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Khp 1-6;9 PTS: Khp 1-6,9
translated from the Pali by
[Alternate translation: Thanissaro.]
I go for refuge to the Buddha (Teacher) I go for refuge to the Dhamma (the Teaching) I go for refuge to the Sangha (the Taught) For the second time I go for refuge to the Buddha For the second time I go for refuge to the Dhamma For the second time I go for refuge to the Sangha For the third time I go for refuge to the Buddha For the third time I go for refuge to the Dhamma For the third time I go for refuge to the Sangha
[Alternate translation: Thanissaro.]
1. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from killing.
2. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from stealing.
3. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from sexual misconduct.
4. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from lying.
5. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from liquor that causes intoxication and heedlessness.
6. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from untimely eating.
7. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from dancing, singing, music, and visiting unseemly shows.
8. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from the use of garlands, perfumes, cosmetics, and embellishments.
9. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds.
10. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from accepting gold and silver.
[Alternate translation: Thanissaro.]
There are in this body head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, intestinal tract, stomach, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovium (oil lubricating the joints), urine, and brain in the skull.
[Alternate translation: Thanissaro.]
One is what? All beings subsist on food.(2) Two is what? Name and form (mind and matter). Three is what? Three kinds of feeling. Four is what? Four Noble Truths. Five is what? Five aggregates subject to grasping. Six is what? Internal six-fold base. Seven is what? Seven Factors of Enlightenment. Eight is what? The Noble Eightfold Path. Nine is what? Nine abodes of beings. Ten is what? He that is endowed with ten attributes is called an arahant.
The novice referred to here is the seven-year old Sopaka. He was questioned by the Buddha. It is not a matter for surprise that a child of such tender years can give profound answers to these questions. One has heard of infant prodigies. (See Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc., 1955, II. p. 389. Also read The Case for Rebirth, Francis Story, Wheel 12-13, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.)
Ahara. Food or nutriment is of four kinds: 1. ordinary material food (kabalinkarahara); 2. contact (of sense organs with sense objects, phassahara); 3. consciousness (viññanahara); and 4. mental volition (manasañcetanahara). See The Four Nutriments of Life by Nyanaponika Thera, Wheel No. 105/106, Buddhist Publication Society, (BPS) Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Thus have I heard:
On one occasion the Blessed One was living near Savatthi at Jetavana at Anathapindika's monastery. Now when the night was far advanced, a certain deity, whose surpassing radiance illuminated the whole of Jetavana, approached the Blessed One, respectfully saluted him, and stood beside him. Standing thus, he addressed the Blessed One in verse:
1. “Many deities and men longing for happiness have pondered on (the question of) blessings. Pray tell me what the highest blessings are.
2. “Not to associate with the foolish, but to associate with the wise, and to honor those worthy of honor — this is the highest blessing.
3. “To reside in a suitable locality, to have performed meritorious actions in the past, and to set oneself in the right direction — this is the highest blessing.
4. “Vast learning, skill in handicrafts, well grounded in discipline, and pleasant speech — this is the highest blessing.
5. “To support one's father and mother; to cherish one's wife and children, and to be engaged in peaceful occupations — this is the highest blessing.
6. “Liberality, righteous conduct, rendering assistance to relatives, and performance of blameless deeds — this is the highest blessing.
7. “To cease and abstain from evil, to abstain from intoxicating drinks, and diligent in performing righteous acts — this is the highest blessing.
8. “Reverence, humility, contentment, gratitude, and the timely hearing of the Dhamma, the teaching of the Buddha — this is the highest blessing.
9. “Patience, obedience, meeting the Samanas (holy men), and timely discussions on the Dhamma — this is the highest blessing.
10. “Self-control, chastity, comprehension of the Noble Truths, and the realization of Nibbana — this is the highest blessing.
11. “The mind that is not touched by the vicissitudes of life,(1) the mind that is free from sorrow, stainless, and secure — this is the highest blessing.
12. “Those who have fulfilled the conditions (for such blessings) are victorious everywhere, and attain happiness everywhere — To them these are the highest blessings.”
