rāga: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
Illustration: rāga, attachment
Bhikkhus, by much contemplating things that are a basis for attachment to sensuous pleasure, unarisen sensuous hankering arises, and arisen sensuous hankering increases and expands.
Kāmarāgaṭṭhāniyānaṁ bhikkhave dhammānaṁ manasikārabahulīkārā anuppanno ceva kāmacchando uppajjati uppanno ca kāmacchando bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṁvattati. (SN v 84)
For one who abides contemplating the unloveliness of the body the proclivity to attachment to the phenomenon of loveliness is abandoned.
asubhānupassīnaṁ bhikkhave kāyasmiṁ viharataṁ yo subhāya dhātuyā rāgānusayo so pahīyati. (Iti 80)
When there is spiritually fettering delight, there is attachment. Where there is attachment, there is bondage [to individual existence].
nandiyā sati sārāgo hoti sārāge sati saṁyogo hoti. (SN iv 36)
The Buddha takes his food experiencing the flavour though not experiencing attachment to the flavour
rasapaṭisaṁvedi… no ca rasarāgapaṭisaṁvedī (MN ii 138)
This is the liberation from attachment, namely the liberation [from perceptually obscuring states] through [unlimited] detached awareness.
nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ āvuso rāgassa yadidaṁ upekkhā cetovimutti. (DN iii 249)
When affected by a pleasant sense impression, he takes delight in it, he welcomes it, and persists in cleaving to it. The proclivity to attachment lurks within him.
So sukhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. Tassa rāgānusayo anuseti. (MN iii 286)
Illustration: rāgā, attachment
In the theatre or arena, among beings who are not free of attachment, who are bound [to individual existence] by the bondage of attachment, an actor entertains them with charming things that excite them even more strongly to attachment.
Pubbe kho gāmaṇī sattā avītarāgā rāgabandhanabaddhā tesaṁ naṭo raṅgamajjhe samajjamajjhe ye dhammā rajanīyā te upasaṁharati bhiyyo sarāgāya. (SN iv 307)
Illustration: rāgo, attachment
• What do you think, headman? Before you saw Ciravāsi’s mother or heard about her, did you have any fondness, attachment, or love for her?
chando vā rāgo vā pemaṁ vā ti
• No, bhante. (SN iv 329-330)
If a blind man was sold a dirty garment, and was told it was beautiful and clean, when his vision was restored, his fondness and attachment regarding that garment would be abandoned.
chandarāgo so pahīyetha. (MN i 511)
Illustration: rāgo, lust
He sees women there lightly clad or lightly attired, and lust invades his mind.
rāgo cittaṁ anuddhaṁseti. (SN ii 231)
Because they spend an excessive amount of time gazing at each other, lust was aroused and sensuous passion arose in their bodies.
Tesaṁ ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyataṁ sārāgo udapādi pariḷāho kāyasmiṁ okkami. (DN iii 88)
Illustration: rāgaṁ, attachment
When the perception of the unlastingness [of the five aggregates] is developed and cultivated,
aniccasaññā bhikkhave bhāvitā bahulīkatā
• it destroys all attachment to sensuous pleasure
sabbaṁ kāmarāgaṁ pariyādiyati
• it destroys all attachment to the refined material states of awareness
sabbaṁ rūparāgaṁ pariyādiyati
• it destroys all attachment to individual existence
sabbaṁ bhavarāgaṁ pariyādiyati. (SN iii 155)
Illustration: rāgena, lust
Erections (aṅgajātaṁ kammaniyaṁ hoti) are caused by a distended bowel or bladder, by bodily energies, from the sting of hairy caterpillars (?), or by lust (rāgena vaccena passāvena vātena uccāliṅgapāṇakadaṭṭhena). (Vin.3.37-8)
Illustration: rāgena, lust
I am burning with lust for sensuous pleasure, my mind is burning. Please tell me how to extinguish it, out of tender concern, O Gotama clansman.
