthi purakkhataṁ. (Snp 849)

Illustrations: past participle, adverb


purakkhato: (main article see: purakkhata)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied (adverb)

They go to different countries, wandering unrestrained. If they lose their inward collectedness, what good will this international travelling do? Therefore one should eliminate [such] harmful conduct. One should meditate unaccompanied.

Nānājanapadaṁ yanti vicarantā asaṁyatā
Samādhiñca virādhenti kiṁsu raṭṭhacariyā karissati
Tasmā vineyya sārambhaṁ jhāyeyya apurakkhato ti. (Tha 37)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied (adverb)

Having renounced [the household life] in faith, a novice bhikkhu newly gone forth [into the ascetic life] who is knowledgeable about what is allowable and unallowable [according to the code of discipline] should [then] live the religious life unaccompanied.

Saddhāya abhinikkhamma navapabbajito navo
Kappākappesu kusalo careyya apurakkhato. (Tha 251)

Illustrations: past participle+nominative


purakkhatā: (main article see: purakkhata)

Illustration: purakkhatā, [much] esteemed (+nominative)

He whose [much] esteemed doctrines are conceived and contrived is not spiritually cleansed.

Pakappitā saṅkhatā yassa dhammā purakkhatā santi avīvadātā. (Snp 784)

Illustrations: past participle+accusative

Illustration: purakkhatā, led on from (+accusative)

Repeatedly, led on [by uninsightfulness into reality] from one state of individual existence to another in the sphere of personal identity, not transcending personal identity, they pursue birth and death.

Kālaṁ kālaṁ bhavābhavaṁ sakkāyasmiṁ purakkhatā avitivattā sakkāyaṁ jātimaraṇasārino. (Thi 199)


[By uninsightfulness into reality], by comparison with:

1) Led on within the round of birth and death [by uninsightfulness into reality].

Commentary to Tha 1174: Saṁsārena purakkhato saṁsārabandhanaavijjādinā purakkhato.

2) Led on by uninsightfulness into reality, [such] beings follow the round of birth and death, and go to rebirth and death.

avijjāya purakkhatā sattā gacchanti saṁsāraṁ jātimaraṇagāmino. (AN ii 12)

Illustration: purakkhatā, led on from (+accusative)

Those borne by the flood of sensuous pleasure, not profoundly understanding sensuous pleasure, having acquiesced in [the perception of] time, are [by uninsightfulness into reality] led on within the round of birth and death from one state of individual existence to another.

Tesaṁ kāmoghavuḷhānaṁ kāme aparijānataṁ
Kālaṁ gatiṁ bhavābhavaṁ saṁsārasmiṁ purakkhatā. (AN iii 69)

Illustrations: past participle+instrumental

Illustration: purakkhato, led on by (+instrumental)

Previously content with making sacrifices, led on by the phenomenon of sensuous pleasure, I subsequently rooted out desire and hatred, and delusion, too.

Pubbe yaññena santuṭṭho kāmadhātupurakkhato
Pacchā rāgañca dosañca mohaṁ cā pi samūhaniṁ. (Tha 378)

Kassapa of Uruvelā said brahmanic sacrifices were impure because they involved sensuous pleasures, as follows:

• ‘Brahmanic sacrifices glorify sights and sounds, also flavours, sensuous pleasures, and women. Recognising that this was a spiritual stain amidst objects of attachment I lost my taste for sacrifices and offerings.’

Rūpe ca sadde ca atho rase ca kāmitthiyo cābhivadanti yaññā
Etaṁ malan ti upadhīsu ñatvā tasmā na yiṭṭhe na hute arañjin ti. (Vin.1.36)

Illustration: purakkhato, led on by (+instrumental)

Camouflaged by skin, the body is not seen according to reality.

Chaviyā kāyo paṭicchanno yathābhūtaṁ na dissati.

The fool, led on by uninsightfulness into reality, thinks it exquisite.

Subhato naṁ maññati bālo avijjāya purakkhato. (Snp 194 and Snp 199)

Illustration: purakkhatā, led on by (+instrumental)

People led on by craving scurry about like hunted hares.

Tasiṇāya purakkhatā pajā parisappanti saso va bādhito. (Dhp 342)

Illustration: purakkhato, led on by (+instrumental)

He does not understand the true teaching. Led on within the round of birth and death [by uninsightfulness into reality], he follows a path leading downwards, a crooked path, a wrong path.

Neso passati saddhammaṁ saṁsārena purakkhato
Adhogamaṁ jimhapathaṁ kummaggamanudhāvati. (Tha 1174)


Saṁsārena purakkhato: ‘led on within the round of birth and death [by uninsightfulness into reality].’ Commentary to Tha 1174: Saṁsārena purakkhato saṁsārabandhanaavijjādinā purakkhato.

Illustration: purakkhato, followed by (+instrumental)

Whether in the village or the forest, the unwise foolish person, not having gained peace for himself, goes around followed by flies.

Gāme vā yadi vāraññe aladdhā samamattano
Pareti bālo dummedho makkhikāhi purakkhato. (AN i 281)

Illustration: purakkhatā, accompanied by (+instrumental)

Covered with silver [ornaments], accompanied by a crowd of slave women, carrying our child upon her hip, my ex-wife approached me.