The vicissitudes are eight in number: gain and loss, good-repute and ill-repute, praise and blame, joy and sorrow. This stanza is a reference to the state of mind of an arahant, the Consummate One.
Translator's introduction: The occasion for this discourse, in brief, according to the commentary, is as follows: The city of Vesali was afflicted by a famine, causing death, especially to the poor folk. Due to the presence of decaying corpses the evil spirits began to haunt the city; this was followed by a pestilence. Plagued by these three fears of famine, non-human beings and pestilence, the citizens sought the help of the Buddha who was then living at Rajagaha.
Followed by a large number of monks including the Venerable Ananda, his attendant disciple, the Buddha came to the city of Vesali. With the arrival of the Master, there were torrential rains which swept away the putrefying corpses. The atmosphere became purified, the city was clean.
Thereupon the Buddha delivered this Jewel Discourse (Ratana sutta(1)) to the Venerable Ananda, and gave him instructions as to how he should tour the city with the Licchavi citizens reciting the discourse as a mark of protection to the people of Vesali. The Venerable Ananda followed the instructions, and sprinkled the sanctified water from the Buddha's own alms bowl. As a consequence the evil spirits were exorcised, the pestilence subsided. Thereafter the Venerable Ananda returned with the citizens of Vesali to the Public hall where the Buddha and his disciples had assembled awaiting his arrival. There the Buddha recited the same Jewel Discourse to the gathering:
1. “Whatever beings (non-humans) are assembled here, terrestrial or celestial, may they all have peace of mind, and may they listen attentively to these words:
2. “O beings, listen closely. May you all radiate loving-kindness to those human beings who, by day and night, bring offerings to you (offer merit to you). Wherefore, protect them with diligence.
3. “Whatever treasure there be either in the world beyond, whatever precious jewel there be in the heavenly worlds, there is nought comparable to the Tathagata (the perfect One). This precious jewel is the Buddha.(2) By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
4. “That Cessation, that Detachment, that Deathlessness (Nibbana) supreme, the calm and collected Sakyan Sage (the Buddha) had realized. There is nought comparable to this (Nibbana) Dhamma. This precious jewel is the Dhamma.(3) By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
5. “The Supreme Buddha extolled a path of purity (the Noble Eightfold Path) calling it the path which unfailingly brings concentration. There is nought comparable to this concentration. This precious jewel is the Dhamma. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
6. “The eight persons extolled by virtuous men constitute four pairs. They are the disciples of the Buddha and are worthy of offerings. Gifts given to them yield rich results. This precious jewel is the Sangha.(4) By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
7. “With a steadfast mind, and applying themselves well in the dispensation of the Buddha Gotama, free from (defilements), they have attained to that which should be attained (arahantship) encountering the Deathless. They enjoy the Peace of Nibbana freely obtained.(5) This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
8. “As a post deep-planted in the earth stands unshaken by the winds from the four quarters, so, too, I declare is the righteous man who comprehends with wisdom the Noble Truths. This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
9. “Those who realized the Noble Truths well taught by him who is profound in wisdom (the Buddha), even though they may be exceedingly heedless, they will not take an eighth existence (in the realm of sense spheres).(6) This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
10. “With his gaining of insight he abandons three states of mind, namely self-illusion, doubt, and indulgence in meaningless rites and rituals, should there be any. He is also fully freed from the four states of woe, and therefore, incapable of committing the six major wrongdoings.(7) This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
11. “Any evil action he may still do by deed, word or thought, he is incapable of concealing it; since it has been proclaimed that such concealing is impossible for one who has seen the Path (of Nibbana).(8) This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
12. “As the woodland groves though in the early heat of the summer month are crowned with blossoming flowers even so is the sublime Dhamma leading to the (calm) of Nibbana which is taught (by the Buddha) for the highest good. This precious jewel is the Buddha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
13. “The Peerless Excellent one (the Buddha) the Knower (of Nibbana), the Giver (of Nibbana), the Bringer (of the Noble Path), taught the excellent Dhamma. This precious jewel is the Buddha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
14. “Their past (kamma) is spent, their new (kamma) no more arises, their mind to future becoming is unattached. Their germ (of rebirth-consciousness) has died, they have no more desire for re-living. Those wise men fade out (of existence) as the flame of this lamp (which has just faded away). This precious jewel is the Sangha. By this (asseveration of the) truth may there be happiness.
