User Tools

Site Tools

Translations of this page?:

Preperation of htmls into currently in progress. Please visit the corresponding page at ZzE. If inspired to get involved in this merits here, one may feel invited to join best here: [] ATI/ZzE Content-style

Frequently Asked Questions About Access to Insight: and additions for Zugang zur Einsicht

Frequently Asked Questions About Access to Insight


Frequently Asked Questions About Access to Insight

and additions for Zugang zur Einsicht

Additions translated into english by:

jb (Info You are heartily invited to contribute your transation here or to support our work in other ways.)


“Zugang zur Einsicht” is an offspring of Access to Insight based on its offline-version March 2013. The founder and current editor of ZzE (more about the formation see: Launching and Blessing) does not only appreciate the attitude of's ways in approaching the giving and sharing of Dhamma but also feels - in the frame of proper gratitude - obligated to forward this way of skillful thinking and will try to develop, deliver, protect and preserve such here at Zugang zur Einsicht as well. Changes and Attitudes of ATI after the date of receiving is not content of ZzE and this pages here will stay conform with the original gift and conditions present at the moment of receiving.

So many of the basic questions and answers are therefore not really much edited but simply fully adopted form the origin version and can be hold correspondingly as equal for ZzE as well. Points and additions different to ATI or not to be found on ATI in such kind, have been added by ZzE (visible in the coloring).

Please don't hesitate (even here are FAQ's ) to directly send a question via email to the administrator as the additions in the FAQ' are now mainly based on EAQ's (Eventually Asked Questions) and every hint and practical question would help to improve the quality and the maintenance of the whole page in it's blossom.

Thanks a lot for all your prudence, patient and sympathy with and for ZzE and please feel always invited to get directly active involved by collaboration in what ever way you wish to do and maybe become yourself a active part of the growing of Zugang zur Einsicht (ATI) in other languages and regions as well.

Finding your way around

  • What is that funny little symbol I see next to some hyperlinks?

It's a reminder that, when you click on that link, your browser will open a new window and display a page from another website. It's also a reminder that I have no control over what, exactly, you'll see when you go to that site.

  • Where's the Search Engine?

The search engine is only available in the online edition of this website. It is not available in this offline version.

General questions about the website

  • What is Access to Insight / Zugang zur Einsicht?

Access to Insight (so as well Zugang zur Einsicht) is an Internet website dedicated to providing accurate, reliable, and useful information concerning the practice and study of Theravada Buddhism, as it has been handed down to us through both the written word of the Pali canon and the living example of the Sangha.

Access to Insight (so as well Zugang zur Einsicht) is not an organization and is not affiliated with any institution. It is simply one person's website. Although I have studied the Buddha's teachings for many years as a dedicated lay follower, I have no academic degrees in either the Pali language or Buddhist Studies. In these pages I have therefore relied on the translations and interpretations of other respected scholars, teachers, and practitioners who have far more experience and wisdom than do I.

The readings assembled here represent just a selection of the Buddha's teachings. These are the ones that, over the years, I've personally found to be helpful in deepening an understanding of Dhamma practice. This collection is not meant to be an exhaustive archive of Theravada Buddhist texts.

I've tried to avoid injecting my own views and opinions into these web pages. Some biases, however, inevitably intrude, owing to the editorial choices I've made and the short introductory essays and blurbs I've written here and there to give some context to the material being presented. I sincerely hope that my biases do not in any way obscure the real meaning of the texts themselves.

Everything available at Access to Insight (so as well Zugang zur Einsicht) is offered in full cooperation with the authors, translators, and publishers concerned, with the clear understanding that none of it is to be sold. Please help yourself to whatever you find useful. (For a detailed explanation of the copyright status of materials on the website, please read “Copyright and Related Issues.”)

Zugang zur Einsicht is derived from ATI's offline Edition, and so is structured correspondingly. The current keeper is acting here as an administrator and the main objective is to make the original intention and content of Access to Insight more available and accessible in other languages as well (the focus is currently on German). As of now, most effort is in the translation of the English texts into German, but also the publication of additional texts, in the same way Access to Insight did, should not be limited and should be done as well. There might be one difference to Access to Insight, and this is that I would like to keep Zugang zur Einsicht as good as possible open for direct involvement and co-work as well, as the governing and administration should be open for a change as well. But all of this does not touch the basic attributes and intentions as they have been marked by Access to Insight (by its owner). Those will be held and protected by Zugang zu Einsicht with all possible care. (In regard of the formation of ZzE, please see Launching and Blessing )

Main differences are visible by the colored appearance of the additional texts. To get known the origin and past process of certain pages (texts), please see also the description in the terms of use found on the foot of all pages. Even though all the work in transferring and implementation of that what was found in March 2013 will be done with the best possible care, it could be that you come across something which is not in accordance with the customs of ATI, Zugang zur Einsicht (that is, the current administrator while acting as a keeper) is fully responsible for all appearances and Access to Insight is not touched by it at all. (Hints in regard to mistakes will be received with gratitude and you are hereby invited to bring them to our attention).

  • In what kind of relationship are Zugang zur Einsicht and Access to Insight?

Zugang zur Einsicht is an offspring born out of the given possibilities within Access to Insight, but not initiated by Access to Insight and its owner, albeit, within this given frame, completely accepted. Zugang zur Einsicht is fully independent of and self-responsible for its layouts and publications. The owner of Access to Insight is informed about this undertaking and has also given his personal blessing for a good success. There is no worldly obligation and no relationship of authority between these undertakings, apart from the required respect and natural responsibility for each other. The basement is somehow similar as usual in the Theravada tradition where everybody, even though he/she got handed over a talent or gift, is fully responsible for the right use and the own actions. Out of respect and appreciation, it is also the case that the owner of Access to Insight will be informed in regard of the development of ZzE from time to time, informally and without obligation.