Kāmarāgena ḍayhāmi cittaṁ me pariḍayhati
Sādhu nibbāpanaṁ brūhi anukampāya gotamāti. (SN i 188)
I see no single visible object so attractive, so sensuous, so intoxicating, so captivating, so infatuating, so obstructive to the reaching of unsurpassed safety from [the danger of] bondage [to individual existence], as the sight of a woman.
Nāhaṁ bhikkhave aññaṁ ekarūpampi samanupassāmi yaṁ evaṁ rajanīyaṁ evaṁ kamanīyaṁ evaṁ madanīyaṁ evaṁ bandhanīyaṁ evaṁ mucchanīyaṁ evaṁ antarāyakaraṁ anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya yathayidaṁ bhikkhave itthirūpaṁ. (AN iii 68)
Illustration: rūpa, appearance
Four persons in the world:
1) He who guages by appearance, and whose faith is inspired by appearance
2) He who guages by voice, and whose faith is inspired by voice
3) He who guages by asceticism, and whose faith is inspired by asceticism
4) He who guages by the teaching, and whose faith is inspired by the teaching
Three further types of craving
Aparā pi tisso taṇhā
• craving for the sensuous plane of existence
• craving for the refined material plane of existence
• craving for the immaterial plane of existence.
There are three states of individual existence
tayo me āvuso bhavā
• individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence
• individual existence in the refined material plane of existence
• individual existence in the immaterial plane of existence
• Three further varietes of craving:
aparā pi tisso taṇhā
• craving for refined material states of awareness
• craving for immaterial states of awareness
• craving for the ending [of originated phenomena]
Illustration: rūpa, bodily form
The four great material phenomena are the indispensible and necessary conditions by which the aggregate of bodily form is to be discerned.
Cattāro kho bhikkhu mahābhūtā hetu cattāro mahābhūtā paccayo rūpakkhandhassa paññāpanāya. (MN iii 17)
The ignorant Everyman considers bodily form to be the [absolute] Selfhood, or the [absolute] Selfhood to be corporeal, or that bodily form to be part of the [absolute] Selfhood, or that the [absolute] Selfhood to be part of bodily form.
rūpaṁ attato samanupassati rūpavantaṁ vā attānaṁ attani vā rūpaṁ rūpasmiṁ vā attānaṁ
If that bodily form changes and alters, his mind is preoccupied with the change.
Tassa taṁ rūpaṁ vipariṇamati aññathā hoti tassa rūpavipariṇāmaññathābhāvā rūpavipariṇāmānuparivatti viññāṇaṁ hoti. (MN iii 228)
Why is it called bodily form? It is harassed, therefore it is called bodily form.
Kiñca bhikkhave rūpaṁ vadetha: rūppatī ti kho bhikkhave tasmā rūpanti vuccati.
Harassed by what? By cold, heat, hunger, thirst, horseflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun, snakes.
Kena rūppati: sītena pi ruppati uṇhena pi ruppati jighacchāya pi ruppati pipāsāya pi ruppati ḍaṁsamakasavātātapasiriṁsapasamphassena pi ruppati. (SN iii 86)
If bodily form was endowed with personal qualities it would not lead to affliction and it would be possible to demand of bodily form: ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’
rūpañca hidaṁ bhikkhave attā abhavissa nayidaṁ rūpaṁ ābādhāya saṁvatteyya labbhetha ca rūpe evaṁ me rūpaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ mā ahosī ti. (SN iii 66-7)
And what is the aggregate of grasped bodily form? The four great material phenomena and any bodily form derived from the four great material phenomena.
Katamo cāvuso rūpūpādānakkhandho? Cattāri ca mahābhūtāni catunnañca mahābhūtānaṁ upādāya rūpaṁ. (MN i 185)
Illustration: rūpe, sights
Brahmanic sacrifices glorify sights and sounds, also flavours, sensuous pleasures, and women.