15. “Whatever beings (non-human) are assembled here, terrestrial or celestial, come let us salute the Buddha, the Tathagata (the perfect One), honored by gods and men. May there be happiness.(9)
16. “Whatever beings are assembled here terrestrial or celestial, come let us salute the perfect Dhamma, honored by gods and men. May there be happiness.
17. “Whatever beings are assembled here terrestrial or celestial, come let us salute the perfect Sangha, honored by gods and men. May there be happiness.”
Ratana means precious jewel. Here the term is applied to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha.
Literally, in the Buddha is this precious jewel.
Literally, in the Dhamma is this precious jewel.
Literally, in the Sangha is this precious jewel.
Obtained without payment; 'avyayena' (KhpA).
The reason why it is stated that there will be no eighth existence for a person who has attained the stage of sotapatti or the first stage of sanctity is that such a being can live at the most for only a period of seven existences in the realm of sense spheres.
Abhithanani; i. matricide, ii. patricide, iii. the murder of arahants (the Consummate Ones), iv. the shedding of the Buddha's blood, v. causing schism in the Sangha, and vi. pernicious false beliefs (niyata micca ditthi).
He is a sotapanna, stream-enterer, one who has attained the first stage of sanctity.
The last three stanzas were recited by Sakka, the chief of Devas (gods) (KhpA).
Translator's introduction: While the Buddha was staying at Savatthi, a band of monks, having received subjects of meditation from the master, proceeded to a forest to spend the rainy season (vassana). The tree deities inhabiting this forest were worried by their arrival, as they had to descend from tree abodes and dwell on the ground. They hoped, however, the monks would leave soon; but finding that the monks would stay the vassana period of three months, harassed them in diverse ways, during the night with the intention of scaring them away.
Living under such conditions being impossible, the monks went to the Master and informed him of their difficulties. Thereon the Buddha instructed them in the Metta sutta and advised their return equipped with this sutta for their protection.
The monks went back to the forest, and practicing the instruction conveyed, permeated the whole atmosphere with their radiant thoughts of metta or loving-kindness. The deities so affected by this power of love, henceforth allowed them to meditate in peace.
The discourse gets divided into two parts. The first detailing the standard of moral conduct required by one who wishes to attain Purity and Peace, and the second the method of practice of metta.
1. “He who is skilled in (working out his own) well being, and who wishes to attain that state of Calm (Nibbana) should act thus: he should be dexterous, upright, exceedingly upright, obedient, gentle, and humble.
2. “Contented, easily supportable, with but few responsibilities, of simple livelihood, controlled in the senses, prudent, courteous, and not hanker after association with families.
3. “Let him not perform the slightest wrong for which wise men may rebuke him. (Let him think:) 'May all beings be happy and safe. May they have happy minds.'
4. & 5. “Whatever living beings there may be — feeble or strong (or the seekers and the attained) long, stout, or of medium size, short, small, large, those seen or those unseen, those dwelling far or near, those who are born as well as those yet to be born — may all beings have happy minds.
6. “Let him not deceive another nor despise anyone anywhere. In anger or ill will let him not wish another ill.
7. “Just as a mother would protect her only child with her life even so let one cultivate a boundless love towards all beings.
8. “Let him radiate boundless love towards the entire world — above, below, and across — unhindered, without ill will, without enmity.
9. “Standing, walking, sitting or reclining, as long as he is awake, let him develop this mindfulness. This, they say, is 'Noble Living' here.
10. “Not falling into wrong views — being virtuous, endowed with insight, lust in the senses discarded — verily never again will he return to conceive in a womb.”