  • How did Access to Insight / Zugang zur Einsicht start?

In early 1993, with the help of the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies, I set up in my basement a computer bulletin board service (BBS) to see if networked computers might be genuinely useful as a support for students and practitioners of Buddhism. Originally dubbed “BCBS OnLine,” the BBS soon joined DharmaNet's international network of dialup Buddhist BBS's and adopted the name “Access to Insight.” Shortly thereafter, Barry Kapke launched DharmaNet's Dharma Book Transcription Project, of which I served as librarian, and under whose auspices about a hundred high-quality books on Buddhism were transcribed to computer through the dedicated efforts of an international team of volunteer transcribers and proofreaders. These books were soon distributed via DharmaNet to scores of BBS's around the world. In 1994 I installed a dialup Internet e-mail connection that allowed anyone on the Internet to retrieve these books via an e-mail file server. This proved to be a popular service. By late 1994 the BBS — now independent of BCBS — spent far more of its time serving file requests from around the world via the Internet than in handling the requests of local callers. Internet users from far and wide were coming to depend on Access to Insight's now rickety and overworked '386 computer as their link to information — both the timely and the timeless — about Buddhism. In March 1995 this website was born; eight months later I closed down the BBS for good.

Today Access to Insight continues to grow: what began in 1993 as a modest collection of two or three suttas and a handful of articles has blossomed into a library of more than one thousand suttas and several hundred articles and books. With the release of the Handful of Leaves CD-ROM in 1998 and 1999, these texts are now reaching an even wider audience and being further redistributed around the world in print and electronic media.

To explore ATI's and ZzE's history in obsessive detail, see the archives of old news summaries.

In regard of the origin of Zugang zur Einsicht here in short: In 2000 I came in contact with the Buddhist life in the English speaking internet realms and soon after I also came in contact with Access to Insight. Later having become a little active in German speaking internet realms as well, I soon missed ATI as a resource to share and quote and spontaneously started to translate some articles to use them for the purpose of various explanations. Later in 2012, after a couple of translations, I came across the works of Lothar Schenk and the Buddhist community of Munich, who had been active in translating the texts of Access to Insight and to publish them for a couple of years. I also got to know that there are single articles from ATI already translated into German here and there. In January 2013 I received the gift of our domain here and web space as Dana dedicated for the Sangha and out of it, after the invitation of all involved parts Zugang zur Einsicht has been launched and will need a lot of effort to step to come even only close to walking in the footprints of ATI. In spring 2013 the recollecting of far-flung texts has started, and starting in the summer of the same year the work has concentrated on integrating these texts and the translation of the general information pages.

  • How can I contact you (ATI, ZzE)?

If you have a question, please first check to see if it is already answered in the FAQ, the Help file, the Indexes, or the Search Engine.

Please understand that Access to Insight isn't an organization and there are no staff here — it's just me. I do not have time to answer — or even acknowledge — all the emails that I receive. If you have questions about the content of this website — or about the Dhamma in general — please consult a teacher or a knowledgeable friend. I'm just the librarian. I am always grateful, however, to receive reports of errors (broken links, typos, etc.).

post:John Bullitt
P.O. Box 37
Milbridge, ME 04658
or visit my website.

The administrator of ZzE will not always be reachable either, but there is a forum dedicated as a working place for ZzE at and you may seek further answers there by directly posting a comment or reques. You may also find additional support and advice in all general questions about Buddhism there as well. You are heartily invited to participate in this frame and use it as well. In this way the growing of ZzE might not decay even if one administrator might get lost for its nourishment.

Contact and current administration: email to the current administrator or email to Mr. Moritz, the current voluntary administrator
Post:There is currently no post address available.
You are welcome and invited to contact the website and the forum of the virtual monastery as well to try to get in contact.

  • If Access to Insight (ZzE) isn't run by an organization, why does its URL end in “.org”?

A .com top-level domain isn't quite right since I'm not selling anything. .net isn't quite right either, since the website isn't part of a network. .org suggests a non-commercial entity, which this site certainly is. Maybe someday we'll have more top-level domains to choose from (.disorg or .notcom would be nice). Until that day comes, Access to Insight will muddle along, a squarish peg in a web of roundish holes.

  • Is Access to Insight (ZzE) affiliated with any meditation center or monastery?


  • How do you decide which texts to include on the website?

One overarching principle has guided my choice of what to include in these pages, and what to leave out: a conviction that the teachings found in the Pali canon are just as relevant today as when they were first put into practice 2,600 years ago. Despite all the obvious material advances in the human world since the Buddha's time, the Four Noble Truths appear to be as vital today as ever: suffering and stress still pervade our lives; the cause still appears to be craving in all its insidious manifestations; and there is no reason to suspect that the Noble Eightfold Path is any less effective today at bringing an end to all that suffering and stress.

The emphasis here is on practice. For the most part I've selected books, articles, and sutta translations that I've personally found helpful to develop a better understanding of the Buddha's teachings, rather than texts that tend to fuel intellectual debates on abstract philosophical concepts. Beyond these basic principles, it all comes down to a matter of personal taste.

If you are looking for authors or teachers who are not represented on Access to Insight, a simple Google search may be fruitful.

See also: Why don't you have translations of ALL the suttas from the Pali canon?

  • Why don't you have translations of ALL the suttas from the Pali canon? John Bullit: 010226 Why don't you have such-and-such a sutta (or article)? Why don't you have any translations or articles by so-and-so?