Rūpe ca sadde ca atho rase ca
Kāmitthiyo cābhivadanti yaññā. (Vin.1.37)
Illustration: rūpā, sights
These five varieties of sensuous pleasure are seen in a woman’s body: charming sights, sounds, tastes, odours, and physical sensations;
Pañcakāmaguṇā ete itthirūpasmiṁ dissare
Rūpā saddā rasā gandhā phoṭṭhabbā ca manoramā. (AN iii 69)
Illustration: rūpā, visible objects
There are visible objects known via the visual sense that are likeable, loveable, pleasing, agreeable, connected with sensuous pleasure, and charming.
Santi kho puṇṇa cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā. (MN iii 267)
Illustration: rūpaṁ, visible object
It sees a visible object via its visual sense
cakkhunāpi rūpaṁ passati. (DN ii 338)
Illustration: rūpaṁ, matter
Threefold classification of matter
• visible and tangible matter
• invisible and tangible matter
• invisible and intangible matter.
anidassanaappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ. (DN iii 217)
Illustration: rūpaṁ, bodily form
• What do you think, Aggivessana? When you say that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood,” do you wield the power over this bodily form as to command it ‘My bodily form: be thus! My bodily form: be not thus!’?
Rūpaṁ me attā ti. Vattati te tasmiṁ rūpe vaso evaṁ me rūpaṁ hotu evaṁ me rūpaṁ mā ahosī ti?
• No, Master Gotama. (MN i 232)
With reference to this [wretched human] body, the one of extensive wisdom has taught that with the abandonment of three things one sees the bodily form discarded.
Yo imaṁ kāyaṁ gārayhaṁ bhuripaññena desitaṁ
pahānaṁ tiṇṇaṁ dhammānaṁ rūpaṁ passetha chaḍḍitaṁ.
When vitality, warmth, and consciousness leave this [wretched human] body, then it lies there cast away: food for others, senseless
Āyu usmā ca viññāṇaṁ yadā kāyaṁ jahantimaṁ
Apaviddho tadā seti parabhattaṁ acetanaṁ. (SN iii 143)
Friends, just as when space is enclosed with timber, vines, grass, and clay, it is considered a ‘house,’
Seyyathā pi āvuso kaṭṭhañca paṭicca valliñca paṭicca tiṇañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito agāraṁ tveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati;
likewise when space is enclosed by bones, tendons, muscle, and fascia, it is considered a ‘bodily form.’
evameva kho āvuso aṭṭhiñca paṭicca nahāruñca paṭicca maṁsañca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito rūpaṁ tveva saṅkhaṁ gacchati. (MN i 190)
Illustration: rūpī, material
This my body is material, is made of the four great material phenomena
ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātummahābhūtiko. (DN i 76)
Illustration: rūpāni, shape
So I, Anuruddhas, abiding diligently, vigorously, and resolutely applied [to the practice], perceived the light-manifestation but did not see shapes (though light is visible, it is not a shape).
obhāsampi hi kho sañjānāmi na ca rūpāni passāmi.
Then for a whole night and a whole day and a whole night and day I saw shapes but did not perceive the light-manifestation.
Rūpāni hi kho passāmi na ca obhāsaṁ sañjānāmi.
Concerning this, Anuruddhas, it occurred to me: 'It was at the time when I was ignoring the aspect of shape but contemplating the aspect of light that I perceived the light-manifestation but did not see shapes.
yasmiṁ hi kho ahaṁ samaye rūpanimittaṁ amanasikaritvā obhāsanimittaṁ manasikaromi obhāsaṁ hi kho tasmiṁ samaye sañjānāmi na ca rūpāni passāmi.
But it was at the time when I was ignoring the aspect of the light, but was contemplating the aspect of shape that, for a whole night and a whole day and a whole night and day, I saw shapes but did not perceive the light-manifestation.
Yasmiṁ panāhaṁ samaye obhāsanimittaṁ amanasikaritvā rūpanimittaṁ manasikaromi. Rūpāni hi kho tasmiṁ hi samaye passāmi. Na ca obhāsaṁ sañjānāmi. Kevalampi rattiṁ kevalampi divasaṁ kevalampi rattindivanti. (MN iii 161)
Suttas and Dhammadesanā