Jātarūpena pacchannā dāsīgaṇapurakkhatā
Aṅkena puttamādāya bhariyā maṁ upāgami. (Tha 299)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied by (+instrumental)

Householder, suppose a man borrowed money, a fancy carriage and jewellery and earrings

Seyyathā pi gahapati puriso yācitakaṁ bhogaṁ yācitvā yānaṁ vā poroseyyaṁ pavaramaṇikuṇḍalaṁ.

and accompanied and surrounded by those borrowed goods he went to the marketplace.

So tehi yācitakehi bhogehi purakkhato parivuto antarāpaṇaṁ paṭipajjeyya. (MN i 366)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied by (+instrumental)

You will look glorious accompanied and surrounded by celestial maidens.

Purakkhato parivuto devakaññāhi sobhasī ti. (SN i 200)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied by (+instrumental)

One should not live the religious life accompanied by a group.

Na gaṇena purakkhato care. (Tha 1051-2)

Illustration: purakkhato, accompanied by (+instrumental)

Dwelling in the woods which resound with the cries of peacocks and herons, being accompanied by leopards and tigers.

Mayūrakoñcābhirutamhi kānane dīpīhi vyagghehi purakkhato vasaṁ. (Tha 1113)

Illustration: purakkhato, revered by (+instrumental)

Lord of the heavenly musicians, Dhataraṭṭha is his name, enjoys their songs and dances. He is revered by the heavenly musicians.

Gandhabbānaṁ ādhipati dhataraṭṭho ti nāma so
Ramatī naccagītehi gandhabbehi purakkhato. (DN iii 197)

Illustrations: past participle+genitive


purakkhataṁ: (main article see: purakkhata)

Illustration: purakkhataṁ, revered by (+genitive)

Then at daybreak, towards sunrise, Inda and Brahmā came and rendered me honour with joined palms.

Tato ratyā vivasane suriyassuggamanaṁ pati
Indo brahmā ca āgantvā maṁ namassiṁsu pañjalī.

Then seeing me revered by a group of devas, giving a smile, the Teacher said this:

Tato disvāna maṁ satthā devasaṅghapurakkhataṁ
Sitaṁ pātukaritvāna imamatthaṁ abhāsatha. (Tha 628-630)


Words denoting honour or veneration take a genitive or instrumental:

  • gāmassa/gāmena pūjito: honoured by/of the village
  • rañño mānito: revered by/of the king (PGPL, Para 595).

Illustration: purakkhato, at the head of (+genitive)

You are like a warrior who glorifies the van of the army, at the head of a group of elephants

khattiyo sohayanto aṇīkaggaṁ nāgasaṅghapurakkhato. (Snp 420-1)

Illustration: purakkhato, at the head of (+genitive)

The Enlightened One looks absolutely glorious at the head of the assembly of bhikkhus.

Sobhati vata sambuddho bhikkhusaṅghapurakkhato. (SN i 192)

Illustration: purakkhataṁ, at the head of (+genitive)

Then I saw at the head of a group of bhikkhus the Perfectly Enlightened One, the great Hero, entering [Rājagaha], the supreme city of the Magadhas.

Athaddasāsiṁ sambuddhaṁ bhikkhusaṅghapurakkhataṁ
Pavisantaṁ mahāvīraṁ magadhānaṁ puruttamaṁ. (Tha 622)

Illustration: purakkhato, in front of (+genitive)

At that time the Blessed One was in front of the assembly of bhikkhus, explaining the teaching to the bhikkhus.

Bhagavā ca tamhi samaye bhikkhusaṅghapurakkhato
Bhikkhunaṁ dhammaṁ deseti. (Snp 1015)

Illustration: purakkhato, in front of (+genitive)

That is the Blessed One, great king, beside the middle pillar, facing east, sitting in front of the assembly of bhikkhus.

Eso mahārāja bhagavā majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisinno purakkhato bhikkhusaṅghassā ti. (DN i 50)

Illustrations: past participle+dative

Illustration: purakkhato, exposed to (+dative)

Due to whatever craft by which a noble young man makes his living… he is exposed to cold and heat, he is injured by contact with horseflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, and snakes

Idha bhikkhave kulaputto yena sippaṭṭhānena jīvikaṁ kappeti… sītassa purakkhato uṇhassa purakkhato ḍaṁsamakasavātātapasiriṁsapasamphassehi rissamāno(MN i 85)


The Dative is governed by verbs expressing injury. For example:

• the flood has injured the country

duhayati disānaṁ ogho. (PGPL, Para 597)

Illustration: purakkhato, exposed to (+dative)

There are these six disadvantages attached to haunting the streets at unfitting times…

Cha kho'me gahapatiputta ādīnavā vikālavisikhācariyānuyoge…

… one is exposed to many unpleasant things.

bahūnañca dukkhadhammānaṁ purakkhato hoti. (DN iii 183)

Illustrations: past participle+locative

Illustration: purakkhato, given precedence amongst (+locative)

When he had bathed and drunk, the Teacher crossed over. He is given precedence amongst the group of bhikkhus.

Nahātvā ca pītvā cudatāri satthā purakkhato bhikkhugaṇassa majjhe. (DN ii 135)


Glossary various Teacher

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See also

Suttas and Dhammadesanā

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en/dictionary/purakkhata.txt · Last modified: 2019/09/25 05:30 by