    This website aims to be selective rather than comprehensive. My goal has never been to publish translations of every single one of the Tipitaka's 10,000-plus suttas. What you see here is a selection of suttas that meet three criteria: (1) they are, in my opinion, good translations; (2) I have personally found them useful; and (3) their copyright holders have provided them for free distribution.

    There are many other fine translations of important suttas available in print today, and I encourage you to support their continued publication by purchasing copies. Someday, perhaps, these publishers will make those translations available freely to all. Until then, however, we must learn to make do with what we have. This last sentence is directed at those who insist, sometimes with great stridency and impatience, that ALL Dhamma should be made freely available, NOW! Happily, what we already have is pretty darn wonderful.

    The same criteria apply to my selection of books, articles, and other materials on the site.

    See also: How do you decide which texts to include on the website?

  • Why don't you have any translations or articles in languages other than English and German?

Years ago I decided to limit Access to Insight's content exclusively to the English language, simply because I am fluent only in English. I prefer not to put anything on the website that I can't understand myself.

If you're looking for Theravada texts in other languages, please see “Off-site resources: Non-English Tipitaka translations”.

Note: You are always welcome to add translations in what ever language.

  • Whom can we thank for making all these texts available?

My role in assembling Access to Insight has primarily been that of facilitator and librarian, helping to bring together under one virtual roof the fruits of the hard work of many people: authors, translators, publishers, transcribers, and proofreaders. The unstinting generosity and commitment to the Dhamma demonstrated by these many contributors continues to amaze and inspire me. If you have found anything of value at Access to Insight please join me in thanking those who have made this website possible:

  • Bhikkhu Bodhi, former President of the Buddhist Publication Society in Kandy, Sri Lanka, for allowing many of the BPS's publications (including its Wheel and Bodhi Leaves titles, among others) to be transcribed to computer and distributed on the Internet.
  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Ajaan Geoff), for kindly making available all his own books and articles, as well as his translations of teachings by many of the great Thai forest masters. Ajaan Geoff has also provided most of Access to Insight's sutta translations (more than eight hundred of them are his), and he continues to provide invaluable advice that keeps Access to Insight on-track and in line with the Buddha's teachings.
  • The many volunteer transcribers and proofreaders who have given their time and energy to make available so many fine Dhamma books: <pan hide> list updated 060911 </span>
    Antony Woods,
    Barry Kapke,
    Ben Nugent,
    Bill Petrow,
    Blake Smith,
    Bob Heckel,
    Bradford Griffith,
    Chitra Weirich,
    Christopher Sessums,
    Colleen McCaffrey,
    David Savage,
    Dorothea Bowen,
    Dimitri Zhelvakov,
    Eileen Santer,
    Elba Kunsman,
    Gary Gunning,
    Gaston Losier,
    George Fowler,
    Greg Smith,
    Heath Row,
    Henry Jie,
    Hugo Gayosso,
    James Stewart,
    Jane Yudelman,
    Jason Chang,
    Jim McLaughlin,
    Joe Crea,
    John Dixon,
    Julian Chase,\
    Kavee Wijay,
    Laura Wright,
    Lee Lin Ong,
    Li Chun,
    Mahendra Siriwardene,
    Malcolm Rothman,
    Mark Blackstad,
    Matt Klopfstein,
    Maureen Riordan,
    Michael Kalyaano,
    Michael Sproul,
    Michael Zoll,
    Myra I. Fox,
    Oliver First,
    Olivia Vaz,
    Pat Lapensee,
    Patricia Anderson,
    Peter Jones,
    Phil Lesco,
    Philip Jurgens,
    Philip L. Jones,
    Raj Mendis,
    Robert Bussewitz,
    Robert Kokeny,
    Sabine Miller,
    Sean Hoade,
    Stephen Ball,
    Steven McPeak,
    Thiep Sam,
    Tom Fitton,
    Vincent Halahakone,
    Vivek Mohile,… and several others who asked to remain anonymous.
  • The hundreds of people who have offered helpful criticisms and suggestions over the years, or who have developed software tools that are now part of ATI. A few of these people deserve special note for their outstanding contributions:
    Binh Anson,
    Jamie Avera,
    Jakub Bartovsky,
    Gabriel Bittar,
    Emily Bullitt,
    Mark Byrne,
    Chan Kian Koon,
    Chun Hoe Chow,
    John Fabian,
    Alexander Genaud,
    Hugo Gayosso,
    John Kelly,
    Bhikkhu Kumara (Liew Chin Leag),
    Michael Olds,
    Trevor Rhodes,
    Larry Rosenfeld,
    Steve Russell,
    Andy Shaw,
    Michael Sproul,
    Antony Woods,
    Chandra Yenco,
    and A. Zuback.
  • The many people who have offered their help in the form of technical assistance and financial support over the years. 20120823: [no longer the case.] Thanks to the ongoing spontaneous gestures of generosity from scores of visitors, Access to Insight's operating expenses are now almost entirely met by donations alone.
  • Jane Yudelman, for her encouragement in 1992 that got Access to Insight off the ground in the first place, and for her continued advice and support that help this project continue to mature.
  • It needs to be pointed out, that without the remarkable effort of John Bullitt there would be neither ATI nor ZzE and all this is furthermore founded on a gift of the Sangha and not lastly on the Buddha himself. Such is the line of origin of ZzE (you may also want to take a look at Launching and Blessing). To pay back the obligation toward those many people who have been involved to bring it to this point I will try to maintain this tradition and you are invited to participate and with it even expand this fields of generosity and gratitude
  • For most of the current translations we have to be grateful towards the small group of the Buddhisische Gesellschaft München and Lothar Schenk. Here are some names of participators of this group and other generous co-workers who have been working voluntarily for the translation and publication of the texts and books from honored authors available through ATI and made this work available through ZzE as well:
    Anca Gerner,
    Kurt Jungbehrens,
    Freya Zellhoff,
    Clark Translations,
    Walter Schwidetzky,
    Andreas Hubig,
    Schenpen Sangmo,
    und Sophorn Ban.
    You may forgive me, if I have missed one person, or if the list is not always up to date.
  • Not to be left unmentioned is also the very practical support in making Zugang zur Einsicht available, which is by providing the domain and the web space on an eco-server as well as the room and the energy for all the works around it to keep ZzE alive. For the technical and material support as well as for the internet connection and hardware. Sophorn Ban is most responsible as well for being the formal owner in all worldly issues for the continuance of ZzE. Thanks also, Ando Saabas and the Team around Sphider, for making the search engine available and at last also Don Hu for the Sangha gift of his Software Notepad++ to make the editing of all pages possible.

