saṅgha: Description welcome. Info can be removed after imput.
➥ saṅgha: On the conventional (sammati) level, this term denotes the communities of Buddhist monks and nuns; on the ideal (ariya) level, it denotes those followers of the Buddha, lay or ordained, who have attained at least stream-entry (see sotāpanna), the first of the transcendent paths (see magga) culminating in nibbāna. Recently, particularly in the West, the term “saṅgha” has been popularly adapted to mean the wider sense of “community of followers on the Buddhist path,” although this usage finds no basis in the Pāḷi canon. The term “parisā” may be more appropriate for this much broader meaning. [ more ]
by late Ven. Nyanalokita Thera:
➥ Saṅgha (lit.: congregation), is the name for the Community of Buddhist monks. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels (see ti-ratana) and the Three Refuges (see ti-saraṇa), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and Saṅgha, it applies to the ariya-saṅgha, the community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (see ariya-pugga), the Stream-winner, etc.
by the Pali Text Society:
by Ven. Thanissaro Maha Thera:
➥ Saṅgha: On the conventional (sammati) level, this term denotes the communities of Buddhist monks and nuns. On the ideal (ariya) level, it denotes those followers of the Buddha, lay or ordained, who have attained at least stream-entry.
Vinaya → Community. This may refer to the entire Community of bhikkhus or of bhikkhunīs, or to the Community living in a particular location. In this book (BMC) I have tried to distinguish between the two by calling the first Saṅgha, and the second Community, but there are some contexts where it is difficult to draw a clear line between the two.
by Ven. Varado Maha Thera:
Illustration: saṅgho, flock
A great flock of birds
Illustration: saṅgho, herd
A great herd of deer
Illustration: saṅgho, host
A host of devas
Illustration: saṅghā, group
A group of relatives
Illustration: saṅghena, group
Journeying on foot amongst the Kosalan people together with a large group of bhikkhus.
kosalesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ. (MN ii 164)
Illustration: saṅghassa, assembly
In the midst of the assembly of ascetics you shine like the sun
majjhe samaṇasaṅghassa ādicco va virocasi. (Snp 550)
Illustration: saṅghaṁ, assembly
King Ajātasattu gazed at the assembly of bhikkhus which remained as silent as a serene lake.
ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ bhikkhusaṅghaṁ anuviloketvā rahadamiva vippasannaṁ. (DN i 50)
Illustration: saṅghe, assembly
There is not one bhikkhu in this assembly of bhikkhus who is unsure or uncertain
natthi imasmiṁ bhikkhusaṅghe ekabhikkhussapi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā. (DN ii 155)
Illustration: saṅgho, assembly of bhikkhus
The assembly of bhikkhus gives him an acquittal due to complete mindfulness by a procedure that is legitimate and with an assembly that is complete.
tassa saṅgho sativinayaṁ deti dhammena samaggena. (Vin.2.80)
Illustration: saṅgha, assembly of bhikkhus
Being examined in the midst of the assembly of bhikkhus on some matter or offence.
saṅghamajjhe vatthusmiṁ vā āpattiyā vā anuyuñjīyamāno. (Vin.4.37)
Illustration: saṅghaṁ, community
Householder, you have served the community of bhikkhus with gifts of robe material, almsfood, abodes, and therapeutic requisites.
Tumhepi kho gahapati bhikkhusaṅghaṁ paccupaṭṭhitā cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārena. (AN iii 206)
Illustration: saṅgho, community
This is the community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples.
esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho. (AN iii 286)
Among whatever communities or groups there may be, the community of the Perfect One’s disciples is declared supreme.
Yāvati bhikkhave saṅghā vā gaṇā va tathāgatasāvakasaṅgho tesaṁ aggamakkhāyati. (Iti 88)
Illustration: saṅgho, community of bhikkhus
A group of four bhikkhus is the least that can be called ‘a community of bhikkhus.’
catuvaggo pacchimo saṅgho ti. (Vin.1.229)
Illustration: saṅgho, community of bhikkhus
On what grounds is there schism in the community of bhikkhus?
Kittāvatā nu kho bhante saṅgho bhinno hotī ti?. (AN v 73)
Illustration: saṅghaṁ, community of bhikkhus
‘I, bhante, go to the Blessed One for refuge, and to the teaching, and to the community of bhikkhus.
Esāhaṁ bhante bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. (DN iii 193)
Illustration: saṅgho, community of bhikkhunīs
Do not, lady, consort with a layman or layman’s son. Be secluded [from them]. The community of bhikkhunīs indeed praises such seclusion in a sister.
māyye saṁsaṭṭhā vihari gahapatinānāpi gahapatiputtenāpi viviccayye vivekaññeva bhaginiyā saṅgho vaṇṇetī ti. (Vin.4.294)
Illustration: saṅgho, community of disciples
• The community of disciples is applied to the excellent practice.
supaṭipanno saṅgho ti. (MN ii 120)
• The community of the Blessed One’s [noble] disciples is applied to the excellent practice
supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho. (AN iii 286)
i.e. saṅgho = sāvakasaṅgho = community of disciples
Illustration: saṅghamhā, monastic community
A bhikkhu is not fit to live apart from the monastic community if he possesses certain qualities
nālaṁ saṅghamhā vavakāsituṁ. (AN iii 146)
Illustration: saṅgha, monastic community
Friends, when a forest-dwelling bhikkhu comes to the monastic community and is living with the monastic community, he should be respectful and deferential towards his companions in the religious life.
Āraññakenāvuso bhikkhunā saṅghagatena saṅghe viharantena sabrahmacārīsu sagāravena bhavitabbaṁ sappatissena. (MN i 469)
Illustration: saṅgha, ordained community
There are seven kinds of offering to the ordained community (saṅghagatā dakkhiṇā):
1. a gift to the twofold ordained community headed by the Buddha
buddhapamukhe ubhato saṅghe dānaṁ deti
2. a gift to the twofold ordained community after the Buddha’s passing
tathāgate parinibbute ubhato saṅghe dānaṁ deti
3. a gift to the community of bhikkhus
bhikkhusaṅghe dānaṁ deti
4. a gift to the community of bhikkhunīs
bhikkhunīsaṅghe dānaṁ deti
5. a gift to an appointed number both bhikkhus and bhikkhunīs
ettakā me bhikkhū ca bhikkhuniyo ca saṅghato uddissathā ti dānaṁ deti
6. a gift to an appointed number of bhikkhus
ettakā me bhikkhū saṅghato uddissathā ti dānaṁ deti
7. a gift to an appointed number of bhikkhunīs
ettikā me bhikkhuniyo saṅghato uddissathā ti dānaṁ deti. (MN iii 255-6)
➥ — —
Suttas and Dhammadesanā