    Thank you all.
  • Who translated the suttas on this website?

The sutta translations were made by many esteemed translators, including: Venerables Bhikkhu Bodhi, Acharya Buddharakkhita, Bhikkhu Khantipalo, Ñanamoli Thera, Ñanavara Thera, Narada Thera, Nyanaponika Thera, Soma Thera, Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Phra Ajaan Geoff), and Sister Vajira; I.B. Horner, John D. Ireland, K.R. Norman, and F.L. Woodward. For a complete list of translators, see "Contributing Sutta Translators".

  • How can I help Access to Insight (ZzE)?

Here are a few ways you can help:

  • Proofreading.
  • Report any typos, spelling errors, grammatical blunders, broken links, or any other problems in ZzE's (ATI's) pages. Keep a close eye especially on new items as they appear on .. Zugang zur Einsicht's (Access to Insight's) What's New (What's New on ATI) page, as these generally haven't yet been seen by many eyes. If you have a sharp eye for details, take a look at ATI's style sheet, which describes in excruciating detail some of the elements that go into an ATI page (spelling, punctuation, HTML, layout, etc., etc.). If you come across any departures from that style sheet on the website, please do let me know.>
  • Link-scouting and link-checking. ..As you surf the web, keep an eye out for Theravada websites that might be of interest to Access to Insight's visitors. If it's not already listed in the Other Theravada Sources pages, perhaps it should be. While you're at it, let me know of any broken links to external websites. .. For further detailed ways of collaboration on Zugang zur Einsicht and possibilities of contact please have a look at the page “ Collaboration: Ways how you could get involved”.
  • Meditate. .. Put into practice the Dhamma teachings described in the suttas, articles, and books on the website. That's what they're here for.
  • May I make a donation to support this project?

I offer everything on this website as a free gift, with absolutely no strings attached. I neither solicit nor expect donations of any kind. If, however, you feel moved to make a donation to support this work, you are welcome to do so. You may write a check in US dollars payable to me and mail it to me. Please note that I cannot accept checks payable to “Access to Insight” and you may not legally claim your gift as a tax-deductible charitable contribution.

All donations are applied towards the operating expenses of the website, by far the biggest of which is the advertisement-free Google Custom Search Engine (for which I pay $750 once or twice a year, depending on how many searches ATI's users perform). In years when annual donations exceed my expenses, at year's end I pass along the surplus to non-profit charitable causes. I make no money from this website.

Alternatively, you may simply make a donation to the charity of your choice. In the Buddha's words, “Give wherever the mind feels confidence” SN 3.24].

Here I would like to encourage you to support John Bullitt further so that his work and further blossom of ATI may continue as it had. In regard of Zugang zur Einsicht and donations I like to mark, that such is in no way expected, and furthermore it is important to tell that I would like to avoid all kinds of financial transactions and personally do not accept money, even not for the purpose to forward it. If you, however, would like to support the web space and the internet costs your are asked to get in contact with the formal owner in this regard. If you like to support the undertaking with software, licenses, hardware and such items, those things are for sure welcome and will be used with best care or forwarded to members of the Sangha. It's very important to point out that even though there is every worldly business and support, those texts and teachings would be not even be available if there would not be simply basic support in regard of food, clothes, dwelling and medicine for the monastic Sangha and laypeople who seriously stick to higher virtue. Next to the kind support here and there is a shared meal with a monk or a nun of the next monastery with a mind directed to the noble Sangha for sure a most worthy way of support, not to speak that the most worthy place of gratitude is by putting the teachings of the Buddha faithfully into one's own practice.

  • What is the significance of the graphic on the home page?

The graphic (left) that appears on the home page is a stylized rendition of a copper amulet (below, left) that was made and consecrated in Thailand in 2005. The amulet depicts an image of the Buddha meditating under the arch of a protective deity, or naga, in a design popularized by Somdet Toh (1788-1872).(1) The reverse (below, right) contains the Pali text (in Thai script) of the Jinapañjara Gatha (“The Victor's Cage”), a traditional protective chant that describes a person surrounded on all sides by a field of extraordinary purity and goodness: the Triple Gem, all the past Buddhas, all the Buddha's elder arahant disciples, and — as if that weren't enough — all the suttas. In a dangerous and frightening world it is hard to imagine a safer place in which to dwell.

Somdet Toh amulet (obverse) Click to see a larger imageAmulets have enjoyed a long and colorful history in the world of Theravada Buddhism. Usually depicting the Buddha or one of his disciples, amulets have been fashioned from almost every imaginable material: stone, metal, ceramic, bone, or elaborate concoctions of pressed clay, ash, human hair, and perfumes. An amulet that has been blessed by a monk of notable purity and wisdom is widely believed to be charged with protective powers. Stories of the supernatural surround amulets even today. Some Buddhists give their amulets a place of honor next to the Buddha statue on the shrine at home; others wear them casually as good luck charms or hang them from the rearview mirror as protection against misfortune (or their own careless driving habits). Collectors buy, sell, and trade amulets, always on the lookout for those believed to possess unusual powers. But, of course, it is the purity and goodness of the mind that offers the only true protection. By seeking out the company of a kalyanamitta (spiritual friend) and by training oneself to infuse the mind only with what is good and noble, progress on the path of Dhamma is assured. The Victor's Cage — and the amulet on which it appears — thus serves as metaphor and reminder of the admirable qualities of mind that the practicing Buddhist strives to develop. As with the ten recollections, reflecting on the Victor's Cage offers encouragement when the chips are down: I am not alone in this endeavor; I can do this. In times of anxiety and stress, when the mind is most susceptible to wandering off into unskillful states, a recollection like this is sometimes all that's needed to restore the mind to balance and to steer it onwards down the path. And sometimes the familiar feel of a well-worn amulet between one's fingers is enough to do the trick.

My hope is that this website may serve its visitors in much the same way.



I'm grateful to a reader (Lam Cheng Poh) for pointing out that the arch above the Buddha has another possible interpretation. LCP writes:

“Most Thai amulet collectors view the arch as a bell. Somdej Toh was abbot of Wat Rakang, i.e., Bell Temple, and the bell has given its name to the arch. The arch is invariably referred to as a “rakang” in any amulet of this iconography.

“The naga-over-the-Buddha amulets (ie Phra Nakprok) typically feature a 7-headed Mucalinda and are not known to be stylised into an abstract arch.

“I suspect the amulet is issued by one of 3 temples closely associated with Somdet Toh, ie Wat Rakang, Wat Inn and Wat Bangkhunpom, where he made many of these amulets. The Jinapanjara Katha began to be featured on these amulets some 4 years ago, because Somdet Toh was supposed to have used that katha to consecrate all of his amulets. A more likely reason is that the minting technology finally caught up and permitted the katha to be squeezed onto the small surface area.”

from an email received on 28 August 2008.

For more about Somdet Toh see ”The Legends of Somdet Toh” and

Modification of the symbol for Zugang zur Einsicht

The original protective symbol of Access to Insight has been adopted by ZzE as well as the content of its message. Nevertheless it is good to modify it a little to give users of both pages a better orientation. And what kind of solution would be better than to express the attitude toward ATI and to the Three Gems as well at the same time? At least we are friends of those: A “Supportive friends (Kalyanamittata) page of Access to Insight.”

To avoid irritations for the visitors whether they are now on the original page of Access to Insight or on Zugang zur Einsicht, the logo has been modified and it was intended to express that the bell of protection is closeable with the Kalyanamittata (admirable friend). Here I like to mention that it would be regraded as a danger of effluent of good things in South East Asia if there are openings in a frame. It is modern in the West or better new world, to leave things “open” or to give them some “vagueness” to share some free space for personal creativity as well as for liberalness and coolness. But such is merely frowned upon by the elders and those who are within the old tradition - so my personal experience - as it will be regarded easily as unconscious or careless. Maybe there is a middle way. In this way the new symbol likes to draw out some basic intentions of Zugang zur Einsicht as well and this should be to “protect”, maintain and conserve the good teachings as a hopefully worthy Kalyanamitta so that they will be accessible for a long time and many following generations. Maybe its possible to make the site itself to a worthy Kalyanamitta for many who are seeking for such.

Using the website

  • What's the difference between Access to Insight, the Offline Edition, and the CD-ROM and the Zugang zur Einsicht edition?

The ATI Offline Edition is a snapshot of the online Access to Insight website at a particular day and time that you may download onto your computer for offline browsing. The CD-ROM edition contains all that, plus PDF files and perhaps a few other goodies. The differences between the live, offline, and CD-ROM versions of Access to Insight are summarized here:

ZZE live webseiteATI live webseiteOffline EditionCD-ROM
(v. 7.10)
CD-ROM file
(ISO 9660 image)
Basic website (html files)
Search engine
(on own eco - server)

(google search)
\\(internet connection required)
PDF files
What's new” and old news
(in progress)
“Surprise me” links
(not avaliable for now)
Techie stuff
(provisoical addopted)
Attractive, compact, and tangible package that makes a nice gift to hand to a friend

Function remarks for ZzE

The pages of Zugang zur Einsicht - different to the ATI original web sites - are static html pages and not generated form databases and so all modifications and additions of links and texts are made by “hand”. As the web page is still under raw primary development it might be the case that it would cause here or there some irritations and even leads to broken links. I would like to apologies in regard of this and hope that I will be able to provide a nearly as good functionality like ATI's original website as soon as possible.

  • How do I use the RSS feed?

Note: Currently I do not have the needed knowledge to integrate all new technologies and News-Feeds into Zugang zur Einsichts's pages, nor I am able to describe such functions well. It could be easily that many of those mentioned functions do not work at all for Zugang zur Einsicht. I am also less informed in how fare I would suggest you to use third part recources and with it gaining some dependency. How ever, do not hesitate to try all this things to get your self the best image of it if you like to be informed by News feeds.

ATI's RSS feed is a handy way to keep track of what's new at Access to Insight, without actually visiting the “What's New” section of the home page.

There are several ways to use the feed:

  • Chrome. Install the RSS Subscription extension. Then point your browser to ATI's homepage (ZzE web site). You should see the RSS icon <img src=“img/rss-chrome.png” alt='rss icon' width='17' height='17' /> in the address bar. Click on that icon and a new tab should open, revealing the contents of the feed along with some options for saving it.
    [These directions work for me on Google Chrome (Mac) version 15.0.874.121. Your mileage may vary.]
  • Firefox. Install the RSS Icon extension. Then point your browser to ATI's homepage (ZzE web site). You should see the RSS icon <img src=“img/rss-firefox.png” alt='rss icon' width='15' height='15' /> in the address bar. Click on that icon and a pop-up menu will appear, inviting you to save the feed as a “live bookmark”. You can then visit that bookmark at any time to view the feed.
    [These directions work for me on Firefox (Mac) version 8.0.1. YMMV.]
  • Safari. Point your browser to ATI's homepage (ZzE web site). You should see the RSS icon <img src=“img/rss-safari.png” alt='rss icon' width='27' height='14' /> in the address bar. Click on that icon and the feed should appear, accompanied by a host of options in the sidebar. To save the feed as a bookmark, look for the “Actions” section of the sidebar and select “Add Bookmark…”
    [These directions work for me on Safari (Mac) version 5.0.6. YMMV.]
  • Apple Mail. Pull down the “File” menu and select “Add RSS Feeds…”. In the window that appears, click the “Specify a custom feed” button and paste this URL into the text box:,for ATI or: http://www.zugangzureinsicht,org/html/rss/news.rss.php , for ZzE then click “Add”. The feed will appear in the “RSS” section of the left sidebar of the main Mail window. You can optionally choose to have new feed items appear in your Mail in-box.
    [These directions work for me on Apple Mail (Mac) version 3.6. YMMV.]
  • Any old newsreader. Paste this feed URL into your newsreader program:,for ATI or: http://www.zugangzureinsicht,org/html/rss/news.rss.php , for ZzE

If these directions don't work for you, and you suspect that ATI's (ZzE's) RSS feed might be broken, before contacting me please double-check that you are able to access a feed from another website. A good feed to test is the one at New York Times.

Copyright and terms of use

  • Why are the ATI pages under Creative Commons Licenses and ZzE's aren't?

This licences have been added by John Bullitt with declaration for cessation of the active further contributing of new content to the web page of ATI and with the end of the year 2013, in Oct. 2013 and those new licences have not been content and scope of the gift received in March 2013 (the date of the version this page is based on). We are also not able to advocate such kind of Dhamma sharing as it forces in some ways the rejection of responsibility and goes against the customs of conscious giving. It ensnares people more and more to heedless “licentia” (untamed overindulging) and animates them away form gratitude and generosity (right view) to the believe of even inherent rights to take (wrong view). More then this, some pages are even made free for commercial use, aside of the fact, that they are put under the label of common creativity (neither did Buddha taught common creativity nor are the teachings meant as common but as skillful deeds and exceptional behavior). In short, ZzE does not advocate and adopt such modern agreed customs to try to make simple and heedless consuming easier and even more tricky. The possibilities and conditions as they have been received will be continued in the scope of the previous and generous gift. We will try to even put it step by step more in direction of Dhamma and do our best to transport the message. If you like to know more about the issue and the discussion, please visit [News] "c" goes "d" works around improvement of right view. [this addition was made on 7. November 2013]

  • Are Access to Insight's (ZzE's) texts in the public domain?

Only the files from the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project and the english translations of the Jatakas are in the Public Domain. All the rest are protected by copyright. See Are these texts protected by copyright?

  • Are these texts protected by copyright?

Yes. You may copy and redistribute any texts from this website, provided that you abide by these two basic principles:

  1. You may not sell any texts copied or derived from this website.
  2. You may not alter the content of any texts copied or derived from this website. (You may, however, reformat them — see below).

The files on this website are made available to you thanks to the generosity of dozens of authors, translators, publishers, and transcribers, all of whom contributed their efforts with the explicit understanding that the fruits of their labors would be given away free of charge, as an expression of dana. You may download these files to your computer, print them out, read them, share them with your friends, copy them to your own website, translate them into other languages, and redistribute them electronically — provided that you do not charge any money for them. They are not in the public domain. You may reformat the files as you please (see below), but you may not change their content without first obtaining permission from the author, translator, or publisher.

Some texts contain additional copyright notices with specific additional rights and restrictions spelled out by the authors and publishers; please read and abide by these notices. If you reprint or republish any of these materials, please acknowledge the original author, translator, or publisher, as appropriate.

ZzE-team extension: Some Text also have a broader spectrum of Dhamma-Gift in regard of the usual adopted by ATI. Please read this facilitation and feel invited to make use of it. Such counts especially in regard of translations of the ZzE-Team and those works which have been given “for ZzE” without additional “Strings”. How ever, also here it is still so, that Dhamma is not designed to be used for any kind of countertrade or to gain material rewards. We wish you much joy in sharing merits. Anumodana!

Please ask me (us) if you have any additional questions about the copyright status of anything offered here.

  • Are Access to Insight's (ZzE's) texts governed by an “Open Source” or “GNU” copyright?

No. Access to Insight's and Zugang zur Einsicht's texts do not conform with two key principles of most “open source” software licenses:

  • You may not sell anything that comes from this website. (Open source licenses allow you to sell software.)
  • You may not modify the content of any of the texts that come from this website. (Open source licenses allow you to modify software.) You may, however, reformat the texts in any way you like — see below.
  • May I copy your pages onto my website?

Yes, provided that you make them available free of charge. I also ask that you please post a simple notice somewhere on your website acknowledging that the materials came from here. Although I don't require it, as a service to your visitors you might also consider including a link to or/and, so that your visitors can easily get hold of the most up-to-date editions of these texts (I steadily receive corrections and revisions from translators, authors, and publishers). Finally, please make it clear to your visitors what material on your site comes from here and what comes from other sources.

  • May I reformat the texts from your website?

Yes. As long as you don't alter the underlying content, you may reformat pages to your heart's content. You may convert most files to Microsoft Word, PDF, or any other proprietary format. You may publish excerpts, provided that you indicate that they are excerpts. You may alter the “look” of the pages to match the style of your own website.

N.B. A few files have been encrypted and password-protected by their publisher, to restrict such reformatting. Please do not circumvent these security measures. If you are interested in converting password-protected files, please ask the author or publisher for permission.

  • May I sell copies of materials from your website in order to raise money for a non-profit cause?

  • May I sell copies of materials from your website if I charge just enough to recover the costs of printing, etc.?

No. The amount you charge is irrelevant: if you charge one penny or one thousand dollars, you're still selling. It doesn't matter if you're hoping to make a profit or not. What you do with the money you receive is irrelevant. These teachings are to be given away, not sold.

Requiring someone to pay for reproduction costs or for shipping costs (packaging, postage, etc.) is equivalent to selling. If you were sending a birthday gift to a beloved family member, would you enclose a bill for the wrapping paper, ribbon, and postage? Of course not. A gift is a gift.

  • May I ask people to make a “suggested donation” in exchange for copies of these texts?

Please be very careful here. As long as you make it crystal clear that anyone may receive a copy free for the asking — regardless of whether he or she makes a donation — then that's fine. You should put no pressure — subtle or otherwise — on anyone to pay. These teachings are to be given away, not sold.

  • May I include a short excerpt of a text from your website in a publication that I plan to sell?

If the excerpt falls within the scope of “Fair Use” (see Wikipedia), then you are free to use the excerpt and no further permission is required. If the excerpt is more substantial, then you must first obtain permission from the author of that text. Please contact the author directly for permission.

  • How should I cite references to Access to Insight / Zugang zur Einsicht?

If you're writing a paper for a school or university, you should check with your instructor to see what citation standards you are expected to follow.

To cite individual pages from the website, you might consider the citation format that's shown in the colophon at the bottom of every page.

To cite the entire website, you might use something like this:


“Zugang zur Einsicht” (, edition, date, a mirror page of “Access to Insight” (, John Bullitt, based its offline edition March 2013.</blockquote>

.. where ''DATE'' is the revision date that appears at the bottom of the [[index|home page]].
.. When citing articles from a [[en:cdrom:index|CD-ROM edition of the website]], you can use this common form:
.. <blockquote>

Disc title: Version, Date. “Article title,” author or translator. Publisher.</blockquote>

.. Some examples:
.. <blockquote>

Access to Insight: CD-ROM version 7.10, October 2007. “Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha,” Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight.

Access to Insight: CD-ROM version 7.10, October 2007. “Vatthupama Sutta (MN 7),” Nyanaponika Thera, trans. Buddhist Publication Society/Access to Insight.</blockquote>


  • Can I get print copies of the books on your website?

Many of the books, articles, and translations appearing on this website are also available in print form from various publishers. Here is a partial list of sources for some of these printed books:

  • Can you please send me some Dhamma books?

Unfortunately, I have neither the time nor the resources to fulfil the many requests for books that I receive from all over the world. There are, however, several publishers of free Dhamma books that would be happy to send you some books free of charge.

  • Can you recommend any online Buddhist discussion groups?

There are many online discussion groups that cover Buddhist topics — too many to list here. You'll have to do the research on your own: Sadhu! Theravada bddhismus web index oder Index of buddhist Forums (Link to google exchanged with this links)

If you're looking for a Pali discussion group, try here.

  • How do I write [insert English word or phrase here] in the original Pali script?

There is no Pali script. Pali is a spoken language with no alphabet of its own. Pali texts can be written phonetically using just about any alphabet: Devanagari, Thai, Burmese, Roman, Cyrillic, Klingon, etc. Writing Pali in non-Indic languages, however, often requires the addition of special accents or diacritics to signify certain sounds not represented in the standard alphabet. So, if you are looking for a hand-written version of the word mettā for a tattoo or a painting, it's very easy: you can write it out yourself, in any alphabet you like.

The Pali texts were first written down several centuries after the Buddha's death, at the Fourth Buddhist Council. To see what those early — and beautiful! — written transcriptions look like, visit the Fragile Palm Leaves Foundation website. To find a particular word or passage within those ancient manuscripts, you'll have to find a scholar who specializes in them. (Comm.: Most of those old scripts are related to the still alive khmer (cambodian) script, or even indentical. But in Cambodia as well it's not so easy to find a Pali language scholar even though the alphabet is used in the common language.

  • Can you please tell me how to say [insert English phrase here] in Pali?

Please consider posting your query on an online Pali language forum. There are probably students and scholars there who would be happy to help.

  • What are some good beginning books on Buddhism?

    • Buddhist Dictionary, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1980). A classic handbook of important terms and concepts in Theravada Buddhism. A valuable reference for newcomers and veterans, alike.
    • Buddhist Religions: A Historical Introduction (fifth edition) by R.H. Robinson, W.L. Johnson, and Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 2005). An excellent introductory college-level text that traces the evolution of all the major schools of Buddhism from their beginnings to the present day.
    • Eight Mindful Steps to Happiness by Ven. Henepola Gunaratana (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2001). An excellent guide to bringing the eightfold path into one's daily life.
    • The Experience of Buddhism: Sources and Interpretations (second edition) by John S. Strong (Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 2002). A very useful anthology of excerpts from key Buddhist texts representing all the major schools of Buddhism. Although intended primarily as a companion to Robinson & Johnson's The Buddhist Religion (fourth edition) (see Buddhist Religions, above), it stands well on its own.
    • Mindfulness in Plain English by Ven. Henepola Gunaratana (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1992). A clear and helpful introduction to the practice of mindfulness meditation.
    • Noble Strategy: Essays on the Buddhist Path by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1999; available from Mettā Forest Monastery in English and at Buddhistischen Gemeinschaft München, in German). A fine collection of introductory essays, which are also available individually here on the website.
    • Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) (1996; Available from Mettā Forest Monastery). A collection of short essays and readings from the Pali suttas that explain the basic principles of living and practicing the path of Dhamma.
    • What the Buddha Taught by Walpola Rahula (New York: Grove Press, 1986). An overview of the teachings of Theravada Buddhism, including chapters on each of the Four Noble Truths, along with excerpts from selected suttas and the Dhammapada. For several decades, a standard introductory text. Readily available at many bookstores.
    • See also “Beginnings,” which includes suggested readings on beginning meditation practice.
  • Where can I find a copy of the complete Pali canon (Tipitaka)?

  • Print editions:

If you're thinking of purchasing your own printed copy of the Tipitaka, be forewarned: the Pali canon is huge; owning a complete set is a serious commitment. The Pali Text Society's edition of the Tipitaka (English translation) fills over 12,000 pages in approximately fifty hardbound volumes, taking up about five linear feet of shelf space, and costing about US$2,000. Moreover, a few of the more obscure books in the Tipitaka are simply unavailable in English translation, so if you really must read the entire Tipitaka, you'll just have to learn Pali. The PTS has for over a century been the leading publisher of the Tipitaka, both in romanized Pali and in English translation, but many of their translations are now badly out of date. Much better translations of several portions of the Canon are now available from other publishers. Here are my recommendations for printed translations that add up to a useful — if incomplete — version of the Tipitaka:

  • Vinaya Pitaka. The Book of the Discipline, I.B. Horner, trans. (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1993) [6 vols]. To study the many rules for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis that are scattered throughout the Vinaya Pitaka, see Thanissaro Bhikkhu's The Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume I: The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained and The Buddhist Monastic Code, Volume II: The Khandhaka Training Rules Translated and Explained
  • Sutta Pitaka. An excellent anthology of selected suttas and texts from the five Nikayas is Handful of Leaves, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (Santa Cruz: Sati Center for Buddhist Studies, 2003) [4 vols.]. Translations from specific portions of the Nikayas include the following.
  • Digha Nikaya: The Long Discourses of the Buddha (formerly titled Thus Have I Heard), Maurice Walshe, trans. (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1987) [1 vol.]
  • Majjhima Nikaya: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Ñanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans. (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1995) [1 vol.]
  • Samyutta Nikaya: The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans. (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2000) [2 vols.]
  • Anguttara Nikaya: Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Complete Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya, Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans. (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2012) [1 vol.]. See also: The Book of Gradual Sayings, F.L. Woodward and E.M. Hare, trans. (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1994) [5 vols.]
  • Khuddaka Nikaya (for a more detailed list, see the Khuddaka Nikaya page):
    • Khuddakapatha: Handful of Leaves (Vol. 4), Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (Santa Cruz: Sati Center for Buddhist Studies, 2003) [1 vol.]
    • Dhammapada: Dhammapada: A Translation, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (Barre, Massachusetts: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1997; available from Mettā Forest Monastery); The Dhammmapada: Pali Text and Translation with Stories in Brief and Notes, prose translation by Narada Thera (Buddhist Missionary Society, 1978; available from Pariyatti Books) [1 vol.]
    • Udana: The Udana and the Itivuttaka, John D. Ireland, trans. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1998) [1 vol.]
    • Itivuttaka: Itivuttaka: This Was Said by the Buddha, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (Barre, Massachusetts: Dhamma Dana Publications, 2001) [1 vol.] or Handful of Leaves (Vol. 4), Thanissaro Bhikkhu, trans. (Santa Cruz: Sati Center for Buddhist Studies, 2003) [1 vol.]
    • Suttanipata: The Group of Discourses (2nd ed.), K.R. Norman, trans. (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 2001) [1 vol.]
    • Theragatha, Therigatha: Elders' Verses, prose translation by K.R. Norman (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1992) [1 vol.]
    • Vimanavatthu, Petavatthu, Patisambhidamagga, Buddhavamsa, Cariyapitaka, Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa, Milindapañha: translations, of varying quality, are available from the PTS.
    • Apadana, Niddesa: I'm unaware of any English translations of these books.
  • Abhidhamma Pitaka. The essence of Abhidhamma philosophy is contained in the first and last of the Abhidhamma's seven books; only rarely do scholars and students wade into the murky waters of the middle five. So, begin with these two books:
    • Dhammasangani: Buddhist Psychological Ethics, Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, trans., 3rd ed. (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1993) [1 vol.]
    • Patthana: Conditional Relations, Ven. U Narada, trans. (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1993) [2 vols.]

These books are difficult reading; you'll welcome the sober guidance of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, a medieval commentary by Acariya Anuruddha. By far the best translation of this work is A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, translated and edited by Mahathera Narada and Bhikkhu Bodhi (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993). [1 vol.]

  • Electronic editions:

Several complete Pali-only versions of the Tipitaka (in roman and other scripts) are available on-line and on CD-ROM. As far as I know, Access to Insight has the largest online collection of English language Tipitaka texts.

A new edition (mainly link collection) of many translations of the Pali canon, but also from other canons is maintained by Ajhan Sujato at this days and will be found on his web page

.. <span zze>For sure the most biggest collection of Stutta translations and texts from the Pali canon in German language including also a english section (maybe even the biggest collection of transations in the world) maybe be found on the pages <span offsite_pkc>[[|]]</span> und <span offsite>[[|]]</span> from venerable Phra Khema Dhammo (Wolfgang Greger)</span>

Help | About | Contact | Scope of the Dhamma gift | Collaboration
Anumodana puñña kusala!

en/faq.txt · Last modified: 2023/03/24 09:15 by Johann